Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 66

Accommodations & Modifications

Presented by Beverly Bryant LaToya Lawrence Krista McAtee Department of Special Education

What is the purpose of this workshop?

To assist both general and special educators in developing, implementing and sustaining appropriate accommodations and modifications to meet the needs of students with disabilities

Objectives

Participants will be able to:

Compare and contrast laws

Explain the difference between accommodations and modifications

Apply appropriate accommodations and modifications to specific student needs

What is People First Language?

“People First Language puts the person before the disability, and describes what a person has, not who a person is.”

Kathie Snow

Example

Old

Old Language

Language

People First

People

First

Language

Language

 

A child with

Downs Child

Down Syndrome

Autistic boy

Boy who has autism

 

CP kid

Child with cerebral

 

palsy Student who

MIP student

receives behavioral services

Normal Kid

Typical kid

 

Regular

General

Education

Education

Why should we use PFL?

People with disabilities are

PEOPLE FIRST

PEOPLE

FIRST

.

Disability is a natural part of the human

experience.

1 in 5 people have a disability.

What Does the Law Say?

Federal and state laws and regulations require schools to provide accommodations and modifications to make sure that students with disabilities have access to an

appropriate education program.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act

(IDEIA 2004) requires that students with disabilities have the

opportunity to be involved and make progress in the general curriculum.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires that

accommodations be provided to students with disabilities, even if

they don’t have an IEP.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits discrimination

a

ainst an

eo le with disabilities

Federal Least Restrictive Environment

(LRE) Requirements

34 C.F.R. Section 300.114

Each public agency shall ensure –

(i) That to the maximum extent

appropriate, children with disabilities, …

are educated with children who are

nondisabled;

and

Federal LRE Requirements

(ii) That special classes, separate schooling or

other removal of children with disabilities

from the general educational environment

occurs only if the nature or severity of the

disability is such that education in general

classes with the use of supplementary aids

and services cannot be achieved

satisfactorily.

Federal LRE Requirements

34 C.F.R. 300.116

  • (e) A child with a disability is not

removed from education in age-appropriate

general classrooms solely because of

needed modifications in the general

curriculum.

(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1412 (a)(5))

Continuum of LRE Options

“...a

continuum of alternative placements is

available to meet the needs of children with

disabilities

...

including instruction in general

classes, special classes, special schools,

home instruction, and instruction in

hospitals.” (Federal Register, 1977).

Continuum of

Continuum

of Alternative

Alternative Placements

Placements

…includes instruction in:

Continuum of Continuum of Alternative Alternative Placements Placements …includes instruction in: regular special special child ’

regular

special

special

childs

hospitals or

classes

classes

schools

home

institutions

Continuum of Continuum of Alternative Alternative Placements Placements …includes instruction in: regular special special child ’
Continuum of Continuum of Alternative Alternative Placements Placements …includes instruction in: regular special special child ’
Continuum of Continuum of Alternative Alternative Placements Placements …includes instruction in: regular special special child ’

<< Less

Restrictive

More >>

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

calls for participation of students with

disabilities in high quality, yearly, academic

assessment

increases accountability for academic

standards, academic achievement, and the

inclusion of all students

requires that all students be assessed at

his/her assigned grade level

Provisions of both NCLB and IDEIA 2004 include:

the use of scientifically based instructional methods, curricular materials, and intervention strategies

early identification of learning problems

ongoing monitoring to determine the impact of the instruction and curriculum

the design and implementation of individualized interventions for students who do not respond to the general curriculum and instruction

the inclusion of ALL students in one accountability system

documentation of student outcomes through Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) measures

http://www.msdaz.org/espweb/NCLBIDEIA.htm

No Child Left Behind!

What is an Individualized Education Program (IEP)?

A legally binding document that states what

services a student will receive and why

Includes the student’s placement, services,

academic and behavioral goals, a behavior

plan (if needed), and progress reports from

teachers and therapists

Planned at an IEP meeting

The IEP team looks at the student’s needs

and decides what kind of accommodations

and modifications are needed

IEPs

. .

.

“Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) are not only legally required but also considered essential to the educational successes of students who are eligible for special education services. IEP development involves teams conducting, summarizing, and integrating results from a variety of assessment instruments.”

“All IEP goals must be “measurable” and, as such, must be behaviorally clear and specific. In addition, goals must be aligned to the TN Curriculum Standards while meaningful to students.”

(Partnerships for EdExcellence)

by

now it is required been best practice,

now it is required

been best practice,

practice has always

between research and

the law!!!

Closing the gap

Accommodations and Modifications

What are accommodations and

modifications?

Are they the same thing?

When do you use them?

Who determines when and what to

use?

Accommodations

Accommodations

Accommodations the actual teaching supports and services that the student may require to successfully demonstrate learning

the actual teaching supports and services

that the student may require to successfully

demonstrate learning

Accommodations should

Accommodations

should not

not change

change

expectations toto the

expectations

the curriculum

curriculum grade

grade levels.

levels.

Accommodations

Changes in how

how a student accesses

accesses

information and demonstrates learning

Do not substantially change the instructional

instructional

level

level, content

content, or standard

standard

Changes made in order to provide a student

with equal

equal access

access to learning and equal

equal

opportunity to show what he or she knows

opportunity

and can do

Accommodations

Under NCLB, accommodations

are defined as changes in

testing materials or procedures

that ensure that an assessment

measures the student's

student's

knowledge rather than the

knowledge

student's student's disability disability.

The standard is not negotiable, but the road to it is.

The standard is not negotiable, but the road to it is.

What does research say?

Accommodation policies vary considerably from state to state. Interestingly, 12 states even extend eligibility for accommodations to all students (Clapper, Morse, Lazarus, Thompson, & Thurlow, 2005).

Approximately two-thirds of special education students have been afforded accommodations in statewide assessments, the most common being extended time, alternative setting, and/or read-aloud accommodations (Bolt & Thurlow, 2004).

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)

What does research say?

Accommodations affect test scores for

students with disabilities, lowering scores in

some cases, raising scores in most others

(Chiu & Pearson, 1999; Elliott et al., 1999; Elliott, Kratochwill, & McKevitt, 2001; Kettler et al., 2005; McKevitt, 2000; Koenig & Bachman, 2004; Schulte, Elliott, & Kratochwill, 2001; Tindal, Heath, Hollenbeck, Almond, & Harniss, 1998).

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)

What does research say?

The use of read-aloud accommodations on assessments of mathematics for students with low reading skills and the use of Braille for blind students were found to be the most effective accommodations in a meta-analytic synthesis by Tindal & Fuchs (1999).

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)

What does research say?

Lowered scores appear to result when accommodations are poorly matched to student need or when the student has not had sufficient opportunity to practice using an accommodation in day-to-day settings prior to the testing situation.

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)

Accommodations are for…

Students with a disability who have an IEP or

504 plan

Students without a disability who have

barriers to learning

Students who receive ELL services

Students who are at risk of failure

Modifications

Modifications

changes made to curriculum expectations in

order to meet the needs of the student

Modifications

Modifications are

are changes

changes inin what

what

the student

the

student isis expected

expected toto learn

learn

and demonstrate

and

demonstrate inin the

the content

content area.

area.

Modifications

Made when the expectations

expectations are beyond the

student’s level

level of ability

ability

Alter the standard

standard or what the test or

assignment is supposed to measure

May be minimal or very complex depending

on the student’s performance

performance

Must be clearly acknowledged in the IEP

IEP

Differences between the two…

Differences between the two…

Accommodations

Modifications

(can apply to all students)

(apply to students with disabilities)

DoDo not not fundamentally change

DoDo fundamentally change

standards in terms of instructional

standards in terms of instructional

level, content, or performance

level, content, or performance

criteria

criteria

Changes are made in order to

Changes are made to

provide equal access to

learning and equal opportunity

provide student meaningful &

productive learning

experiences based on

to demonstrate what is known

individual needs & abilities

Grading is same same..

Grading is different different..

More differences….

Accommodations focus on removing barriers and providing access to the general curriculum.

Accommodations are designed for students who have barriers that can be removed to help them demonstrate what they know.

Modifications focus on insuring meaningful participation in the general curriculum.

Modifications are designed for students who would benefit from participation in the general curriculum even though it is above their ability level.

The game of school

The game of school

Here are the correct answers

Accommodations

A multiple choice test on identical facts is provided while other students "fill in the blank”

Student receives 10 math problems instead of 20

Homework limited to a certain number of minutes/hours instead amount of work to be completed.

Limit information presented on page, large print, and more space between lines.

Highlight important text.

Students respond verbally instead of

writing

Modifications

Learning letters and letter sounds while classmates read chapter books.

Using blocks to build structures while other children do science experiments.

Testing on continents while classmates are tested on countries of Europe.

Completing assembly tasks while classmates complete independent work.

Matching numerals to quantities while classmates put items in sets.

Extending a 2 part pattern while classmates identify the unit of a 3 part pattern.

Accommodations

(Leveling the playing field)

Accommodations (Leveling the playing field) Modifications (Everyone plays)

Modifications

(Everyone plays)

Accommodations (Leveling the playing field) Modifications (Everyone plays)

Accommodations (Leveling the playing field)

Knowledge of addition is demonstrated by

manipulating blocks instead of through

writing

Extra textbooks are provided for home when

a child has great organizational difficulties

A scribe is provided to take notes for a child

A multiple choice test on individual facts is

provided while other students fill in the blank

http://www.learningdisabledkids.com/IEP_training/IEP_

accommodations_modifications_sec_contents.htm

Accommodations

dodo not

not change

change

Accommodations do do not change knowledge content.

knowledge

content.

Modifications (everyone plays)

A child works on addition while classmates

work on multiplication

A child learns letters and letter sounds while

classmates read chapter books

A child uses blocks to build structures while

other students do science experiments

A child is given a test on continents while

classmates are tested on countries in Europe

http://www.learningdisabledkids.com/IEP_training/IEP_

accommodations_modifications_sec_contents.htm

Modifications

dodo change

change

Modifications do do change knowledge content and/or the standard.

knowledge

content and/or the

standard.

Who is Responsible?

Who is Responsible? An Accommodation is the “ HOW ” of the curriculum. *How are we

An Accommodation is the HOWof the curriculum.

*How are we going to get the information to the child

and how are we going to test the students knowledge?

Who is Responsible? An Accommodation is the “ HOW ” of the curriculum. *How are we

A Modification is the WHATof the curriculum.

*What part of the general curriculum does the student

need to know to reach his or her fullest potential?

oth the general education teacher and special education teache

re responsible for making accommodations and modifications.

It is a collaborative effort.

Modifications are for…

Students who would have been traditionally

pulled out to a separate program

Students who may have a low incidence

disability

Students for whom accommodations have

been implemented to the fullest extent and

still have difficulty succeeding

Remember!

Remember! The IEP or 504 team determines a student will participate, how not whether a student

The IEP or 504 team determines

how a student will participate,

how

not whether

whether a student will

participate.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • 1. Who determines modifications?

The IEP team, including the Local Education Agency (LEA

representative, Special Educator, General Educator, parent/legal guardian, the student)

  • 2. Who gets accommodations and modifications?

Accommodations can be made for any student. Students with an IEP or 504 plan get accommodations that are required. Students with an IEP can receive modifications if needed. STUDENT NEEDS DETERMINE BOTH

  • 3. Do I have to accommodate?

If a student has an IEP or a 504 plan, you must provide the accommodations and modifications that are part of the plan. If a student does not have an IEP or 504 plan, you are not required to accommodate, but it is considered best practice.

  • 4. What do I say when students say, “It’s not fair?”

Fair means that everyone gets what they need to succeed. Fair does not mean “same” or “equal.”

Accommodations and modifications are

most often made in the following areas:

Scheduling/Timing

Setting

Materials

Instruction

Student Response

Presentation

Scheduling/Timing

Give extra time to complete assignments or

tests

Break up testing over several days

Give multiple or frequent breaks

Change testing schedule or order of subtests

Vary activities every 10-30 minutes

Alert students several minutes before a

transition time, then give reminders

Setting

Change the location of instruction or testing

Seat student in front, next to teacher, or

study carrel

Reduce fluorescent lighting and increase

natural lighting

Seat student away from windows or other

students

Instruct or test in small group or individual

setting

Materials

Audio tape lectures or books

Provide copies of teacher’s lecture notes

Supply large print books, Braille, or books on

CD (digital text)

Offer manipulatives

Use visual cues – charts, pictures, graphs

Utilize graphic organizers to demonstrate

how concepts and ideas are related

Instruction

Reduce the difficulty of assignments

Reduce the reading level

Use a student/peer tutor

Simplify multi-step directions

Provide a partially completed outline during

lectures

Preteach vocabulary

Student response

Allow answers to be given orally or dictated

Use a word processor for written work

Use sign language, a communication device,

Braille, or native language if it is not English

Replace summative assessment with oral

reports and projects

Give credit for participation

Use recognition tests instead of essay tests

example: T/F, multiple choice, matching

Presentation

Increase “white space” on page

Use symbols on the test or answer form that

help the student follow directions, such as an

arrow or stop sign

Give extra examples for practice to make

sure the student knows what to do.

Require fewer questions, but select ones that

measure all required content.

Eliminate one of the choices in multiple-

choice items.

Example:

Jack is an 8th grade student who has learning disabilities in reading and writing. He is in a general education 8th grade class that is team-taught by a general education teacher and a special education teacher. Modifications and accommodations provided for Jack’s daily school routine (and when he takes state or district-wide tests) include the following:

Jack will have shorter reading and writing assignments.

Jack’s textbooks will be based on the 8th grade curriculum, but at his independent reading level (4th grade).

Jack will have test questions read/explained to him, when he asks.

Jack will respond orally, rather than in writing, to essay questions.

Example:

Jill is a third grade student with a cognitive disability. She spends part of her day in a Resource class and part of her day in a general education 3 rd grade class. She is a beginning reader, can recognize letters and sounds and knows 10 sight words. Modifications and accommodations provided for Jill’s daily school routine could include the following:

Jill will have a reading partner during Social Studies and Science.

Jill will be graded on a rubric created by the special and general education teachers on assignments.

Jill will participate in shared reading and literacy centers in her 3 rd grade class.

Jill will take breaks as needed throughout the day.

How might accommodations look different

from tier to tier?

How might accommodations look different from tier to tier? Accommodation Middle School Students create their own
Accommodation

Accommodation

Accommodation
   
Accommodation Middle School Students create their own coping skills. Students desire to become more independent.
 
Accommodation Middle School Students create their own coping skills. Students desire to become more independent.
 

Middle School

Students create their own coping skills. Students desire to become more independent.

Students create their own coping skills. Students desire to become more independent.

Students create their own coping skills. Students desire to become more independent.

Elementary

High School

Students are taught strategies to compensate

Students help determine what accommodations are necessary for them to succeed in school and in life.

for their disability.

How might accommodations look different from tier to tier? Accommodation Middle School Students create their own

Example:

Example: Accommodation Read test/text Middle School Test/text is read to whole class, peer assistance, audio books,
Accommodation

Accommodation

 

Read test/text

Read test/text
   
Accommodation Read test/text Middle School Test/text is read to whole class, peer assistance, audio books, screen
 
Accommodation Read test/text Middle School Test/text is read to whole class, peer assistance, audio books, screen
 

Middle School

Test/text is read to whole class, peer assistance, audio books, screen readers, pull-out

Test/text is read to whole class, peer assistance, audio books, screen readers, pull-out

Test/text is read to whole class, peer assistance, audio books, screen readers, pull-out

Elementary

High School

Reading is modeled in class, small groups, paired reading, pull-out sessions

Student advocates for read-aloud accommodation, audio books, screen readers

Example: Accommodation Read test/text Middle School Test/text is read to whole class, peer assistance, audio books,

Testing Accommodations

Allowable Accommodations

For any student who needs it

Special Accommodations

Must be in the IEP Must have been used during the year

Other assessments

Think Link End of course exams Math benchmarks

SOLD Outcomes of Education FOR SALE Be a Houses 'R' us Realty Life-Long Learner Live as
SOLD
Outcomes of
Education
FOR SALE
Be a
Houses 'R' us
Realty
Life-Long
Learner
Live as a
Valued and
Respected
Member
Have a
Have
Satisfying
Meaningful
Relationship
Career
s
LRE for LIFE Project

Putting itit all

Putting

all Together

Together

Goal:

Goal: ToTo remove

remove barriers

barriers toto learning

learning

and demonstrate

and

demonstrate mastery.

mastery.

Accommodations

Accommodations will

will keep

keep

standards substantially

standards

substantially the

the same

same

for

for all;

all; outcomes

outcomes may

may vary.

vary.

Modifications

Modifications may

may fundamentally

fundamentally

change the

change

the standard;

standard; instructional

instructional

level

level or

or content

content may

may vary.

vary.

Expectations remain

Expectations

remain high

high for

for ALL

ALL students.

students.