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Physical Science Semester 1 Exam Review.

Complete the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. Study the answers!!
This is a sampling of questions/concepts that you might see on the examit is not
an exact copy of the questions from the exam!!
1. What are the steps of the scientific method? Lots of possible answersquestion,
hypothesis, make a procedure, do the experiment and collect data, draw
conclusions
2. What is a hypothesis? Educated guess, prediction
3. Which step of the scientific method uses the senses to obtain information?
observation
4. What happens when the data in an investigation do not support the original
hypothesis? Revise hypothesis/procedure, repeat experiment
5. What is a dependent variable? Data that is collected, results
6. What is an independent variable? Factor that is changed on purpose
7. What system of units do scientists use for measurements? Metric, SI
8. List the SI units for mass, length and temperature. Grams, meters, degrees
Celsius
9. Define density in words and write it in equation form. Density is how crowded
the particles of a substance are, D = mass / volume
10.
What is the derived unit for density? g/mL or g/cm3
11.
On the Celsius scale, at what temperature does water boil? 100 C
12.
What is simplest way to organize data? graph
13.
Why is a line graph useful? Shows changes over time
14.
In a line graph, which variable is plotted on the horizontal axis?
Independent
15.
In a line graph, which variable is plotted on the vertical axis? Dependent
16.
What do bar graphs compare? totals
17.
What type of a graph shows how a part relates to the whole? Pie graph,
circle graph
18.
What is a pure substance? Made up of one type of particles only, that one
particles may be an element (like oxygen gas or gold jewelry) or a compound
(salt, sugar, carbon dioxide)
19.
Why does every sample of a given PURE substance have the same
properties? Because it is pure, it will be the same throughout the whole sample;
a sample from the top will be the same as a sample from the bottom of a bottle
of pure water
20.
What are the building blocks of all matter? atoms
21.
What is an element? A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler
substances
22.
What is an atom? Smallest part of an element that still has the properties
of that element
23.
What is a compound? Made up of two or more atoms that are chemically
bonded
24.
Is a compound an example of a pure substance? Yescompounds and
elements are pure

25.
Why can the properties of a mixture vary? A mixture of salt and water can
have different properties because the concentrations may be different in
different samples (Salt Lake vs Pacific Ocean, and the salt water mixture may
not be uniform throughout the whole sample
26.
What is a heterogeneous mixture? Made up of different substances and
you can see the different substances (orange juice, vegetable soup, salad, etc.)
27.
What is homogeneous mixture? Made up of different substances and you
cannot see the different substances, looks the same throughout (iced tea, air,
etc.)
28.
What is a physical property? Characteristics that can be observed without
changing the substance
29.
List four examples of physical properties. Density, melting point, boiling
point, conductor/insulator, malleable, ductile, color, mass, volume, magnetism
30.
What is malleability? Ability to be hammered into sheets (like aluminum
foil)
31.
What is viscosity? Resistance to flow
32.
When you describe a liquid as thick, are you saying that it has a high or a
low viscosity? High (like syrup or honey)
33.
Describe three uses of physical properties. Calculate density, determine
uses (a conductor will be used for electrical wiring, plastic foam cups for coffee
because its a good insulator), identify substances
34.
What defines a physical change? Will not result in a new substance
35.
What is a chemical property? Describes how a substance can react
36.
What is reactivity? How a substance can react (flammable, react with
acid, etc.)
37.
What is a chemical change? Particles are rearranged into a new type of
substance, chemical bonds are broken or formed
38.
List three common types of evidence for a chemical change. Gas
produced, color change, formation of a precipitate (solid), temperature change,
chemical/physical properties change
39.
How do chemical changes differ from physical changes? Chemical ends
up with a new substance physical no new substance
40.
What are the three states of matter that exist on Earth? Solid, liquid, gas
41.
Describe the three states of matter in terms of their shape and volume.
Solid constant shape and volume
liquid shape can change, volume cannot
change
gas shape and volume can change
42.
What state does 99% of all matter exist at in the universe? plasma
43.
What does the kinetic theory say about the motion of atoms? All particles
are in random motion because they all have some energy, particles will keep
moving until they run into something
44.
Name six common phase changes and define each. Melting, freezing,
boiling, condensation, evaporation, sublimation
45.
What happens to the temperature of a substance during a phase change?
Temperature does NOT change during a phase change
46.
How does the energy of a system change during a phase change? Energy
is either being added or removed to cause the substance to change phase
47.
Whats the difference between endothermic and exothermic? Endo is
absorbing energy and feels colder, exo is releasing energy and feels hot

48.
Name three subatomic particles. Proton, neutron, electron
49.
What are the charges associated with each subatomic particle? P
positive N neutral E - negative
50.
Name three properties used to distinguish the subatomic particles from
each other. Mass, charge, location
51.
Which characteristic of an atom always varies among atoms of different
elements? Number of protons (atomic number)
52.
What does an elements atomic number tell you? Number of protons
53.
What does an elements atomic mass tell you? Protons plus neutrons
54.
What are isotopes? A different form of the atom that still has the same
number of protons but has a different number of neutrons
55.
How are the isotopes of an element different from one another? Different
number of neutrons
56.
What are energy levels? Where the electrons are found, around the
outside of the nucleus
57.
What model do scientists use today to describe how electrons move
around the nucleus? Electron cloud, they are moving so quickly that you cannot
tell exactly where it is at any given time
58.
Describe how Mendeleev organized the elements into rows and columns in
his periodic table. Looked for patterns in the properties of different elements,
started a new row when the properties began to repeat
59.
How did the discovery of new elements such as gallium demonstrate the
usefulness of Mendeleevs table? Scientists know where the new element would
go based on its properties
60.
What determines the order of the elements in the modern periodic table?
Atomic number (number of protons)
61.
Describe the periodic law. Properties repeat for each row (period)
62.
What two factors determine the atomic mass of an element? Number of
protons and neutrons
63.
Name three categories that are used to classify the elements in the
periodic table. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
64.
What variation occurs as you move from left to right across a period?
Elements become less metallic, number of valence electrons increase
65.
What is a valence electron? Electron in the outer energy level
66.
Why do elements in a group have similar properties? Same number of
valence electrons
67.
What determines the tendency of an element to react? Number of valence
electrons
68.
How many valence electrons does an alkali metal (group 1) have? 1
69.
Except for water, most of the compounds in your body contain which
element? carbon
70.
Which group of elements is the least reactive and why? Noble gases
because they already are stable and have 8 valence electrons
71.
Describe one way an element can achieve a stable electron configuration.
Transferring or sharing electrons
72.
Which group of elements has stable electron configurations? Noble gases
(group 18)
73.
What does an electron dot diagram represent? Valence electrons

74.
What is an ion? Charged particle because it has gained or lost electrons
75.
What is an anion? Negative ion
76.
What is a cation? Positive ion
77.
What does a chemical formula represent? Tells how many and what type
of atoms are in a compound
78.
What is a crystal? Formed as a result of an ionic bond, strong because
attraction is strong, high melting point
79.
What is a molecule? Formed as a result of a covalent bond, weak because
the attraction is weak, low melting point
80.
What is a covalent bond? Formed between nonmetals when they share
electrons
81.
What class of elements tends to be involved in covalent bonding?
nonmetals
82.
What is a polar covalent bond? When the atoms do not share the
electrons equally so one has the electrons more of the time, one end of the
molecule has a partial positive charge and one end of the molecule has a partial
negative charge, water is an example
83.
What happens to the charge on atoms when they form a polar covalent
bond? One end of the molecule has a partial positive charge and one end of the
molecule has a partial negative charge
84.
When naming compounds, are prefixes necessary for ionic or for covalent
compounds? Need prefixes for covalent compounds
85.
What is the formula for magnesium fluoride? MgF2
86.
What is the formula for dinitrogen pentoxide? N2O5
87.
When balancing a chemical equation, what numbers are you allowed to
change? Only the coefficients, not the subscripts
88.
Name 3 factors that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction.
Temperature, surface area, concentration, catalyst
89. How are synthesis and decomposition reactions different? Synthesis putting
the reactants together to make one product
decomposition breaking down
the one reactant to make more than one product