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AUTHORS POINT OF VIEW


To determine an authors point of view, readers look carefully
at the words, phrases, and other details authors use to
describe people, ideas, and events.
Then they decide whether the words or phrases convey an
attitude of support or disapproval of the topic.
Biased point of view- a view that excludes important
information or presents only one side of a subject.

PARAGRAPH CLUES
Reading for paragraph clues involves looking at all the
sentences in a paragraph to get a general sense of what an
unfamiliar word might mean. The overall meaning of a
paragraph can help point students to the meaning of a word
or phrase.
-

Ambitious

Rare

botanical

imitate

tale

Streamlined

IDIOMS
To identify an idiom, students look for groups of words or
expressions that are unfamiliar, unusual, or seem not to make
sense.
To discover the meaning of an idiom, students look for context
clues in words or sentences near the unfamiliar phrase.

Directions: choose the correct meaning for each idiom.


Breaks the silence
-Says something
Breaks the silence into pieces
-Becomes silent
The apple doesnt fall far from the tree
-When an apple falls, it lands near the tree
- Children grow up to be like their parents

THEME
A statement or insight about life that the author wants
readers to understand. Themes are generally
expressed as complete statements, for example: True
friends are hard to find; honesty is the best policy.
To determine the theme of a play, students should focus
on characters actions and speech and then think
about what these might reveal .
Students should also consider how characters and plot
events affect each other about why characters do
and say the things they do.
Ask: What message or insight do these words and
actions suggest?

HOMOPHONES
words that sound alike when spoken but that have
different meaning and often different spellings.
Examples:
- buy, by
- Scene, seen
-scents, cents
-eye, I
-tale, tail

HOMOGRAPH
two words that are spelled alike but have different meanings,
different origins, and possibly different pronunciations.
Seal 1. An animal that lives in the ocean 2. To close tightly with a
fastener
Tie 1. Article of clothing worn around the neck 2. To knot string
Record- 1. To document an event or actions 2. to set down in writing

POINT OF VIEW
the narrators relationship to the story determines the storys
point of view
Ask: Is the speaker a character in the poem? Does he or she
participate in the events? Do readers know what he or she thinks and
feels? If so, the poem has a first person point of view.
Look for pronouns such as I, me, my, and mine

ALLITERATION
when poets repeat a particular consonant sound at the
beginning of words near one another.

ASSONANCE
when poets repeat a certain vowel sound within a group of
words.

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
when authors and poets use words and phrases that have
meanings apart from the literal meanings of the words
Idiomatic expression a type of figurative language in which a phrase
cannot be understood just from the meanings of the individual words
in it.
Ask: Is it funny? Is it positive, or negative? What does it suggest about
a character or situation? The answers will help students understand
the meaning of the idiomatic expression and the poets purpose in
using it

LANGUAGE PRONOUNS
A pronoun takes the place of one or more nouns in a
sentence.
Pronouns can be singular or plural.
An antecedent is what a pronoun refers to.

Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number


and in gender

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Personal pronouns include I, you, he, she, it, we, they,
me, him, her, us, and them.

SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS


Subject pronouns are subjects of sentences.

Object pronouns are objects of verbs or prepositions.


Subject pronouns and verbs must agree.

Add s to regular present-tense verbs when using singular


pronouns.

Do not add s when you use the pronouns I, we, you, and
they.

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS


Reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself, herself,
itself) match the subject.

Reciprocal pronouns (one another; each other) give and


receive action.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
Possessive case is used to show ownership.

Possessive pronouns used before nouns include my, your, his,


her, its, our, and their.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Indefinite pronouns have nonspecific antecedents and can be
singular, plural, or both.

Indefinite pronouns as subjects must agree with their verbs.

ADDITIONAL PRONOUN TYPES


A relative pronoun links a clause to another noun or pronoun.

An interrogative pronouns asks a question when a noun in the


sentence is not known.

Demonstrative pronouns tell whether a noun is here or there.

Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific person, place, or


thing.