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Element 1: Health and Safety Foundation

1. Explain, using an example EACH case, the meaning of the following terms:
(i) Hazard

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A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm. For example, chemicals, electricity
and working from a ladder.
(ii) Risk

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The probability/likelihood that the potential would be realised and its possible consequence
and severity in terms of injury, damage or harm. Example would be the chance of someone
being killed by coming into contact with electricity
2. Explain the meaning of the phrase so far as is reasonable practicable.

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so far as is reasonable practicable is a balance of risk against cost; the cost is in respect of
money, time or trouble. If the risk is significant and the cost is manageable then action must
be taken, if the opposite applies then no action has to be taken. Example, if the torn carpet is
in the middle of a walkway, then the risk is significant, and if the cost to repair or replace it is
manageable, then the remedial work should be carried out. If, however, the torn carpet is
under a desk then the risk is negligible, the costs of repairing/replacing the carpet may
outweigh the benefit of having the work completed and so no action need be taken.
3. Outline the general and specific duties/responsibilities of employers to their employees

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The main health and safety responsibilities of an employer are to provide and maintain a safe
workplace including access and egress together with safe plant and equipment, to carry out
risk assessments and to introduce safe systems of work, to ensure the safe use, storage,
handling and transport of articles and substances, to provide a safe working environment with
adequate welfare facilities including first aid, and to provide information, instruction, training
and supervision for workers. Prepare and when necessary to revise a health and safety policy,
to cooperate with and consult with workers, to secure competent health and safety advice and
to cooperate with other employers at the workplace.

4. Outline the general duties placed on employees/workers


Workers have the responsibility to cooperate with their employer, to take reasonable care for
their own safety and that of their fellow workers and to report accidents and any dangerous
situations at the workplace. They should not misuse any equipment provided for them, should
follow site rules and should not take alcohol or drugs during their working time.

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5. Outline the three conditions that are usually required to be met to prove a case of
negligence against an employer
There was a duty of care owed to the injured party.
The duty was breached.
The breach caused the loss (injury, ill-health, death)

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6. Outline the general duties of designers, manufacturers and supplies of articles and
substances for use at work to ensure that they are safe and without risk.

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Persons who design, manufacture, import or supply any article or substance for use at work
must ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, they are safe and with-out risk to health.
Articles must be safe when they are set, cleaned, used and maintained. Substances must be
without risk to health when they are used handled, stored or transported. This requires that
information must be supplied on the safe use of the articles and substances. There may be a
need to guarantee the required level of safety by undertaking tests and examinations.

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7. Identify the specific circumstances when health and safety training should be given to
employees.

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Specific requirements to train when employees on joining the organisation (Induction


Training ) Before starting job ( Job specific) Refresher Training, before change of jobs, and
when new work equipment, new technology or a changed system of work is introduced.
8. Outline the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with a
health and safety problem at work.

The sources of published information may be internal to the organisation and or external to it,
these are:

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Internal sources, which should be available within the organisation include:

Health and Safety Policy, Safety Committee reports, Accident and ill-health records and
investigation reports, Employees absentee records, Inspection and audit reports undertaken
by the organisation and by external organisations such as the HSE, Risk assessment
(including COSHH) and training records, Documents which provide information to workers,
Maintenance of Equipments records, examination or test report
External sources, which are available outside the organisation, are numerous and include:

Health and safety legislation, Publications, such as approved codes of practice, guidance
documents, leaflets, journals, books and their website, International (. ILO) or Local
standards, Health and safety magazines and journals, Information published by trade
associations, employer organisations and trade unions, Specialist technical and legal
publications, Information and data from manufacturers and suppliers, Internet and
encyclopedias.
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9. Outline SIX costs of a workplace accident that might be uninsured.


Uninsured direct costs include:

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Fines resulting from prosecution by the enforcement authority


Sick pay
Some damage to product, equipment, vehicles or
Process not directly attributable to the accident (e.g. caused by replacement staff)
Increases in insurance premiums resulting from the accident
Compensation not covered by the insurance policy due to an excess agreed between the
employer and the insurance company
Legal representation following any compensation claim.
Uninsured indirect costs include:

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Loss of goodwill and a poor corporate image


Accident investigation time and any subsequent remedial action required
Production delays
Overtime payments
Lost time for other employees, such as a First Aider
Time spend to attend the needs of injured person
Recruitment and training of most replacement staff
Additional administration time incurred
First aid provision and training
Lower employee morale possibly leading to reduced productivity

10. Replacement or repair of damaged equipment is a cost that an organisation may incur
following an Accident at work. Identify other possible costs to the organisation following a
workplace accident.

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Claims on employers and public liability insurance, Damage to buildings, equipment or


vehicles, Production loss, Production delay, Business loss, Product or process liability claims
Loss of experience staff, Recruitment of certain replacement staff, Loss of reputation of
organisation, Cleanup operations, Accident Investigation, Fines and legal fees.

11. Identify possible costs to an organisation when employees are absent due to work-related
ill-health.
Production delay, Loss of orders, Loss of experience staff, Overtime Payment to other
employee, Sick payment, Recruitment of certain replacement staff, Loss of reputation of
organisation, Enforcement actions.
12. Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety within an
organisation.
Moral: Responsibility of employer and employee, Injury results in a great deal of pain and
suffering for those affected
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Legal: To avoid prosecution and compensation claims. Many countries have laws on health
and safety and may have various forms of punishment for failing to comply.
Financial: The cost of accident and ill health

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13. (a) Explain reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety
in the workplace.

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(b) Identify sources of information that an organisation may use to help maintain and
promote good standards of health and safety in the workplace.
(c) Outline possible reasons why good standards of health and safety in the workplace may
not be achieved.

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(a)
The moral argument centred on the need to provide a reasonable standard of care and
to reduce the injuries, pain and suffering caused to workers by accidents and ill-health, the
need to provide a safe place of work, safe plant and equipment, safe systems of work,
competent workers and a high standard of training and supervision. The legal reasons centred
on compliance with the law and ILO and other international standards to avoid criminal
penalties and to comply with the employers common law duty to take reasonable care of
workers. The economic benefits would include a more highly motivated workforce resulting
in an improvement in the rate of production and product quality; the avoidance of costs
associated with accident investigations, the avoidance of costs associated with accidents such
as the hiring or training of replacement staff and the possible repair of plant and equipment;
securing more favourable terms for insurance and maintaining the image and reputation of
the organisation with its various stakeholders.

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(b) Sources of information that an organisation may use to help maintain and promote good
standards of health and safety include, legislation including directives and regulations, ILO
codes of practice, conventions, guidelines and recommendations together with those
produced nationally, information produced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and
the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, international standards such as those
from ISO and BSI, guidance produced by the various enforcement agencies, manufacturers
data, information produced by trade associations, trade unions and professional bodies,
accident and ill-health data and information emanating from completed risk assessments,
inspections and audits.
(c) Reasons why good standards of health and safety may not be achieved in the workplace
include: a lack of management commitment, poor morale among the workforce and a lack of
motivation, frequent changes in the organisation, a lack of resources possibly due to a harsh
economic climate, conflicting demands with priority being given to production targets and
meeting deadlines, poor communication and consultation with the workforce, a failure to
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provide adequate training leading to a lack of awareness amongst workers, a failure to


complete risk assessments and to produce safe systems of work and method statements, and
generally poor standards of health and safety in the industry leading to a lack of peer
pressure.

(a) Health

(b) Safety

(c) Welfare (d) Environmental protection.

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14. Outline the meaning of the following terms:

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(a) The term health can be defined as a state of wellbeing in both a physiological and
psychological sense. In occupational terms, it would include not suffering for example from
fatigue, stress or noise induced deafness.

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(b) Safety can be defined as the absence of danger or physical harm to persons, extending
in the workplace to things such as equipment, materials and structures.

(c)
Welfare relates to the provision of workplace facilities that maintain the basic
wellbeing and comfort of the worker such as eating, washing and toilet facilities which
enable them to fulfil their bodily functions.

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(d) Environmental protection may be defined as a measure used to prevent harm to the
environment of the world. It prevents harm to air, water, land and natural resources providing
protection to flora, fauna and human beings and their inter-relationships.

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15. Identify possible costs to an organisation resulting from inadequate health and safety
standards.

An increase in accidents and ill health of the workers. Consequently the organisation suffers
direct costs such as those arising from lost production and time dealing with the subsequent
investigations; those arising from plant damage and replacement and in cleaning up activities
following an accident or incident; having both to pay those who are unable to work as a result
of an accident or ill-health and recruiting and training replacement labour; costs arising from
the possibility of action by the enforcement authorities or by a civil claim from the injured
parties and the inevitable rise in insurance premiums. There are also indirect costs related to
poor staff morale which could lead to industrial unrest and high staff turnover and the
damage done to the organisations reputation which could lead to a loss of orders and a
subsequent decrease in its profitability.

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Element 2: Health and Safety Policy


1.

Explain the purposes of the following sections of a health and safety policy:
(i) Statement of intent (ii) organisation

(iii) arrangements.

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Statement of intent: The purpose of the statement of intent section of a policy is to


demonstrate managements commitment to health and safety and set health and safety goals
and objectives for the organisation.

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Organisation: The purpose of the organisation section is to allocate health and safety
responsibilities within the company and to ensure effective delegating and reporting.

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Arrangements: The arrangements section is to detail the systems and procedures which
assist in the implementation of the policy (practical arrangements).

2. Outline the issues that are typically included in the arrangements section of a health and
safety policy.

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These would typically include details of matters such as safe systems of work, Risk
assessment procedures, Personal protective equipment, Health and safety training, Incident
reporting and investigation procedures, Emergency and fire safety procedures, Welfare
arrangements (including first-aid) and arrangements for consultation with employees.

3. Outline the circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed.

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The circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed are:
Significant changes in the structure of the organisation and/or a change of premises. After
the introduction of new or changed processes or work methods. Following changes in key
personnel. Following changes in legislation. Where audits, risk assessments, monitoring
exercises or accident investigations show that the policy is no longer effective or relevant. As
a result of consultation with the employees. Following an enforcement action and after a
sufficient period of time has elapsed since the previous review to suggest that another one is
due.

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4.
(a) Identify a range of health and safety targets that may be included in the statement
of intent section of a health and safety policy.
(b) Describe the purpose of:
(i) the organisation section of a health and safety policy,
(ii) the arrangements section of a health and safety policy.

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(a)
Compliance by the organisation with the requirements of relevant legislation. A
reduction in the number of accidents and cases of ill-health. The completion of an assessment
of all risks in the workplace and its review within a defined time scale. The provision to all
workers of the necessary information, instruction and training to ensure their competence.
The maintenance of exposure levels below defined limits. Consultation with the employees
on health and safety issues and the provision of sufficient resources to secure the above
targets.

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(b) i) The purpose of the organisation section of a health and safety policy is to show a clear
allocation of health and safety responsibilities, including specialised responsibilities, for all
levels of management and workers in the organisation with the aim of ensuring that the health
and safety policy is implemented.

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(b) ii) The arrangements section of the policy details the practical arrangements made for
implementing the aims of the health and safety policy in relation to specified identified
hazards.

5.
Give reasons why the health and safety policy should be signed by the most senior
person in an organisation, such as a Managing Director or Chief Executive Officer.

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The signature of the most senior person in the organisation would demonstrate management
commitment, this would give authority to the policy or that the person concerned ultimately
had responsibility for health and safety in the organisation.

6.
Identify the three main sections of a health and safety policy document and explain
the purpose and general content of each section.
Statement of Indent, Organisation and Arrangement

Statement of intent: The purpose of the statement of intent section of a policy is to


demonstrate managements commitment to health and safety and set health and safety goals
and objectives for the organisation.
Organisation: The purpose of the organisation section is to allocate health and safety
responsibilities within the company and to ensure effective delegating and reporting.
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Arrangements: The arrangements section is to detail the systems and procedures which
assist in the implementation of the policy (practical arrangements).

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7.
Outline the various methods for communicating the contents of a health and safety
policy to a workforce.

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The policy should be communicated to all the employees through various methods, these are
Introducing it at induction and subsequent training, displaying it on notice boards,
introducing it at team briefing or tool box talk, using newsletters, use of posters,
incorporating into safe system of work, managers and safety representatives may convey
during formal or informal discussions with employees.

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8.
Identify SIX categories of persons who may be shown in the organisation section of
a health and safety policy document AND state their likely general or specific health and
safety responsibilities.

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Directors and senior managers Setting policy, objectives and targets


Line Managers implementing policy under their departments
Supervisors Checking day to day compliances with the policy
Safety advisors Giving advices on accident investigations and on compliance issue
Fire Marshals Safe evacuation of building in an emergency
First aiders Administrating first aid to injured person
Safety representatives Representing employees during consultation meeting on health and
safety issues with the employer
Occupational nurse Giving specialist advice on particular health and safety issues
Employees Responsible for taking reasonable care of the health and safety of themselves
and others who may be affected by their acts or omissions

9.
Explain why it is important for an organisation to set targets in terms of its health and
safety Performance
Health and safety performance targets are an important part of the statement of intent
because:
They indicate that there is management commitment to improve health and safety
performance. They motivate the workforce with tangible goals resulting, perhaps, in
individual or collective rewards. They offer evidence during the monitoring, review and audit
phases of the management system

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10.
Outline SIX types of target that an organisation might typically set in relation to
health and safety.

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A specific reduction in the number of accidents, and cases of work-related ill-health (perhaps
to zero), A reduction in the level of sickness absence, A specific increase in the number of
employees trained in health and safety, An increase in the reporting of minor accidents and
near miss. A reduction in the number of civil claims, No enforcement notices from the
legal authority, A specific improvement in health and safety audit scores,
11. Outline the contents of statement of intent in an organisations health and safety policy.

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An outline of the organisational approach, Aims and objectives, management Commitment,


Compliance with legal obligations, Adequate resources, Adequate training, Keeping up-todate, Signature of key personnel
12. Outline the main components of a health and safety management system.

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Policy A written statement which shows the Health and safety aims objective, targets and
commitment of the organisation.

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Organising A clear roles and responsibilities at all levels of the organisation. It is an


essential component of a positive health and safety culture. An effective organisation will be
having good staff involvement and participation, high quality communications, competency
and commitment of all employees to make informed contributions.

Planning and implementing The plan is based on risk assessment methods to decide on
priorities and set objectives for the effective control or elimination hazards and the reduction
of risks. Measuring success requires the establishment of practical plans and performance
targets against which achievements can be identified.

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Measuring performance This includes both active (sometimes called proactive) and
reactive monitoring to see how effectively the health and safety management system is
working. Active monitoring involves looking at the premises, plant and sub-stances plus the
people, procedures and systems. Reactive monitoring discovers through investigation of
accidents and incidents why controls have failed. It is also important to measure the
organisation against its own long term goals and objectives.
Reviewing performance The results of monitoring should be systematically reviewed to
evaluate the performance of the management system against the objectives and targets
established by the health and safety policy.
AuditThe audit is a critical examination of health and safety management arrangement
systems and procedures. Such audits may be internal and external. If the audit is to be really
effective, it must assess both the compliance with stated procedures and the performance in
the workplace. It will identify weaknesses in the health and safety policy and procedures and
identify unrealistic or inadequate standards and targets.

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13. Outline the economic benefits that an organisation may obtain by implementing a
successful health and safety management system.

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Improved production from the reduced accidents and ill health


Reduced repairing cost of damaged to Equipment
Reduced insurance premium due to the reduction in accident climes
Reduced fines and compensation claims

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14. Draw a flowchart to show the relationships between the six elements of the health and
safety management model in HSEs Successful Health and Safety Management (HSG65).

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Element 3: Organising

1. Outline the health and safety roles and responsibilities of:

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(a) directors and senior managers,


(b) supervisors,
(c) workers
(d) person(s) with primary health and safety functions, e.g. Health and safety officer.

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(a)
The main health and safety responsibilities of directors and senior managers are to
prepare and sign a health and safety policy and to set goals and objectives for the
organisation, to lead by example and to demonstrate commitment, to allocate responsibilities
for health and safety throughout the organisation and to set aside sufficient resources such as
for example for training those who have been allocated special roles, to secure competent
health and safety advice such as by appointing a Health and Safety Advisor, and to receive
monitoring reports and instigate action to rectify any deficiencies that have been found.

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(b)
Supervisors, they should control work in their area of responsibility and set a good
example. They should take part in carrying out risk assessments, in the development of
consequent safe systems of work and ensure that members of their teams are fully briefed on
the systems once they have been introduced. They should carry out inspections of their
working areas and deal with any unsafe conditions or actions, reporting to managers if in any
situation they personally do not have the power to take the necessary action. They finally
have an important role to play in training, coaching and mentoring members of their team.

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(c)
Taking reasonable care of themselves and their fellow workers, refraining from
misusing equipment provided for their health and safety, cooperating with their employer by
following safe systems of work, and reporting accidents and unsafe situations to their
supervisor or other nominated member of management. They also have an important role to
play in taking an active part in any consultation exercise set up by the employer.

(d) Provide expert advice on matters of health and safety, assist in the development of the
health and safety policy and procedures and their periodic reviews, intervene when he/she
comes across any unsafe conditions or acts, keep health and safety records such as for
accidents and any apparent trends, and liaise with representatives of external agencies, be part
of an accident investigation team, keep up to date on health and safety topics.
2. Outline why it is important that all persons in an organisation are aware of their roles and
responsibilities for health and safety.
Making all persons in an organisation aware of their roles for health and safety will assist in
defining their individual responsibilities and will indicate the commitment and leadership of
senior management. A clear delegation of duties will assist in sharing out the health and
safety workload, will ensure contributions from different levels and jobs, will help to set up
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clear lines of reporting and communication and will assist in defining individual
competencies and training needs particularly for specific roles such as first aid and fire,
making individuals aware of their own roles and responsibilities can increase their motivation
and help to improve morale throughout the organisation.

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3.
Outline the topics that may typically be included on the agenda of a safety committee
meeting.
The Agenda should consist of:

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The study of accident and notifiable disease statistics to enable reports to be made of
recommended remedial actions. The examination of health and safety audit and statutory
inspection reports. The consideration of reports from the external enforcement agency. The
review of new legislation, approved codes of practice and guidance and its effect on the
organisation. The monitoring and review of all health and safety training and instruction
activities in the organisation. The monitoring and review of health and safety publicity and
communication throughout the organisation.

4.
Outline the factors that will determine the level of supervision that a new employee
should receive during their initial period of employment within an organisation.

(a) Explain the meaning of the term competent person

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5.

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The factors such as previous experience of the work, the age of the employee and his/her
qualifications and skills, the employee's attitude and aptitude, the nature and complexity of
the task to be performed, and individual special needs or disabilities.

(b) Outline the organisational factors that may cause a person to work unsafely even
though they are competent.

(a) A combination of knowledge, skills, Training and practical experience which a person
has to have to be able to do a particular task properly. This includes not only the routine task,
but also covers unexpected situations and changes.
(b) Unrealistic or ill-considered procedures, mental and/or physical capabilities not taken
into account, poor organisational safety culture, complacency/lack of motivation; peer group
pressure, other priorities and pressures, risks not perceived, slips and lapses, fatigue and
stress, and lack of consultation.

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6.
(a) Give TWO reasons why visitors to a workplace might be at greater risk of injury
than workers.
(b) Outline a procedure designed to ensure the health and safety of visitors to work
premises.

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(a) There were a number of reasons why visitors to a workplace might be at greater risk of
injury than workers. These include their unfamiliarity with the processes carried out at the
workplace, the hazards they present and their associated risks, they may not have been issued
with personal protective equipment, their lack of knowledge of the site layout and the fact
that pedestrian routes might be inadequate and unsigned, their unfamiliarity with the
emergency procedures and their vulnerability particularly if they were disabled, very young
or had language problems.

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(b) Visitor identification, for example, by the issue of badges with a routine for signing in
and out. Prior notification to those members of staff to be involved in the visit. The provision
of information to the visitors in suitable languages on hazards and emergency procedures.
An explanation of specific site rules, for example, restricted areas and the wearing of personal
protective equipment. The clear marking of pedestrian routes and the need for visitors to be
escorted by a member of management or supervisory staff.
7.
Outline the checks that could be made in assessing the health and safety competence
of a contractor.

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The contractor's previous experience with the type of work. The reputation of the contractor
amongst previous or current clients. The quality and content of the health and safety policy
and risk assessments. The level of training and qualifications of staff (including those with
health and safety responsibilities).Accident records and enforcement actions history.
Membership of approval or certification bodies. Equipment maintenance records and the
detailed proposals for the work to be carried out.
(a) State the circumstances under which an employer must establish a health and
safety committee
(b) Give six reasons why a health and safety committee may prove to be ineffective
in practice.

8.

(a) Employer must establish a health and safety committee when requested to do so in
writing by two or more trade union appointed safety representatives.
(b) Lack of management commitment, no agenda or remit and/or no minutes or notes of the
meetings being produced, an uneven balance between management and employee
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representatives, poor chairmanship, no access to the decision making processes, infrequent


meetings, inappropriate topics, and no access to health and safety expertise.
9.

Outline ways to help ensure the effectiveness of a safety committee.

10.

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Clear terms of reference, Balanced representation, Actual influence in decision making,


Respect of management and work force, Good leadership and chairmanship, Good
communication channels, Access to relevant information and specialist advice, formalised
procedures with agendas, Relevant and non trivial agenda items.

Outline the benefit to an organization of having a health and safety committee.

Safety committee can promote the co-operation between employer and employees to ensure
employees health and safety at work.

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11. Two organisations share the same workplace. Outline how they could co-operate to
achieve good health and safety standards.

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In order to achieve good health and safety standards in the workplace, the two
organisations could, hold regular meetings, share information and risk assessments and
avoid carrying out incompatible processes, prepare and agree joint site rules for the
workplace for example for assembly points and smoking areas, set up joint procedures
for the management of visitors and contractors; agree on procedures for the management of
traffic and the movement of vehicles, carry out joint inspections and monitoring of the
workplace, draw up joint emergency procedures, agree a policy for the management of waste
and obtain advice on health and safety matters from a shared consultant.
12. Outline the health and safety responsibilities of designer/ manufactures/ distributor.

Persons designing, manufacturing, importing or supplying articles or substance have general


responsibilities to ensure articles are safe and without risks to health when installed, used,
cleaned or maintained. Ensure substances are safe and without risks when being used,
handled, processed, stored or transported. Carry out tests, research which may be necessary
to comply with the requirement. Provide information about the use and conditions necessary
to ensure that the installation, cleaning, maintaining or disposal of the article or substance is
safe, and without risks to health (e.g. Data sheet, Operator manual). Take reasonably
practicable steps to provide further information should new serious risks come to light.

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13. Identify the reasons why a health and safety committee may be ineffective

There has been a significant deterioration in the health and safety culture of an
organisation.
(a) Give the meaning of the term health and safety culture.
(b) Identify the factors that could have contributed to the deterioration of the
health and safety culture within the organisation.

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A lack of management commitment, No clear terms of reference, No agenda, An uneven


balance between management and employee representatives, Lack of respect from the
management and or employees, Poor leadership or chairing, No influence on the decision
making processes, Infrequent meetings, Inappropriate or trivial topics, No access to relevant
health and safety information and advice.

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(a)
The safety culture of an organisation is the product of individual and group values,
attitudes, perceptions, competencies and patterns of behaviour that determine the
commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, the organisations health and safety
management.

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(b) The lack of visible leadership and commitment at senior level, changes in the
management structure or roles and changes in work patterns with the lack of effective
communication prior to and during change, the fact that health and safety was not given the
same priority as other objectives such as production or quality, the lack of consultation with
and involvement of the workforce, the absence of management systems particularly where
health and safety were concerned, a reduction in the workforce leading to work overload, a
high staff turnover and external influences such as a downturn in the economy leading to job
insecurity, the presence of a blame culture and/or peer pressure and a deterioration in the
standard of welfare facilities.
Outline ways in which an organisation could encourage workers to be involved in
setting and maintaining high standards of health and safety.

Involving workers in risk assessments, accident investigations and the development of safe
systems and procedures. Setting up suggestion schemes and acting on the ideas and
recommendations put forward. Organising training courses and information programmes on
the benefits of good safety standards. Supporting active involvement in safety committee
meetings. Introducing an effective two-way communication system. Introducing a system of
award and reward to recognise achievement. Ensuring that management set a good example
for the workforce to follow.

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(a) Give the meaning of the term perception.


16.
(b) Outline ways in which workers perceptions of hazards in the workplace might be
improved.

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(a) The way that people interpret and make sense of presented information, for instance in
relation to their surroundings..

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(b) There was a need to identify the problem, perhaps by the use of surveys, the reasons for
workers misperceptions in order to increase awareness and challenge currently held views.
Other ways might include making hazards more obvious (for example, by the use of signs)
and addressing environmental factors, such as lighting and noise, which might cause
distraction or otherwise hinder the perceptual processes.

rR

17.
Give reasons why it is important to use a variety of methods to communicate health
and safety information in the workplace.

op
y

People respond differently to different stimuli, and that variety prevents over familiarisation
with one method and helps to reinforce a message. The need to overcome language barriers
and the inability of some workers to read; the need to motivate, stimulate interest and gain
involvement and feedback; the acceptance that different types of information require different
methods of communication for example emergency signs; that the policy of the organisation
may require certain information to be in a specified format; and that on occasions evidence
that the message was given may need to be kept.

N
ot

18.
(a) Explain why it is important for an organisation to consult with its workers on
health and safety issues.
(b) Explain how arrangements for consultation with workers may be made more effective.

(a) It is important for an organisation to consult with its workers on health and safety issues
since in the first instance it may be a legal requirement or if not that, a requirement of the
organisations health and safety policy. Consultation will help to raise the profile of health
and safety, improve the perception of its value and importance and assist in improving the
health and safety culture of the organisation. It is useful in developing ownership amongst
the workers of health and safety measures, obtaining their commitment, inviting their ideas
for improvement and allowing them to contribute to health and safety decision making and to
help in agreeing priorities for attention. Their views would also be useful in ensuring that
suggested improvements would be workable in practice.

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ep
ro
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uc
e

(b)
The establishment of safety committees, consultation with elected representatives,
planned direct consultation at departmental meetings, team meetings, tool box talks and staff
appraisals, consultation as part of an accident or incident investigation or as part of a risk
assessment, day to day informal consultation by supervisors with their team at the workplace;
discussion as part of safety circles or improvement groups, questionnaires and suggestion
schemes and the provision of consultation training to the management and workers. If
formal meetings are to be held, it is important to ensure that there is a correct balance
between management and worker representation, that an agenda is set and the meeting is well
managed by the chair, that the business of the meeting is not side tracked by discussion of
non health and safety issues, that minutes of meeting and reports are made available to the
workforce as a whole and that actions agreed are carried out without undue delay.
19.
Outline ways in which the health and safety culture of an organisation might be
improved.

20.

N
ot

op
y

rR

Preparing and implementing a policy supported by effective systems for the management of
health and safety, securing the commitment of management and ensuring that they led by
example, consulting with and involving workers on matters affecting their health and safety
and providing effective supervision and training. Organisation being seen to give equal
priority to health and safety issues as other business objectives such as production and
quality, introducing and fostering a no blame culture, being seen to be consistent in their
management decisions and giving serious attention to any complaints made by workers with
respect to matters of health and safety, employing a person able to supply information on
health and safety matters and procedures in different languages, providing a pleasant
working environment with good welfare facilities and introducing incentive schemes to
increase employee interest and involvement.
Describe FIVE components of a positive health and safety culture.

(i) Leadership and commitment to health and safety throughout and at all levels of the
organisation
(ii) Acceptance that high standards of health and safety are achievable as part of a long-term
strategy formulated by the organisation.
(iii) A detailed assessment of health and safety risks in the organisation and the development
of appropriate control and monitoring systems.
(iv) A health and safety policy statement outlining short and long-term health and safety
objectives. Such a policy should also include codes of practice and required health and safety
standards
(v) Relevant employee training programmes and communication and consultation procedures
(vi) Systems for monitoring equipment, processes and procedures and the prompt
rectification of any defects
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(vii) The prompt investigation of all incidents and accidents and reports made detailing any
necessary remedial actions.
21.
Outline how information on accidents could be used to promote health and safety in
the workplace.

ep
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d

uc
e

Accident data could be used to identify trends and problem areas and give the opportunity for
remedial action, to enable improvement in resource allocation, to make comparisons with
others, to inform and stimulate discussion at joint consultation meetings with the workforce,
to identify the costs of accidents and to set new targets.
22.
Outline the personal factors that might place an individual at a greater risk of harm
while at work.

23.

op
y

rR

Factors that might place an individual at greater risk at work include, a generally poor attitude
to work, authority and/or risk, often coupled with low motivation, those relating to physical
capabilities or development such as lack of stature, strength and/or stamina, those relating to
mental capabilities such as poor reasoning skills, poor perception of risk, perhaps influenced
by alcohol or drugs, age related behavioral factors associated with immaturity, and innate or
medical conditions affecting physical or mental capacity. Further factors relate to the levels
of training and experience of the individual.
(a) Explain, using an example, the meaning of the term attitude

N
ot

(b)
Outline THREE inuences on the attitude towards health and safety of
employees within an organisation
(a) Attitude is the tendency to behave in a particular way in a certain situation, e.g. a
persons attitude to wearing PPE may be affected by the actions of colleagues.

(b) Attitudes are influenced by the prevailing health and safety culture within the
organisation, the commitment of the management, the experience of the individual and the
influence of the peer group.

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24.

(a) Explain the meaning of the term motivation


(b) Other than lack of motivation, outline SIX reasons why employees may fail to
comply with safety procedures at work
(c) Outline ways in which employers may motivate their employees to comply with
health and safety procedures

rR

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(b) (i) Generally poor attitude to work.


(ii) Poor perception of risk may be influenced by alcohol of drugs.
(iii) Age related behavioural factors associated with immaturity.
(iv) Medical conditions affecting physical or mental capacity.
(v) Issues relating to physical capabilities strength and stamina.
(vi) Levels of training and experience of the individual.

uc
e

(a) Motivation is the driving force behind the way a person acts or the way in which people
are stimulated to act.

(a) Giving a practical example, explain the meaning of the term human error
(b) Outline individual (or personal) factors that may contribute to human errors
occurring at Work

25.

op
y

(c) The recognition of good health and safety performance e.g. by giving praise and
incentives, improving employees' knowledge of the consequences of not working safely
(through training and information), showing the commitment of the organisation to safety (by
providing resources and a safe working environment), involving employees in health and
safety decisions (by consultation, team meetings, risk assessment etc.

N
ot

(a) A failure on the part of the human operator, to perform an assigned task within specified
limits of tolerance, with such limits generally being defined in terms of accuracy, sequence or
time, e.g. the use of the incorrect switch, reading the wrong dial or selecting the incorrect
component for an assembly.

(b) Motivation, Attitude, Perception, Aptitude, Age-related behavioural factors associated


with immaturity, Medical conditions affecting physical or mental capacity, The levels of
training and experience of the individual.
26.

Describe, using practical examples, four types of human error that can lead to
accidents in the workplace.

(i)

Slips: Slips are failure to carryout the actions of a task, e.g. Turing a control knob in
the wrong direction.

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(ii)

Lapses: Forget to carryout or complete an action, e.g. Failure to replace the petrol
cap on a car after filling it with petrol.

uc
e

(iii)
Rule-based mistakes: occur when a rule or procedure is remembered or applied
incorrectly. These mistakes usually happen when, due to an error, the rule that is normally
used no longer applies. For example, a particular job requires the counting of items into
groups of ten followed by the adding together of the groups so that the total number of items
may be calculated. If one of the groups is miscounted, the final total will be incorrect even
though the rule has been followed.

(a) Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace
(b) Give FOUR reasons why the seriousness of a hazard may be underestimated by
someone exposed to it
(c) Outline ways in which managers can motivate employees to work safely.

rR

27.

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(iv)
Knowledge-based mistakes: occur when well-tried methods or calculation rules are
used inappropriately. For example, the depth of the foundations required for a particular
building was calculated using a formula. The formula, which assumed a clay soil, was used to
calculate the foundation depth in a sandy soil. The resultant building was unsafe.

(i) Lack of knowledge about the hazards and the associated risk.
(ii) Person may be working under stress
(iii) Poor perception
(iv) Inexperience (Young person)

N
ot

(b)

op
y

(a)
Human errors can usually be reduced by re-designing the job or equipment or
minimizing distractions and by re-designing equipment so that, for example, an audible horn
indicates the omission of a task. They may also be reduced significantly by the use of detailed
checklists.

(c)
Improving employees' knowledge of the consequences of not working safely by,
training and the provision of information, showing the commitment of the organisation to
safety by providing resources and a safe working environment, involving employees in health
and safety decisions through consultation and team meetings; and recognising and rewarding
achievement. Manager should not only give information to employees, but also listen to and
take account of what they say before any health and safety decisions are made. The practical
means by which this can be done are by employing both formal and non-formal methods,
such as, Team meetings, One-to-one informal meetings between management and staff
Employers can also involve workers in risk assessments of various types and workplace
inspections and tours.

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28.
Outline the factors that might cause the safety culture within an organisation to
decline.

ep
ro
d

uc
e

Factors affecting the health and safety culture within an organisation are lack of management
commitment, poor morale among the workforce and a lack of motivation, frequent changes in
the organisation, a lack of resources possibly due to a harsh economic climate, conflicting
demands with priority being given to production targets and meeting deadlines, poor
communication and consultation with the workforce, a failure to provide adequate training
leading to a lack of awareness amongst workers; a failure to complete risk assessments and to
produce safe systems of work and method statements, failure to implement remedial action,
poor working environment, Lack of supervision, health and safety seen as low priority in the
organisation.
29.
Outline the practical means by which a manager could involve employees in the
improvement of health and safety in the workplace.

Give reasons why a verbal instruction may not be clearly understood by an employee.

N
ot

30.

op
y

rR

Improving employees' knowledge of the consequences of not working safely by, training and
the provision of information, showing the commitment of the organisation to safety by
providing resources and a safe working environment, involving employees in health and
safety decisions through consultation and team meetings; and recognising and rewarding
achievement. Manager should not only give information to employees, but also listen to and
take account of what they say before any health and safety decisions are made. The practical
means by which this can be done are by employing both formal and non-formal methods,
such as, Team meetings, One-to-one informal meetings between management and staff
Employers can also involve workers in risk assessments of various types and workplace
inspections and tours.

The nature of the working environment, such as high levels of noise, interference from
personal protective equipment and other distractions, the use of too much technical jargon,
language or dialect issues, ambiguity of the message, sensory impairment or learning
difficulties, the inexperience of the' recipient (ie. being unable to relate properly to what is
being said) and the fact that the instruction may be too complex or lengthy to be given
verbally.
31.

Explain why employees may fail to comply with safety procedures at work.

Unrealistic or ill-considered procedures, mental and/or physical capabilities not taken into
account, inadequate training, poor organisational safety culture, complacency/lack of
motivation; peer group pressure, other priorities and pressures, risks not perceived, slips
and lapses, fatigue and stress, and lack of consultation.

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32.
Outline FOUR advantages and FOUR disadvantages of using posters to communicate
health and safety information to the workforce.
Advantages:

uc
e

Flexibility- can be displayed a most appropriate location


Pictorial - Allowing messages to be easily understood
Reinforce verbal instruction and providing constant reminder of critical health and safety
issues
Involve employee in selection of posters (competition).

ep
ro
d

Disadvantages:

rR

Need to change posters on regular basis if they are to be noticed


They may become soiled, defaced and out of date
The possibility that they might be seen to trivialise serious matters
No direct way of assessing whether the message has been understood

op
y

33.
(a) Identify FOUR types of health and safety information that might usefully be
displayed on a notice board with a workplace
(b) Explain how the effectiveness of notice boards as a means of communicating health
and safety information to the workforce can be maximized
(a) Health and safety policy, Evacuation procedure, first aid arrangements, contact details
of safety representatives, Target set for reduction of accidents.

N
ot

(b) To maximise the effectiveness of notice boards within workplace employer should locate
the notice board in common or prominent area, Dedicating boards to health and safety
matters, Information displayed is relevant and current, keep information in a neat and orderly
state, Make notice boards attracting by the use of colours and graphics.

34.
Outline the various methods for communicating health and safety information to the
workforce

Team briefings, Newsletters, Work instructions, Postures and notices, Safety committee
meetings, Health and safety representatives, Memoranda, Tool box talks,
Policy,
Procedures, rules and standards, Induction and other Training and informal talks.
35. Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace
Competent employees, motivated employees, Avoid monotonous work, Breaks to counter
fatigue, Clear roles and lines of responsibility, Good lines of communication, Clarity of
instructions, Good working environment, competent supervision, Drugs and alcohol policy.

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36.
Describe TWO internal and TWO external inuences on the health and safety culture
of an organisation.
Internal inuences
Production demand: The organisation is giving more priority to the production, and then the
health and safety can be seen as an obstruction.

uc
e

Competence: It is important that employees feel properly trained and competent to carryout
the job safely.

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ro
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External inuences

Legislation: There are much legislation on health and safety in many countries.

Enforcement: Enforcement has a significant role in influencing on organisations level of


performance in respect of health and safety.

rR

37. Identify the failures that can cause poor health and safety performance.

No rules or procedures, No training, No consultation, No involvement in the decision making


process, No decisions on health and safety issues, Supervisors or managers turning a blind
eye to safety issues, Lack of equipment maintenance, Poor environmental conditions, Poor
housekeeping

op
y

38. An organisation needs to review its provision of health and safety training to workers
and managers.

(a) Identify the factors that should be considered when developing a programme of health
and safety training.

N
ot

(b) Identify measures that might be used to assess the effectiveness of health and safety
training.

(c) Some jobs require that work is carried out by a competent person. Identify what checks
could be made to assess whether a person is competent.

(d) Give reasons why it is important for an employer to keep a record of the training
provided to each worker.
(a)The completion of a training needs analysis is an important first step in the development of
any programme of training. This would have to take into account the work activities of the
organisation, the hazards and risks involved and the organisations accident history. The
analysis would also involve an assessment of the workers existing knowledge, taking into
account their previous experience, the levels and types of training already received and any
indications of any deficiencies such as from incident data or by observation. Consideration
would then have to be given to the content of the additional training needed including that
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uc
e

which may be required by legislation, the number of workers to be trained and the resources
involved in terms of financial costs, time and facilities. A further factor would include the
competence and expertise of in-house staff to provide the required training, the possible need
to involve external sources and the benefits and disadvantages of using classroom or on the
job presentation. Need to be consultation with workers and their representatives in order to
seek their commitment to, and their views on the proposed programme.

ep
ro
d

(b)Measures such as post training assessment and evaluation by trainers, the trainees
themselves and their supervisors, accident rates and sickness absences, monitoring levels of
compliance with laid down procedures such as the wearing of personal protective equipment
the results of attitude surveys, and the number of concerns raised by workers with respect to
health and safety.

rR

(c)
Checks on the possession of competence by an individual might include their
qualifications and the possession of a specific license such as for driving a heavy goods
vehicle, employment history and experience, membership of a professional body, previous
training and success in any relevant examination and/or test, and any references and
recommendations that might be available.

op
y

(d) Provide proof of a workers expected level of competence, to identify when additional or
refresher training might be needed, to enable a review of the effectiveness of any training to
be carried out; to assess the progress of the training programme against targets; to provide
evidence to be used in any future accident investigations or legal actions and to demonstrate
compliance with legal requirements.

N
ot

39. Explain how induction training programmes for new employees can help to reduce the
number of accidents in the workplace.

The induction training programmes will cover the following topics which will be useful to a
new employee to identify the organisations health and safety procedures and facilities
provided these in term will help to reduce the accidents.
The health and safety policy of the organisation, including a summary of the organisation and
arrangements including employee consultation, a brief summary of the health and safety
management system including the name of the employees direct supervisor, safety
representative and source of health and safety information, the employee responsibility for
health and safety including any general health and safety rules (e.g. smoking prohibitions),
the accident reporting procedure of the organisation, the location of the accident book and the
location of the nearest first aider, the fire and other emergency procedures including the
location of the assembly point, a summary of any relevant risk assessments and safe systems
of work, the location of welfare facilities and rest rooms.
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40.
(a) Identify TWO main purposes of first-aid treatment.
(b) Outline the factors to be considered when making an assessment of first-aid
requirements in a workplace.

uc
e

(a) The two main functions of first-aid treatment are, firstly, the preservation of life and/or
the minimisation of the consequences of injury until medical help is obtained and, secondly,
the treatment of minor injuries that would not receive or do not need medical attention.

rR

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(b) The number of trained first-aid personnel and first-aid facilities in relation to, for
example, the size of the organisation, the distribution and composition of the workforce
including the special needs of workers such as trainees, young workers and the disabled. The
types of hazard and level of risk present, the past history of accidents and their type, location
and consequences. The proximity of the workplace to emergency medical services. The
special needs of travelling, remote or lone workers such as the provision of personal first aid
kits or mobile phones; the need to train the first aid personnel in special procedures. The
ability to provide continued cover over different shifts and for sickness, leave and other
absence, and a comparison of the facilities provided with those required by law.

op
y

41. (a) Identify THREE types of emergencies in the workplace for which employees may
need to be evacuated
(b)
Explain why it is important to develop workplace procedures to enable the safe
evacuation of employees during an emergency.

N
ot

(a) Fire or explosion, the accidental release of toxic chemicals or gases, transport incidents,
bomb alerts or other terrorist activities, weather related emergencies and earthquakes.

(b)
The need to comply with legal requirements. To be prepared for foreseeable
emergencies. To ensure the safety and protection of the workers including those dealing with
the emergency and to assist the safe evacuation of persons including those with specific needs
such as visitors and the disabled. To provide information on the action to be taken, not only
by workers but also by neighbours and others who might be affected by the emergencies such
as in a shared or joint occupancy premises. To allocate specific responsibilities to certain
workers in the event of an evacuation being necessary. To be able to mitigate the effects of
adverse events and to restore the situation to normal. To ensure the procedures are made
available to any relevant emergency services and to ensure business continuity.

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42. Explain why it is important to practice workplace emergency procedures / carry out
drills.

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d

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e

The need to test that the planned arrangements will work, for example that the evacuation of
the premises can be carried out within the time limit set, the alarm and other equipment is in
working order, to practice the roles that have been given to specific persons, for example, to
those appointed as fire wardens, to ensure that everyone knows what to do and where to go if
an emergency occurs and to make them familiar with the arrangements so that they will not
panic in a real situation, to liaise with the emergency services and give them an opportunity
to practice their role, and to comply with any existing legal requirements.
43. Explain why it is important for an organisation to consult with its workers on health and
safety issues.

op
y

rR

Participation will help to improve their understanding of the value and importance of health
and safety, will raise the profile of health and safety issues and develop their feeling of
ownership of safety measures. By seeking their views and allowing them to contribute to the
decision making, management would demonstrate their commitment to health and safety
while the workers motivation may be increased and their morale improved. There is also the
additional benefit that the views of workers would be useful in ensuring that any suggested
improvements would be workable in practice. Consultation with the workforce might well be
a legal requirement.
44. Outline the factors that may determine the effectiveness of a safety committee.

N
ot

Demonstration of commitment from both management and workers with the membership of
the committee constituting an even balance between management and employee
representatives under the chairmanship of a fair, strong individual with one member of
sufficient seniority to authorise any agreed action; the competence and training of committee
members with the provision of access to professional health and safety advice and support;
the allocation of resources for the committee meetings which should be at a convenient time
and notified in advance to all members with a copy of the agenda consisting of items for
discussion which are topical and relevant to the organisation; and the preparation of formal
minutes after each meeting to include actions that have been agreed with a copy displayed
where it is accessible to all workers so that they might be aware of the decisions that have
been taken.

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Element 4 Planning
1.
Identify EIGHT health and safety hazards relevant to the role of a long distance
delivery driver.

(a) Give the meaning of the term risk and give a workplace example.
(b) Identify the key stages of a risk assessment.

rR

2.

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The duration of the journey and the hours of driving, issues connected with the route to be
followed and the different road conditions, the weather and other environmental factors,
inadequate vehicle maintenance and the possibility of breakdown, the manual and/or
mechanical handling of the goods being carried and other hazards associated with them
such as exposure to chemicals, physical hazards such as exposure to noise and vibration,
lone working with a possible absence of communication and supervision; the lack of
emergency procedures including the provision of first aid, security hazards including
the possibility of violence and psychological hazards such as stress.

(a) The probability/likelihood of an occurrence and its possible consequences and severity in
terms of injury, damage or harm.

N
ot

op
y

(b) Identifying the hazards associated with a particular activity or task performed at the
workplace. Deciding who might be harmed including operators, maintenance staff and
cleaners and groups especially at risk including young workers and the disabled. Evaluating
the likelihood and probable severity of the harm that might be caused, assessing the adequacy
of existing control measures and deciding whether additional controls should be introduced.
Recording the significant findings of the assessment and implement the control measures.
Reviewing it at a later date and revising the findings when necessary.

3.
(a) Give the meaning of the term hazard and give an example of a workplace hazard.
(b) Give the meaning of the term risk and give an example of a workplace risk.
(c) Outline the key stages of the risk assessment process, identifying the issues that would
need to be considered at EACH stage.
(d) Outline the criteria which must be met for the assessment to be suitable and sufficient.
(a) A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm. For example, chemicals,
electricity and working from a ladder.
(b)
The probability/likelihood that the potential would be realised and its possible
consequence and severity in terms of injury, damage or harm. Example would be the chance
of someone being killed by coming into contact with electricity

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uc
e

(c) Identifying the hazards associated with a particular activity or task performed at the
workplace. Deciding who might be harmed including operators, maintenance staff and
cleaners and groups especially at risk including young workers and the disabled. Evaluating
the likelihood and probable severity of the harm that might be caused, assessing the adequacy
of existing control measures and deciding whether additional controls should be introduced.
Recording the significant findings of the assessment and implement the control measures.
Reviewing it at a later date and revising the findings when necessary.

Outline reasons why young persons may be at a higher risk of injury in a workplace.

4.

rR

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(d) Risk assessment, to be deemed suitable and sufficient, should indicate the competence of
the assessor together with any specialist advice that has been sought. Should identify all
significant hazards and risks arising from or connected with the activity to be carried out.
Identify all the persons at risk including workers, other workers and members of the public
with reference to those who might be particularly at risk; evaluate the adequacy and
effectiveness of existing control measures and identify other protective measures that may be
required and the control measures must be realistic. Enable priorities to be set. Record the
significant findings of the assessment. Identify the period of time for which it is likely to
remain valid.

op
y

Lack of knowledge, experience or training; the individuals stage of physical development


coupled with immaturity. Poor communication skills. Over enthusiasm and the tendency for
young workers to take more risks and to respond more readily to peer group influences.

N
ot

5.
Give THREE reasons why the seriousness of a hazard may not be obvious to
someone exposed to it

Lack of knowledge about the hazards and the associated risk.


Person may be working under stress
Poor perception
Inexperience (Young person)
Outline the logical steps to take in managing risks at work.

6.

Avoiding risks, evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided, combating the risks at source,
adapting the work to the individual, adapting to technical progress, replacing the dangerous
by the non-dangerous or the less dangerous, developing a coherent overall prevention policy,
giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures, giving
appropriate instruction to employees.

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7.
Outline the factors that should be considered when selecting individuals to assist in
carrying out risk assessments in the workplace.

uc
e

The level of training in health and safety generally, and in carrying out risk assessments in
particular. Experience of the process/ activity. The possession of technical knowledge of the
plant or equipment involved. The ability to interpret standards, regulations and guidance.
Communication and reporting skills. Commitment to do the task and the individual's
awareness of his/her own limitations.

ep
ro
d

8.
A factory manager intends to introduce a new work process for which a risk
assessment is required
(i) Outline the factors that should be considered when carrying out the risk assessment.

rR

(ii) Explain the criteria that must be met of the assessment to be deemed suitable and
sufficient

(iii) Identify the various circumstances that may require a review of the risk assessment at a
later date.

op
y

(i) The activities being undertaken, the hazards involved, the likelihood and severity of the
harm that might be caused, the number of employees exposed and the frequency of their
exposure, the competence of the persons carrying out the activities, an evaluation of existing
control measures and the competence of the person carrying out the assessment.

N
ot

(ii) Risk assessment, to be deemed suitable and sufficient, should indicate the competence of
the assessor together with any specialist advice that has been sought. Should identify all
significant hazards and risks arising from or connected with the activity to be carried out.
Identify all the persons at risk including workers, other workers and members of the public
with reference to those who might be particularly at risk; evaluate the adequacy and
effectiveness of existing control measures and identify other protective measures that may be
required. Enable priorities to be set. Record the significant findings of the assessment.
Identify the period of time for which it is likely to remain valid.
(iii) Changes to work processes or methods. Introduction of new plant. Changes in the work
place. The availability of new information concerning hazardous substances or processes.
Accidents or occurrences of ill health. Results of monitoring, including inspections, audits
and health surveillance. Changes in legislation. Changes affecting personnel (to take
particular account of disablement, pregnancy and youth).Routinely after the passage of a
reasonable interval of time.

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9.

With respect to undertaking general risk assessments on activities within a workplace:

(i) Outline the FIVE key stages of the risk assessment process, identifying the issues that
would need to be considered at EACH stage

uc
e

(ii) Identify FOUR items of information from within and FOUR items of information from
outside the organisation that may be useful when assessing the activities

ep
ro
d

(i) Identifying the hazards associated with a particular activity or task performed at the
workplace. Deciding who might be harmed including operators, maintenance staff and
cleaners and groups especially at risk including young workers and the disabled. Evaluating
the likelihood and probable severity of the harm that might be caused, assessing the adequacy
of existing control measures and deciding whether additional controls should be introduced.
Recording the significant findings of the assessment and implement the control measures.
Reviewing it at a later date and revising the findings when necessary.

rR

(ii)
Internal : Accident/Ill health and Absent data, Audit and Inspection Reports,
Investigation Report, Maintenance Records, Previous risk assessments and Company Policy.

op
y

External: Manufacturers data, Legislation, International Standards, Books/Encyclopaedias


Professional bodies (IOSH), Experts (Consultant, Lawyers)
10.
Explain the criteria that should be applied to help develop an action plan to prioritize
the control of health and safety risks in the workplace.

N
ot

The prioritisation of the implementation of risk control measures will depend on the risk
rating (high, medium and low) but the time scale in which the measures are introduced will
not always follow the ratings. It may be convenient to deal with a low level risk at the same
time as a high level risk or before a medium level risk. It may also be that work on a high risk
control system is delayed due to a late delivery of an essential component this should not halt
the overall risk reduction work.

11.
An employer has agreed to accept a young person on a work experience placement for
one week. Outline the factors that the employer should consider prior to the placement.

The fitting out and layout of the workplace and the particular site where they will work. The
nature of any physical, biological and chemical agents they will be exposed to, for how long
and to what extent what types of work equipment will be used and how this will be handled.
How the work and processes involved are organized. The need to assess and provide health
and safety training and risks from the particular agents, processes and work.

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12.
(a) Identify FOUR factors that may place young persons at a greater risk from
workplace hazards
(b) Outline FOUR measures that could be taken to minimize the risks to young persons in
the workplace.

uc
e

(a)
Lack of knowledge, experience or training; the individuals stage of physical
development coupled with immaturity; underdeveloped communication skills; over
enthusiasm and the tendency, for young workers to take more risks and to respond more
readily to peer group influences.

Outline the factors that may increase risks to pregnant employees.

rR

13.

ep
ro
d

(b)A programme of induction training, careful supervision and mentoring by an experienced


fellow worker. The completion of risk assessments with young persons specifically in mind.
The provision of clear lines of communication with young workers. Placing restrictions on
the types of work and the number of hours to be worked and introducing a programme of
specific health surveillance for young workers.

Outline three work activities that may present a particular risk to pregnant

14.
(a)
women

op
y

Exposure to chemicals such as pesticides, lead and those that cause intracellular changes
(mutagens).Biological exposures (e.g. hepatitis).Exposure to physical agents such as ionising
radiation and extremes of temperature. Manual handling. Ergonomic issues relating to
prolonged standing or the adoption of awkward body movements.
Stress and issues
associated with the use and wearing of personal protective equipment.

N
ot

(b) Outline the actions that an employer may take when a risk to a new or expectant mother
cannot be avoided.
(a) Handling Hazardous Chemical, Manual handling, any activity involving biological
agents, Activity required prolonged standing or sitting.

(b) All employers should take account of pregnant women when carrying out the risk
assessment and identify the preventive and protective measures. The additional steps of
altering working conditions or hours of work, offering suitable alternative work
15.
Outline the issues to be considered to ensure the health and safety of disabled
workers in the workplace.
Reduced mobility for moving about in the workplace and particularly for evacuation in an
emergency. If in wheel chairs there is reduced ability to lift, carry or move objects as well as
not being able to reach controls. Access to welfare facilities such as toilets. Those with
sensory impairment such as hearing and eye sight problems may not be able to hear or see
alarms. Reduced communication ability e.g. speech or hearing defect.
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16.
Identify the factors to be considered to ensure the health and safety of persons who
are required to work on their own away from the workplace.

ep
ro
d

uc
e

Identifying firstly the factors that would contribute to the potential risk such as the work to be
done and its associated hazards and identify factors that might possibly reduce the level of
risk such as the competence, training and suitability of the persons involved. The provision
of appropriate equipment and/or materials. The provision of personal protective equipment
such as eye and hearing protection. Ensuring adequate means of communication with the
home base and supervision to ensure that the correct working procedures were being
followed. Addressing both the question of security to counter the potential for violence and
psychological factors such as working alone for long periods of time. Ensuring adequate
arrangements for travel and the provision of welfare facilities and emergency and first aid
procedures.

rR

17.
Outline the issues that should be considered to ensure the health and safety of
cleaners employed in a school out of normal working hours.

N
ot

op
y

An ergonomic risk arising from the manual handling of waste and heavy floor cleaning
machines which could be inadequate for the task to be performed. The cleaner might also
come in contact with hazardous substances such as cleaning materials, and sharps or broken
glass in the waste, laboratory and workshop hazards and could be exposed to dust during the
cleaning process. Some of the equipment to be used would be electrically driven and this
would involve electrical hazards particularly if the equipment was faulty, not subjected to
regular maintenance and was not used in conjunction with a residual current device. There
would undoubtedly be a need for the cleaner to carry out some work at height to clean
windows or high surfaces and there would be the danger of falling. Risks arising from the
working environment would include the temperature in the school particularly if the heating
or air conditioning was turned off, and, if working alone and unsupervised, with little means
of communication with a nominated person and no security procedures in place, there would
always be the risk of him/her being subjected to violence from an intruder. Finally there
would be a risk arising from the duration of the work and its timing, often involving early
morning or night work.
18. An organisation has had an increase in the number of manual handling accidents and
associated ill health.
Identify sources of information that may be available to help reduce the risks to the workers.
Sources of information that may be available to an organisation in their quest to reduce the
number of manual handling accidents to members of their workforce include international
agencies such as the ILO, national enforcement agencies such as the Health and Safety
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uc
e

Executive in the United Kingdom, employers organisations and Trade Unions; national and
international standards making bodies such as ISO, information from manufacturers and also
from other organisations carrying out work of a similar nature; professional health and safety
bodies such as IOSH in the United Kingdom, occupational health services, risk assessments
and accident and ill-health statistics and consultation with the workers themselves who from
their experience could be in a position to offer information on procedures that could be
followed to reduce the risks.

ep
ro
d

19. The number of absences due to work-related upper limb disorders in an organisation is
increasing. Identify the possible sources of information that could be used when
investigating this problem.

op
y

rR

Sources of information which could be used in investigating the situation described in the
question include risk assessments and job safety analyses where the need for repetitive action
has been identified, accident and ill-health reports together with an analysis of records of
absenteeism, worker records which would provide information on age and any reported
disability, relevant information from safety committee meetings and from supervisors
particularly of the complaints they have received, the results of surveys, questionnaires and
interviews with workers, and published information such as guidance from the enforcing
authority and/or manufacturers and that available from trade bodies and other employers.

20. Outline FOUR groups of people at work that would be a special category and require an
individual risk assessment. Give an explanation in each case why an individual risk
assessment would be required.

N
ot

Young people Due to their lack of experience or immaturity


Pregnant women exposure to a hazardous substance could endanger the foetus
Disabled or vulnerable persons hearing-impaired workers require a visual alarm system
Lone workers because lone working can bring additional risks, e.g. cleaner

21. Outline the specific factors that should be considered when assessing the risk to
employees working at night shifts

Hours worked and recovery period between shifts, Level of supervision required/contact for
lone working, Fatigue and human error, Disruption of normal routines and general wellbeing, Access to specialist advice, Increase risk of violence travelling to / from work,
Emergency arrangements / first aid facilities, Access to welfare amenities, Work environment
e.g. illumination levels/temperatures etc., Young person, New and expectant mothers,
Disabled.

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(a) Give the meaning of the term permit-to-work.


(b) Identify THREE types of work activity that may require a permit-to-work.
(c) Outline the general details that should be included in a permit-to-work.
(d) Identify the factors which may influence the effectiveness of a permit-to-work
system.

uc
e

22.

ep
ro
d

(a) When work has to be carried out involving hazardous or high risk activities, a permit to
work is normally used. This is a formal document, signed by an authorised person and
intended to control the activities by ensuring set procedures are followed and by recording the
control measures that should be taken.

rR

(b) Work in confined spaces where there is a danger of being overcome by fumes or
gases or by a shortage of oxygen; work on live or high voltage electrical equipment
where there would be a danger of electrocution; hot work involving welding or
cutting operations, where the risk of sparks may ignite nearby flammable materials;
maintenance work on dangerous process plant or production machinery where it may
not be possible to keep the normal standards of protection in place and work at heights.

op
y

(c) Description and assessment of the work to be performed including the plant involved its
location and the possible hazards associated with the task. This will determine the need for,
and nature of, other relevant contents of the permit such as, the isolation of sources of energy
and product inlets, and the additional precautions required such as atmospheric monitoring,
the provision and use of personal protective equipment, the emergency procedures to be
followed and the duration of the permit.

N
ot

The permit should be issued by an authorised person, and accepted by the competent person
responsible for the work. On completion of the work, the competent person would need to
indicate on the permit that the area had been made safe in order for the permit to be cancelled
by the authorised person, after which isolations could be removed.

(d) One of the prime factors which might influence the effectiveness of a permit to work
system is the information provided on the permit which should be based on a full recognition
of the hazards associated with the work that is to be carried out. Even though the information
given is comprehensive, the system will not be effective if there is a failure by those carrying
out the work to comply with the terms of the permit, for example by failing to isolate plant or
drain lines containing hazardous substances or controlling ignition sources in a flameproof
area. Examples of other influencing factors include the competency of staff performing the
task, the standard of the management and monitoring of the system, the complexity of the
system that has been introduced, environmental considerations and human factors such as
stress or fatigue and the acceptance of the system by those involved.
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23.

(a) Give the meaning of the term hierarchy of control.


(b) Outline, with examples, the general hierarchy that should be applied with respect
to controlling health and safety risks in the workplace.

uc
e

(a) Hierarchy of control is either a list of measures designed to control risks which are
considered in order of importance, effectiveness or priority or measures designed to control
risk that normally begin with an extreme measure of control and end with personal protective
equipment as a last resort.

An organisation is introducing a new work activity that requires a safe system of


work.

op
y

24.

rR

ep
ro
d

(b) The possibility of eliminating the risks either by designing them out or changing the
process. The next step would be the reduction of the risks by, the substitution of hazardous
substances with others which were less hazardous. If this were not possible, then isolation
would have to be considered, using enclosures, barriers or worker segregation. The
application of engineering controls such as guarding, the provision of local exhaust
ventilation systems, and the use of reduced voltage systems or residual current devices would
follow as would management controls such as safe systems of work, training, job rotation and
Supervision with the final control measure being the provision of personal protective
equipment such as ear defenders or respiratory protective equipment.

(a) Outline why it is important to involve workers in the development of a safe


system of work,
(b) Outline why it is important for safe systems of work to have written procedures.

N
ot

(a) It is important to involve workers in the development of a safe system of work because
of their knowledge of the particular working environment involved and what will work in
practice. Their involvement will establish their ownership of the system and will encourage
them to use and follow, once it has been finalised and introduced. Their involvement will
emphasise managements commitment to health and safety and help to raise its profile within
the organisation.
(b) Once a safe system of work is developed, it is imperative that a clear method of
communicating its procedures to the workforce is used and this would be better achieved in
writing rather than orally. The procedures may contain complex information that will need to
be consulted on more than one occasion to ensure the correct sequence of operations is
followed. Additionally, different people will need to be aware of the procedures and it is
preferable to have them written down rather than pass them on by word of mouth, a method
that may not always guarantee consistency in their presentation. A written document will also
be needed for audit purposes and could be used as evidence in defending an enforcement
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action or a civil claim. Finally, the use of written procedures may well be a requirement of
the organisations quality assurance procedures.
25.
Outline the possible effects on health and safety of poor standards of housekeeping in
the workplace.

26.

ep
ro
d

uc
e

The possible effects poor housekeeping is the increase in fire accidents and slips, trips and
falls. Housekeeping is a very cheap and effective means of controlling risks. It involves
keeping the work-place clean and tidy at all times and maintaining good storage systems for
hazardous substances and other potentially dangerous items.
State the shape and colour, and give a relevant example, of each of the following
types of safety sign:
(i) Prohibition (ii) warning (iii) mandatory (iv) emergency escape or first-aid.

rR

(i) Prohibition signs have a white background within a red circle and with a diagonal red
line e.g. "No smoking" sign.

op
y

(ii) Warning signs have a yellow background within a black triangle e.g. those used to
warn against the hazards of flammable materials, radiation and electricity.

(iii) Mandatory signs are round with a blue background and are used to designate the
compulsory use of, for example, hearing or head protection.

N
ot

(iv) Emergency escape and first aid signs are rectangular or square with a green background.
E.g. The directional (`running man') emergency escapes signs.

27.
Explain why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered as a last
resort in the control of occupational health hazards.

There are numerous reasons why personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered
only after other possibilities have been exhausted. Importantly, in accordance with legal
requirements and those of international standards, the hierarchy of controls should be applied
before PPE is used as a last resort if only because the latter does not remove the hazard.
Additionally, PPE may not provide adequate protection because of such factors as poor
selection, poor fit because of facial features such as beards, incompatibility with other types
of PPE, contamination, and misuse or non-use by workers. PPE is likely to be uncomfortable
and relies for its effectiveness on a conscious action by the user which raises issues such as
training and supervision and there are cost factors involved in its use such as those arising
from its initial supply and its subsequent maintenance, cleaning and eventual replacement. In
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certain circumstances, its use can actually create additional risks, for instance, impaired
vision or warning sounds masked by the use of hearing protection.
28.

Outline the factors that should be considered when developing a safe system of work

ep
ro
d

uc
e

Details of the task or activity to be performed, such as might be provided by a job safety
analysis.
The equipment and materials to be involved. Any information or guidelines
provided by manufacturers. The number of workers who will carry out the activity, the level
of their competence and training and the possibility that some may be vulnerable. The
inherent and contingent hazards and risks taking into account the particular environment
where the tasks are to be carried out. The adequacy of the control measures in place.
Relevant legal requirements or international standards. The need for consultation with and
involvement of workers. Emergency procedures and the systems for monitoring and
supervision.

rR

29.
Identify EIGHT sources of information that might be consulted when developing a
safe system of work.

Internal: Policies, Risk Assessment, Safety inspections, Maintenance Records, Medical


Records, Accident/Incident records, Safety advisors, Safety committee
.

op
y

External:
Govt. Organisations, Safety organisations, Trade bodies, Suppliers &
manufacturers, Consultant & specialists, Insurance Companies, Trade unions.

N
ot

30.
Outline the reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety procedures at
work.

Unrealistic or ill considered procedures, mental and/or physical capabilities not taken into
account, inadequate training, poor organisational safety culture, complacency/lack of
motivation, peer group pressure, other priorities and pressures, risks not perceived, slips
and lapses, fatigue and stress and lack of consultation.

31. Explain the key principles of prevention that should be used to control workplace
hazards.
Avoiding risks: Trying to stop doing the task or using different processes or doing the work
in a different safer way.
Evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided: This requires a risk assessment to be carried
out.
Combating the risks at source: This means that risks, such as a dusty work atmosphere, are
controlled by removing the cause of the dust rather than providing special protection.
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Adapting the work to the individual: The design of the workplace, the choice of work
equipment and the choice of working and production methods.

uc
e

Adapting to technical progress:


It is important to take advantage of technical progress,
which often gives designers and employers the chance to improve both safety and working
methods, e.g. Internet and other international information sources.

ep
ro
d

Replacing the dangerous by the non-dangerous or the less dangerous this involves
substituting, for example, equipment or substances with non-hazardous or less hazardous
substances.
Developing a coherent overall prevention policy: Technology, organisation of work, working
conditions, social relationships and the influence of factors relating to the working
environment Health and safety policies should be prepared and applied by reference to these
principles.

rR

Giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures: This
means giving priority to control measures which make the workplace safe for everyone
working there so giving the greatest benefit, for example, removing hazardous dust by
exhaust ventilation rather than providing a filtering respirator to an individual worker.

op
y

Giving appropriate instruction to employees: This involves making sure those employees
are fully aware of company policy, safety procedures, and good practice, official guidance,
any test results and legal requirements.

31. Outline the elements of safe system of work

N
ot

Materials How and what we will use and under what circumstances.

Environment The working environment in which the work is being carried out have
sufficient heating, ventilation, lighting etc. Will the activity or process have an impact on the
environment

People Are people competent to trained to conduct the specific work /task
Equipment is the machinery / equipment to specification for the work and is it is good
condition, with guards where necessary. Within the consideration risk assessments,
inspection and accident reports should be consulted to ensure the safe system of work
addresses all hazards and risk which are likely to arise. Also manufacturers instruction and
information and equipment, machinery and chemicals etc should be consulted.

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32. Outline the situations where a permit-to-work would be appropriate and in EACH case,
give a reason why.

N
ot

op
y

rR

ep
ro
d

uc
e

Hot work - Due to the risk of heat transfer, fire and explosion
Confined space Because of the restricted space, the lack of Oxygen, presence of toxic or
flammable gases and the possibility of heat exhaustion
Work on live electricity The hazards here are high when working on live line
Maintenance work Due to the risk of machinery being started up while work is in progress

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Element 5 - Measuring, Audit and Review


1.

Outline the key features of

(i) Health and Safety inspection


(ii) Health and Safety Audit

ep
ro
d

uc
e

(i)
A workplace inspection involves the straight forward physical inspection of a
workplace, and/or the activities or equipment within it. It is carried out by supervisors and/or
safety representatives at regular intervals and checklists are often used. The inspection looks
for unsafe acts and conditions and results in a short report of its findings suggesting remedial
action that should be taken.

rR

(ii)
A safety audit is a systematic critical examination of an organisations health and
safety management system, involving a structured process including the use of a series of
questions and the examination of documentation, to collect independent information with the
aim of assessing the effectiveness and reliability of the system and suggesting corrective
action when this is thought to be necessary. It is carried out by trained auditors, who may be
internal or external to the organisation.

op
y

2. Explain how the findings of an audit may be used to improve health and safety
performance

N
ot

The findings of a safety audit may be used in a number of ways to improve health and safety
performance such as:- Identifying strengths and weaknesses in the management system,
identifying compliance and non-compliance and the reasons for the latter thus informing and
enabling remedial actions, enabling comparison and benchmarking with other similar
organisations, assisting with the allocation and prioritisation of resources, communicating its
findings to management and staff and so giving an indication of the organisations
commitment to health and safety and finally, by means of subsequent audits at regular
intervals, assisting in the continual improvement of the management system.

3.
Give the reasons why hazards to the health of workers may not be identified during a
workplace inspection

There are a number of reasons why hazards to the health of workers may not be identified
during a workplace inspection such as:- The nature of the hazard may not be well understood
as for example with those arising from contact with biological agents. A lack of measuring
equipment such as for noise, the fact that effects may be chronic rather than immediate, the
hazard not being visible as with certain gases or that arising from radiation, over familiarity
as, for example, from exposure to sunlight, the individual susceptibility of certain workers, a
particular task which was not in progress and the workers not available during the inspection,
the unwillingness of individuals to admit there are problems with their health, the fact that
health is given a low priority in the organisation, the person carrying out the inspection
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concentrating on the more immediate and often safety hazards, and ultimately the lack of
competency of the inspector.
4.
Outline factors that would determine the frequency with which health and safety
inspections should be undertaken in a workplace.

5.

rR

ep
ro
d

uc
e

Compliance with statutory requirements, the activities undertaken at the workplace and their
associated level of risk, the makeup of the workforce which could include vulnerable
members such as the young and/or disabled where high standards of health and safety would
have to be maintained, the results from previous inspections and audits and the companys
record of compliance with established standards, recommendations made following risk
assessments, accident history and the outcomes of accident investigations, enforcement action
taken or advice given by the enforcement authority, the introduction of new equipment,
processes or safe systems of work, manufacturers recommendations and requirements from
insurance companies, and following consultation with or as a result of complaints from
workers.
Identify the:

(i) active (proactive)


(ii) reactive measures

op
y

by which an organisation can monitor its health and safety performance


(i) Safety Inspections, Surveys, Audits, Sampling , Health surveillance and Benchmarking

N
ot

(ii) Accident Report, Near miss Reports, Ill health Reports, Risk assessment Review and
Damage Report
6. (a) Outline what is meant by the terms:

(i) active (proactive) monitoring


(ii) reactive monitoring within an organisation.

(b) Explain TWO active (proactive) monitoring methods that can be used when assessing an
organisations health and safety performance.
(i) Active (proactive) monitoring involves taking the initiative before things go wrong within
an organisation in respect of health and safety issues and ensuring appropriate health and
safety systems and procedures are in place.
(ii) Reactive monitoring is concerned with looking at events that have occurred in order to
learn from mistakes and establishing what systems and procedures can and should be put in
place to prevent a recurrence

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ep
ro
d

uc
e

(b) Active monitoring: Inspections regular scheduled activities identifying existing


conditions and comparing them with agreed performance objectives,
Surveys which focus on a particular activity such as manual handling
Audits involving a comprehensive examination of all aspects of an organisations health
and safety performance against stated objectives,
Sampling This targets specific areas of occupational health and safety such as unsafe work
practices,
Tours unscheduled workplace checks on issues such as housekeeping or the use of personal
protective equipment,
Health surveillance, using techniques such as audiometry and blood or urine analysis, for
identifying the early symptoms of illness.
Benchmarking where the performance of an organisation in certain areas of health and
safety is compared with that of other organisations with similar processes and risks.
7. (a) Outline the role of workplace health and safety inspections.
(b) (i) Give TWO strengths of using a checklist when carrying out an inspection.
(ii) Give TWO weaknesses of using a checklist when carrying out an inspection.

op
y

rR

(a) A workplace inspection is a general examination of health and safety performance at a


particular point in time. As well as demonstrating management commitment, its role is to
identify workplace hazards, to implement immediate corrective action where this is possible,
to ensure compliance with the law and with laid down standards, to recommend
improvements and further controls when these are seen to be necessary, to observe employee
behaviour, for example, in the use of personal protective equipment, to listen to and consult
with workers on health and safety issues, to review previous findings and recommendations
and to provide a summary report to individual managers on standards in their areas of control.

N
ot

(b) (i) Using a checklist to complete a health and safety inspection of a workplace enables
prior preparation and planning to be made so that the inspection is structured and systematic,
reduces the chance that important areas or issues might be missed, provides an immediate
record of findings, ensures a consistent approach by those carrying out the inspection, is
easily adapted or customised for different areas, and provides an easy method for comparison
and audit.

(ii) Over reliance on a checklist may lead to a blinkered approach by inspectors with the
possibility that significant risks might be missed, that the checklist may not be reviewed and
updated to account for changes to work processes or equipment, that there is a danger that
inspections become routine with no follow up questions being asked, that the system is too
objective and restrictive with no scope for peripheral issues to be considered, that untrained
persons might be tempted to conduct inspections and that the procedure is subject to human
error and/or abuse.

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8. (a) Explain the meaning of the term health and safety audit.

uc
e

(b) Identify the advantages of:


(i) an internal auditor,
(ii) an external auditor carrying out a health and safety audit.
(c) Outline why the audit findings should be presented to the senior management of an
organisation.

ep
ro
d

(a), A systematic critical examination of a health and safety management system, involving a
structured process for the collection of independent information with the aim of assessing the
effectiveness and reliability of the system, identifying its strength and weaknesses and
suggesting corrective action when this was thought to be necessary.

rR

(b) (i) Advantages of using an internal auditor: Familiarity with the workplace, its tasks and
processes and an awareness of what might be practicable for the industry, ability to see
improvements or a deterioration from the last audit, familiarity with the workforce and an
individuals qualities and attitude, the fact that the workforce might be more at ease with
someone who was part of the organisation, and an audit which was relatively less costly and
easier to arrange.

op
y

(ii) An external auditor: Likely to possess the necessary auditing skills and credibility, will
not be inhibited from criticising members of management or the workforce, is more likely to
be up to date with legal requirements and best practice in other companies and will view the
organisations performance through a fresh pair of eyes.

N
ot

(c) There are number of reasons why the audit findings should be submitted to the senior
management of the organisation such as they have the authority both to require appropriate
action to be taken and to authorise the resources that might be necessary, to enable them to
demonstrate leadership and commitment from the top, to enable them to give praise or reward
where this has been earned but also to take disciplinary action against workers in cases where
this is thought to be necessary, to enable them to consider and reset their goals and objectives
for the future and to comply with their personal responsibilities either under legislation or
under international standards and best practice.

9. Outline ways in which an organisation can monitor its health and safety performance.

Two different ways an organisation can monitor its performance, Active(proactive)


monitoring and Reactive monitoring.
Active(proactive) monitoring: Involves taking the initiative before things go wrong within
an organisation in respect of health and safety issues and ensuring appropriate health and
safety systems and procedures are in place, e.g. safety inspections, surveys, audits, sampling,
environmental monitoring and health surveillance.
Reactive monitoring: Is concerned with looking at events that have occurred in order to
learn from mistakes and establishing what systems and procedures can and should be put in
place to prevent a recurrence, e.g. accident and ill-health statistics and reports; incidents of
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reported near-misses and dangerous occurrences, property damage, actions taken by the
enforcement authorities, the number of civil claims, an analysis of absences and lost time,
complaints by workers.
10. Identify EIGHT measures that could be used by an organisation in order to monitor its
health and safety performance.

ep
ro
d

uc
e

Rates of incidents, injuries and work related ill health, actions taken by enforcement
authorities, the number of civil claims, the results of inspections and environmental
monitoring, safety audit outcomes, the degree of compliance with procedures (such as PPE
usage), number of staff trained in health and safety, and the results of medical and/or health
surveillance.
11. An employer intends to implement a programme of regular workplace inspections
following a workplace accident.

rR

(i) Outline the factors that should be considered when planning such inspections
(ii) Outline THREE additional proactive (active) methods that could be used in the
monitoring of health and safety performance
(iii) Identify the possible costs to the organisation as a result of the accident.

op
y

(i) The reasons for carrying out the inspection, the persons to undertake the inspection, the
inspection area and the route to be taken, the timing of the inspection, the method by which
results will be recorded (checklist, prompt list, open/closed questions, etc), reference
materials and equipment required, safety requirements for those carrying out the inspection,
the persons to receive reports of the inspection and the means by which remedial action
shown to be necessary will be actioned.

N
ot

(ii) Audits involving comprehensive and independently executed examinations of all aspects
of an organisations health and safety performance against stated objectives.
Safety surveys focusing on a particular activity such as manual handling, training
programmes and workers attitudes towards safety.

Tours :Involving unscheduled workplace inspections to check on issues such as wearing of


personal protective equipment and housekeeping.
Benchmarking where an organisations performance in certain areas is compared with that
of other organisations with similar processes and risks.
(iii) Lost production, staff absence, sick pay, temporary replacement with the need for
additional training, repair of damaged plant and equipment, damage to products, investigation
and remedial action, additional administration incurred, an increase in insurance premiums,
fines and compensation awarded, and court and other legal representation, loss of business
image and the detrimental effect on worker morale resulting in reduced productivity.

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12. Identify the main topic areas that should be included in a planned health and safety
inspection of a workplace.

uc
e

Substances or materials used, traffic routes and means of access/egress, work equipment,
work practices (e.g. manual handling), work environment, electricity, fire precautions, first
aid and welfare facilities, workstation ergonomics and housekeeping. And the list of action
points from previous inspections.
13. Outline the topics that should be included in a health and safety audit.

ep
ro
d

A copy of the company Health and Safety Policy, The Safety Handbook or Procedures
Manual, Details of written safe systems of work, Safety Committee minutes, Accident
statistics, Investigation reports, planned inspection reports, The First-Aid book, Records of
maintenance, a register of hazardous substances, Training records.
14. Outline the reasons why an organisation should view and monitor its health and safety
performance.

op
y

rR

To identify substandard health and safety practices and conditions (perhaps by means of
workplace inspections), to identify trends in relation to different types of incident, or
incidents in general (by analysis of relevant incident data), to compare actual performance
with previously set targets, to benchmark the organisation's performance against that of
similar organisations or an industry norm, to identify whether control measures are in use
and to assess their effectiveness, to be able to make decisions on appropriate remedial
measures for any deficiencies identified, to set priorities and establish realistic timescales, to
assess compliance with legal requirements, and to be able to provide a Board of Directors or
safety committee with relevant information. To reduce the human and financial costs of
accidents and the loss of public image of the organisation.

N
ot

15. A health and safety audit of an organisation has identified a general lack of compliance
with procedures.
(i) Describe the possible reasons for procedures not being followed
(ii) Outline the practical measures that could be taken to motivate employees to comply with
health and safety procedures.

(i) Unrealistic or ill-considered procedures, mental and/or physical capabilities not taken
into account, inadequate training, poor organisational safety culture, complacency/lack of
motivation; peer group pressure, other priorities and pressures, risks not perceived, slips
and lapses, fatigue and stress, and lack of consultation.
(ii) Improving employees' knowledge of the consequences of not working safely by, training
and the provision of information, showing the commitment of the organisation to safety by
providing resources and a safe working environment, involving employees in health and
safety decisions through consultation and team meetings; and recognising and rewarding
achievement. Manager should not only give information to employees, but also listen to and
take account of what they say before any health and safety decisions are made. The practical
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means by which this can be done are by employing both formal and non-formal methods,
such as, Team meetings, One-to-one informal meetings between management and staff
Employers can also involve workers in risk assessments of various types and workplace
inspections and tours.
16. Identify the documents that are likely to be examined during a health and safety audit.

ep
ro
d

uc
e

Company health and safety policy; risk assessments; safe systems of work, and permit to
work procedures; records of statutory inspections; accident and incident statistics and reports;
emergency procedures and the related documentation; health surveillance and ill-health
records; documents connected with safety monitoring procedures such as inspections or
tours; maintenance procedures and records; environmental monitoring records such as for
noise or dust; training records; consultation arrangements with staff such as committee
minutes; records of enforcement action by or written advice from the enforcement authority;
and insurance documentation.
17. Identify the information that should be included in a report of a workplace inspection.

rR

Title, Introduction, Persons conducting the inspection, Summary of findings, Good and bad
practices, Priority of corrective actions, Breaches of legislation, Cost implications, Evidence
e.g. Photographs, Conclusion, Recommendations

op
y

18.
Outline why an organisation should have a system for the internal reporting of
accidents.

19.

N
ot

There are a number of reasons why an organisation should have a system for the internal
reporting of accidents. These include the compilation of accident statistics and the
identification of trends, to satisfy legal requirements, so that an investigation may be carried
out to prevent a recurrence or to identify weaknesses in the safety management system, for
use in civil claims or to satisfy insurance requirements, to help in the identification and
reduction of loss, and to inform the review of risk assessments.
Identify the reasons why workers might not report accidents at work.

The employee being unaware of reporting procedures or the fact that no procedure was in
place, peer pressure and a reluctance to take time off from the job in hand, possible
retribution or blame by management, to preserve the companys or departments safety
record particularly when an incentive scheme is in operation, to avoid receiving first-aid or
medical treatment for whatever reason, over-complicated reporting procedures, and lack of
obvious management response to earlier reported accidents.

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20. A workplace accident has occurred and an investigation is to take place.

uc
e

(a) Give the meaning of the term immediate causes.


(b) Give TWO examples of immediate causes that could have contributed to a workplace
accident.
(c) Give the meaning of the term underlying (root) causes.
(d) Give TWO examples of root causes that could have contributed to a workplace accident.
(a) The immediate causes of an accident are physical symptoms which can be seen or sensed
such as unsafe acts by individuals or unsafe conditions in the workplace.

ep
ro
d

(b) Failure or breakdown of equipment or the use of incorrect tools, the involvement of
incompetent or unauthorised personnel, the failure to replace guards on machinery, a failure
to wear personal protective equipment and a poor standard of housekeeping.
(c) Failures in the management system or lack of management control.

rR

(d) Examples of root causes: Failure to complete risk assessments and introduce safe systems
of work, inadequate procedures for routine maintenance operations, a poor standard of
supervision, a failure to provide an acceptable level of training for operations where
competence was required, and a failure to recognize and manage the presence of stress in
operatives arising from production issues.

op
y

21. A serious accident has occurred. During the investigation it is found that an inspection of
the work site had taken place before the accident.

Outline possible reasons why the inspection did not lead to an unsafe situation being
corrected.

N
ot

It may have been that the unsafe activity was not taking place at the time of the inspection or
the hazard was not obvious and consequently the inspector would not have noticed it. The
unsafe condition might have been observed but was not mentioned in the report of the
inspection and even if it had been included, the report might not have been seen by a
responsible person or had not been followed up and the corrective action taken. There might
have been a situation where the responsibility for taking the corrective action was unclear for
instance if there had been a number of different employers on site. The failure to correct the
unsafe action may well have been caused by the inability of the inspector to carry out a
proper inspection because of his/her lack of knowledge and competence.
22. Outline the immediate AND longer-term actions that should be taken following an
accident at work that has caused serious injury to a worker.
Isolating the scene of the accident and making the area safe, administering first aid treatment
and contacting the emergency services, informing the next of kin and offering counseling and
support, notifying the regulatory authority if appropriate and also the insurers, collecting
initial evidence such as photographs and sketches and the names of witnesses, setting up the
accident investigation team, investigating the accident, determining its root and underlying
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causes and preparing a report of the investigation, making and implementing


recommendations to prevent a recurrence of the accident and ensuring feedback is provided
to the workforce, collecting evidence to be used in any possible litigation following the
accident and managing the provision of information to the media.

uc
e

23. (a) Explain how accident data can be used to improve health and safety performance
within an organisation.
(b) Explain TWO active (proactive) monitoring methods that can be used when assessing an
organisations health and safety performance.

ep
ro
d

(a) Accident data could be used to identify trends and problem areas and give the opportunity
for remedial action, to enable improvement in resource allocation, to make comparisons with
others, to inform and stimulate discussion at joint consultation meetings with the workforce,
to identify the costs of accidents and to set new targets.

op
y

rR

(b) Proactive methods: Audits involving comprehensive and independently executed


examinations of all aspects of an organisations health and safety performance against stated
objectives. Inspections carried out on a regular basis which identify existing conditions and
compare them with agreed performance objectives. Safety surveys focusing on a particular
activity such as manual handling, training programmes and workers attitudes towards safety,
Tours involving unscheduled workplace inspections to check on issues such as wearing of
personal protective equipment and housekeeping. Benchmarking where an organisations
performance in certain areas is compared with that of other organisations with similar
processes and risks. Health surveillance, using techniques such as audiometry and blood or
urine analysis, for identifying the early symptoms of illness.

24. Identify the information that should be included in an accident investigation report.

N
ot

Personal details of the injured person including his/her work history and training records, the
date, time and location of the accident and whether it was reportable or not, the nature and
type of injury sustained, a description of the activity that was being carried out at the time of
the accident, the immediate and root causes of the accident, an assessment of any breaches of
the legislation that have been committed, the names of witnesses to the accident and their
statements, any relevant drawings and photographs, recommendations for the remedial action
that should be taken to prevent a recurrence and an estimation of the cost implications of the
accident for the organisation.
25. State the issues that should be included in a typical workplace accident reporting
procedure.
Name and address of the injured person, Date and time of the accident, Location of the
accident, Causes of the accident, Nature of the accident

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26. An organisation has decided to conduct an internal investigation of an accident in which


an employee was injured following the collapse of storage racking.

uc
e

(i) Outline FOUR benefits to the organisation of investigating the accident


(ii) Giving reasons in EACH case, identify FOUR people who may be considered useful
members of the investigation team
(iii) Having defined the team, outline the factors that should be considered when planning the
investigation.

ep
ro
d

(i) The prevention of similar events occurring again. The prevention of business losses due
to disruption immediately after the event, loss of production, loss of business through a
lowering of reputation or inability to deliver, and the costs of criminal and legal actions.
Improvement in employee morale and general attitudes to health and safety particularly if
they have been involved in the investigations. Improving management skills to improve
health and safety performance throughout the organisation.

rR

(ii) Line Manager - Has knowledge of process involved


Supervisor Has knowledge of process involved
Safety Representative Has the legal right
Safety practitioner Knowledge to advice on health and safety implication
Engineer Knowledge to advice on technical matters
Senior Manager from different department - to ensure unbiased investigation

op
y

(iii)
The depth of the investigation,
If possible accident scene is left undisturbed,
Identifying the witness, what equipment needed, different way to gather information, analyse
the information, identify the risk control measures, take action.

27. Explain the purpose and benefits of collecting near miss incident data.

N
ot

Identifies the underlying causes which may allow preventive action to be taken before
something more serious occurs. Give messages to work force that all failures are taken
seriously not just those leading to injury. Near misses greatly out number the accidents and
can therefore produce more data from which a greater understanding of the deficiencies on
management systems can be identified and rectified.

28. Explain the differences between the immediate and the root (underlying) causes of an
accident.
Immediate causes of an accident is the unplanned, unforeseen event that has caused the
accident.
Root cause could be considered as the failure of systems and procedures under management
control, such as no or poor risk assessment procedure, lack of supervision, no defect reporting
procedure.
29. Outline the key points that should be covered in a training session for employees on the
reporting of accidents/incidents.
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The importance of reporting accidents and incidents (for legal, investigative and monitoring
reasons), the types of incident that the organisation requires to be reported, the lines of
reporting, how to complete internal documents and forms, and responsibilities for completing
the accident book and for complying with statutory reporting duties.

uc
e

30. Identify the categories of persons who may be considered as a useful member of an
internal accident investigation team

ep
ro
d

Line Manager - Has knowledge of process involved


Supervisor Has knowledge of process involved
Safety Representative Has the legal right
Safety practitioner Knowledge to advice on health and safety implication
Engineer Knowledge to advice on technical matters
Senior Manager from different department - to ensure unbiased
investigation

rR

31.
Identify FOUR reasons why accidents should be reported and recorded within a
workplace.

op
y

There are a number of reasons why an organisation should have a system for the internal
reporting and recording of accidents. These include the implementation of initial action such
as the provision of first aid and the preservation of the accident scene, to enable an
investigation to be carried out to prevent a recurrence and to identify weaknesses in the safety
management system, to aid the compilation of accident statistics and the identification of
trends providing some measure of health and safety performance, to meet the national
reporting requirements and/or company rules, for use in civil claims or to satisfy insurance
requirements, to help in the identification and reduction of loss, and to inform the review of
risk assessments.

N
ot

32. Outline factors that might discourage workers from reporting workplace accidents.

Ignorance or lack of understanding of the reporting procedures if such procedures did in fact
exist, a culture of non-reporting often enforced through peer pressure, a reluctance to lose
time from the job in hand, the possibility of retribution by management, to preserve the
companys or departments safety record particularly when an incentive scheme is in
operation, to avoid receiving first aid or medical treatment for whatever reason,
overcomplicated reporting procedures, lack of management response to earlier reported
accidents.
33. A machine has leaked hot liquid into a work area. No-one has been injured.
Outline reasons why it is important for an organisation to investigate near miss incidents.
Investigation of near-miss incidents and the identification of their underlying causes might
allow preventive action to be taken before something more serious occurs. It also gives the
right message that all failures are taken seriously by the employer and not just those that lead
to injury. Additionally, it is generally accepted that near-misses far outnumber incidents
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resulting in injury and can therefore produce more data from which a greater understanding
of the deficiencies in existing management systems such as risk assessments and safe
systems of work can be identified and rectified.
34. A driver of a fork-lift truck has been seriously injured after the vehicle overturned.

uc
e

(a) Outline the possible immediate causes of the accident in terms of both the behaviour of
the driver and the conditions of the workplace and work equipment.

ep
ro
d

(b) Describe the underlying/root factors that may have led to the unsafe acts or conditions
identified in (a).
Immediate causes

rR

Cornering too fast, Hitting obstructions, Driving on uneven ground or across slopes, Turning
on slopes, moving with the load elevated, Driving with an unstable or excessive load,
Colliding with another vehicle, Drowsiness caused by alcohol or drug use, Potholes,
Ineffective brakes, Tyres that were underinflated or in poor condition and Mechanical failures
of the vehicle.

Underlying/ Root causes

op
y

Poor perception of the risk, Unfamiliarity with the workplace, High workload of the driver
causing him/her to rush, Poor selection of vehicle, Inadequate driver training, Poor employee
selection procedure and, Inadequate maintenance procedures, A poor or complete lack of risk
assessment, A failure to develop a safe system of work, Failure to introduce a system for
reporting defects, A general lack of commitment to health and safety on the part of
management, A lack of supervision and A lack of daily FLT inspection.

N
ot

35. Outline the actions that should be taken immediately after the accident has occurred.
Isolating the scene of the accident and making the area safe; administering first aid treatment
and contacting the emergency services; informing management, the regulatory authority and
also the insurers; informing the next of kin and offering counseling and support;, and
collecting initial evidence such as photographs and sketches and the names of witnesses.

36. Outline the process for investigating the accident


The first step in investigating an accident is to establish the investigating team. That done, it
will be necessary to interview all witnesses to the accident, to collate all relevant existing
documentation such as safe systems of work and maintenance and training records and to
analyse the information gathered to establish the accidents immediate and root causes. A
decision should then be taken on the remedial action that must be taken to prevent a
recurrence and an action plan prepared allocating responsibilities and a time scale for the
introduction of the recommended measures and communicating this to the individuals
concerned.

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37. Outline the principles of good interviewing technique to be used when interviewing
witnesses.

N
ot

op
y

rR

ep
ro
d

uc
e

One of the more important factors in interviewing witnesses after an accident is to carry out
the interviews as soon as possible after the incident has occurred. Witnesses should be
interviewed one at a time in a location which will ensure privacy with no interruption. It is
essential that the witness is put at ease and he/she should be allowed to be accompanied if
required. The interviewer should use open rather than leading questions designed to obtain
facts rather than feelings or opinions with it being made clear that the purpose of the
interview is not to assign blame for the incident. The question of using appropriate language,
free from jargon, is also important and consideration should be given to the state of mind of
the interviewee who might still be traumatised by what he/she has witnessed. At the end of
the interview, a summary of the evidence given by the witness will need to be drawn up and
agreed to enable it to be attached to the final report on the incident.

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