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Mona Tongs APWH Review Questions for UNIT 4: The Early Modern Age:

Chapters 18, 21, 22 TEST REVIEW MC:

1- During the eighteenth century, which of the following reigned, but did not

The Ottoman sultan
The king of France
The Chinese emperor
The Japanese emperor
The Russian Tzar

2- Which of the following contributed most to the emergence of Russia as an

expanding Eurasian power in the period between 1450 and 1750?
a) Its absorption of traditions and technology from the Byzantine Empire and
western Europe
b) Its success in creating alliances with European powers to expel Turkish
invaders from the south.
c) The eradication of Islam from Central Asia
d) The fall of the kingdoms of Poland and Prussia
e) The use of its strong navy to acquire colonial holdings worldwide
3- Which of the following resulted from the arrival of western Europeans in India
and China during the time period 1450 to 1750?
a) The spread of infectious diseases in India and China and a drastic drop in

their populations
The establishment of small European enclaves in India and China
A massive drain on silver and gold from India and China
A great expansion in slave labor in India and China
A major disruption of the economies of India and China

4- Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between

European and Asian commercial interests in the 1500s?
a) Europeans took over the Asian trading network by force.
b) The trading network in Asia was divided into three zones Arab, Indian, and
c) Europeans imposed a monopoly system on the spice trade.
d) Europeans abandoned any idea of colonizing or trading directly with Asians in
favor of using Asian intermediaries.
e) Europeans found, after trial and error, that the only way to benefit from the
Asian trading network was to join it as a peaceful partner.

5- Which statement most accurately describes Peter the Greats approach to

reforming Russia?
a) He reorganized the bureaucracy but did not touch the military.
b) He chose to adopt technological modernizations but did not reform the
governmental structure.
c) He adopted some aspects of western European political organization, such as
political parties.
d) His many reforms improved the life of the serfs, although he did not end the
e) He used his modernization efforts to tighten his control over the country.
6- Which of the following was a problem common to the Abbasids, Ottomans,

and Mughals?
European seizure of the African and Southeast Asian trading networks.
Western technology
Lack of a shared land border with Europe.
A rigid succession policy that invited conflict.
The competing power structure of regional warrior aristocrats.


Compared to European exploration in the Indian Ocean, that of the Chinese:

used fewer and smaller ships.
covered shorter distances.
was designed to establish a military presence.
gained strength after the mid-1430s.
was an effort to spread Confucianism.


Which of the following was true of the cultures of Ming China?

The concept of filial piety was abandoned.
The custom of foot-binding became less frequent.
The Chinese were introduced to American food crops.
Both boys and girls were allowed to take the civil service exams.
China developed an egalitarian society.


Between 1500 and 1800, the Islamic empires:

abandoned the tradition of steppe diplomacy.
failed to adapt to the urban areas of the lands they conquered.
steadily strengthened in power.
did not use gunpowder weapons.
were ethnically diverse.

10-Which of the following was the primary goal of Zheng He's expeditions?
A) to eliminate foreign trade with China
B) to establish Chinese trading cities on the Indian Ocean

C) to impress foreign people with the power and might of the Ming dynasty.
D) to establish diplomatic relations with the Muslim states trading on the Indian
E) to offer military protection and support to Chinese merchants in the Indian
11-Chinese naval expeditions were abruptly ended in 1433 because
A) Zheng He was suspected of building his personal power
B) maintaining the fleet was considered a needless waste of national resources
C) the voyages had led to several humiliating defeats
D) the large Chinese vessels proved to be unseaworthy
E) all of the above
12-The Mughal Empire is distinguished from the Ottomans and Safavids mostly

because it was
A democracy
A Hindu land ruled by Muslims
Not very war-like
Heavily influenced by the Chinese
Still controlled by the Mongols

13-Why did the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires decline simultaneously?
A) Inability to adjust to the changes in military technology and the world

Natural disasters
The bubonic plague
Declining birth rates combined with fertility problems
A religious prohibition against banking

14-After the period of civil wars ended in Japan,

A) Japanese leaders fragmented into many feuding castes
B) Korea invaded
C) China invaded
D) Japanese leaders established the Tokugawa Shogunate, a centralized military
E) Japanese leaders resigned, thus allowing a true democracy to form
15-What European organization was a transmitter of science and technology to

A) Society of Jesus, or Jesuits

B) Teutonic Knights
C) The Royal Scientific Society
D) Order of the Cross
E) Knights Templar
16-How did the growth of a centralized Russian Empire affect the peasants?
A) Peasants became serfs, people who were tied to the land.
B) Peasants were deported and sent to gulags.
C) Peasants could move freely at any time to improve their lot in life.
D) Peasants standard of living improved to a middle class level.
E) It gave the peasants the vote.
17-The Janissaries were
A) Slave women who lived in the sultans harem
B) Christian boys taken from conquered territories and raised as special forces
C) Regional administrators, who were granted autonomy in exchange for loyalty
D) Armored, light cavalry
E) Eunuchs in service to the sultan
18-Peter the Greats program of westernization included
A) The first secular system of education in Russian history
B) Building a powerful, modern army
C) State sponsorship of new industries
D) Inviting skilled foreign workers to Russia
E) All of the above
19-The isolationism of the Tokugawa government included
A) Forbidding Japanese from going abroad
B) Forbidding Chinese and Dutch merchants from trading at Nagasaki
C) Forbidding scholars of neo-Confucianism from teaching in Japan
D) Banning all foreign religions such as Confucianism and Buddhism
E) All of the above

20-A comparison of maritime voyages of the Europeans in the late 15 th and 16th
centuries with the voyages Chinas Zheng He illustrates:
A. the larger and more technologically superior fleets that the Europeans could
muster in the 15th century
B. Europeans had a greater capacity for overseas expansion than the Chinese
did at the same time
C. there was more incentive and long-term support among Europeans for
exploration and overseas trade.
D. importance of the support of the scholar-gentry for maritime voyages in
E. impact of nomads on China in terms of creating a need to find alternative
trade routes.
21-Which of the following products had a significant impact on the Chinese

economy during the Ming era?

Sweet potatoes
Textile looms

22-Westernization of Russia came about largely through the

A- efforts of Peter the Great and his successors.
B- invasion of Russia by Sweden.
C- desire of the United States to seek new markets.
D- invasion of Russia by the Mongols.
E- acceptance of the policies of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
23-An observation that could be made about the Ottoman Empire in the 1400s

and 1500s is that the empire

had control over the Indian sub-continent.
originated in Hungary.
had a strategic location between Europe and Asia.
was totally landlocked.
had control over most of Western Europe

24-Which of the following represents a similarity between the Ottomans and the

Both recruited regiments from slave boys.
Each empire extended their territories into eastern Europe.
Both empires lacked substantial non-Muslim minorities.
Both empires had their geographical origins in Anatolia.
Leaders of both empires wrote in Persian.

25-Which of the following represents an impact of the Mongol control of Russia?

A- urbanization
B- increasing significance of Roman Catholicism
C- mass conversion from Eastern Orthodoxy to Islam
D- rise of Moscows power
E- closer links with the West
26-How was Japan reunified by 1615?
A- The emperor reasserted his power.
B- It was forced to unify against outside invaders from Europe.
C- Its politicians settled their disputes for largely economic reasons.
D- Three politician-warlords used both force and diplomacy to reunite the
E- none of the above