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Are all eyeliners the same? What things do they lack and what things can be modified to create a
better product?
The main problem that We want to solve this problem by using extensive testing and ingredient
research to be sure that the consistency and characteristics of a normal product that you buy
at a drugstore are still similar to the one we recreate. We gathered up 3 different products (2
pencils and 1 liquid liner) and ran a few experiments to look at what each product contained
and how it could be improved. We specifically tested each product on its color boldness,
waterproof durability, the amount of irritation it might have on individuals, spreadability, and
how long it takes for the product to actually smudge. We recorded this data and we are using
it to revise the products later in our experiment.

Materials & Methods

We conducted five tests on our eyeliners. They included

color boldness, waterproof, the irritation it
might have to the eyes, spreadable, and the ability it has to not smudge
We solved the problem by proving that each individual product functions differently through the
following experiments.
Color Boldness-
for the color boldness test I grabbed a piece of white paper and all three of my
products. I drew three two inch lines with the eyeliner on the paper. The
only drawn on once,
line drawn on twice, and
line drawn on three times.
Then I recorded my observations and compared each two inch line to each other. The
materials that I used to conduct my experiment were
3 slides, microscope, and 3

(NYX, Slide on Eyeliner,
Wet N Wild, H2o Proof Liquid Liner, 881

Ultra/Black/ Ultra Noir,

Urban Decay Cosmetics, 24/7 (color perversion) .
for the waterproofing agent test I drew a 2 inch line for each individual product onto my
hand. Then I made my way towards the nearest faucet. Then with an additional
person, one setting up a timer while the other places their hand into the water source
after every 20 seconds(up to one minute) stop the timer and record your
observations. After one full minute remove your hand from the faucet and observe
the remainder of the product. The materials we needed to conduct our experiment
were a faucet, back of my hand, a timer, and my 3 products
(NYX, Slide on Eyeliner,
Wet N Wild, H2o Proof Liquid Liner, 881 Ultra/Black/ Ultra Noir,
Urban Decay
Cosmetics, 24/7 (color perversion).
Does not irritate eyes-
for the irritation that the products may have on the eyes was conducted by
finding 6 individuals that were willing to apply our three products to their eyes. I first
took a picture of their eye before they applied the product to have an image to
compare to after the amount of time needed has past. Two people were assigned per
product and after thirty minutes I checked in with each girl to record anything I saw
focusing on the redness and puffiness that may have happened to their eyes. I not
only recorded what I saw but also I asked them if they had felt any discomfort when
applying or even up to that point. After a complete hour I took a picture of their eye
and made comparisons to their original eye appearance. Also to conduct my
experiment you will need a phone camera, timer, and my 3 products
(NYX, Slide on
Wet N Wild, H2o Proof Liquid Liner, 881 Ultra/Black/ Ultra Noir,

Decay Cosmetics, 24/7 (color perversion).
to conduct the spreadable experiment you will need
one hand, and your 3 products

Slide on Eyeliner,
Wet N Wild, H2o Proof Liquid Liner, 881 Ultra/Black/ Ultra Noir,

Decay Cosmetics, 24/7 (color perversion)
The first thing you want to do is apply the products
separately from each other but
very lightly.
Next draw an additional 3 lines but with
alot of
Then, after look at all the lines that you have drawn and record your observations
depending on the appearance of the line along with how the application process went.
Doesnt smudge-
for the non-smudging test first remember to not be in a hot or humid room because
it will completely change the outcome of your experiment. Then apply 3 lines of course each
representing each product to your hand. Wait especially for the liquid liner to dry for 1 minute

for the product to settle into your skin. For the first trial take your dry finger and rub each
line with minimal pressure. For the second trial taking another dry finger rub the other three
remaining lines. Record what your observations are specifically comparing which eyeliner was
easier/harder to smudge. To conduct this experiment you will need one hand for applying the
products, and another hand to rub the product, and the 3 products that you will be using
(NYX, Slide on Eyeliner,
Wet N Wild, H2o Proof Liquid Liner, 881 Ultra/Black/ Ultra Noir,

Urban Decay Cosmetics, 24/7 (color perversion)

Color Boldness
: My color boldness tests rated the darkness of each eyeliner. We observed the
following: From a scale of 1-5 rate the darkness of each eyeliner

First line color

fullness observation
through microscope

Second line fullness

observation through
microscope(2 coats)

Third line fullness

observation through
microscope(3 coats)

NYX, Slide on

1, specks of actual
boldness looks like
black water smudged
patches of black
almost like cracked

2, not a consistent
boldness spread out
patches of black, tends
to appear more evenly

3, not entirely a
consistent color one
swipe of complete
color however, it is
spread more evenly
however there are still

Wet N Wild, H2o Proof

Liquid Liner, 881 Ultra

4, color maintains for

the most part color
lessens towards the
middle of the product

3, the color still

maintains but the
blackness is not as
consistent tends to be
a bit more worn out

3, color is bold
however, loses
complete color in the
center of the

Urban Decay
Cosmetics, 24/7 (color

3, is not very bold the

color is not
consistently spread
but overall the colors
is pretty dark

2, speaks of black, not

a complete consistent
color, completely
spread out evenly but
dark patches

4, color somewhat
connects together and
does not separate and
looks similar to a
spiderweb and tiny

The color boldness of each product was different from each other however, not too different, when
looking through the microscope the pencil liners tended to have a black cracked paint appearance
where the liquid had a lot of air bubbles and out of all the products Urban Decay Cosmetics, 24/7
(color perversion) tended to have the darkest and most consistent color after the 3rd layer of the

My waterproof experiment tested the lasting strength of each product when exposed to
any kind of moisture or liquid.

NYX, Slide on

After 20 seconds,
record observations
still matte and dry,
bold color (dark) skin
wet but, product
completely dry

After 40 seconds,
record observations
skin surrounded wet
and product slightly
coming off but
maintaining color

After 60 seconds
record observations
color maintained bold
and dry for the most
part skin wet but not

Wet N Wild, H2o Proof

Liquid Liner, 881 Ultra

came off a bit however

the surrounding of it is
dry but product got a
bit smudged

a bit more came off

the skin wet but the
skin around the overall
product is dry

began to smudge on
the outer part of the
applied product
maintained color

Urban Decay
Cosmetics, 24/7 (color

wet on flesh and

completely dry around
the product almost as
a barrier

similar appearance
color remains the
same and completely
dry around it

slightly smudged at
the end but still bold
color and dry around it

As far as waterproof all 3 products ended up lasting for each time component that I tested for
and it stood out to me that the skin where the product was placed on was entirely try it formed a sort
of barrier around the application while the rest of the skin was moist. The liquid eyeliner due to its
consistency being quite different from a pencil liner it did tend to have a very strong waterproof agent
along with the other tests that were conducted, the liquid seemed to live up to its expectations
compared to the pencil consistency.

Eye Irritation:
My results of the eye irritation test was to look for any kind of redness, puffiness, or
wateriness that may have taken place after the application of the three products.

First person, record the

comparison to their original
eye image

Second person, record the

comparison to their original
eye image

NYX, Slide on Eyeliners

Zoha- no irritation, no redness,

application created her eyes to

Natalie- smudge when

applying, no redness, hard to
remove , a little bit of watering
when applying

Urban Decay, 24/7 Glide-On

Pencil (zero)

Nidhal- no watering or redness

in the eye, no irritation when
applying either, color
non-smudgable and bold

Victoria- no irritation in my
eyes, watery but no smudging
and color remaining bold and

Urban Decay Cosmetics, 24/7

(color perversion)

Miranda- watery, sticky, eye

maintained white did not
create any redness, feels heavy,
thick and makes eyes water

Nidhal- no redness, watery for

about 5 minutes but irritation
went away

When testing the irritation of each individual I found out that 2 pencil liners did not affect the
eye or cause any redness but, might have caused some kind of wateriness to our volunteer`s eyes.
However, when looking at the 3rd product(Urban Decay, 24/7 Glide-On Pencil (zero) it ended up being
of the best eyeliners due to its positive effect it had on both girls. Some of them mentioned that they
might have irritation that could have lasted up to five minutes but then would completely go away , but
for the most part not much irritation was found for each individual.

By conducting my spreadability experiment I specifically wanted to look at the softness
and overall texture of the product as far as it being too soft or too hard. The scale that I ended up
coming up with was that of 1-5, 1 being extremely hard and difficult to apply/dry, 5 being extremely
delicate and smudgy/watery was the way in which I were to grade/record my observations.

Very Lightly check


Applied with pressure check


NYX, Slide on Eyeliners

2, hardly shows up but does

not maintain color is very light
and hardly shows up

3, did not maintain a precise

line color faded towards the

Wet N Wild, H2o Proof Liquid

Liner, 881 Ultra

5, spreads but leaks into the

different creases in skin

5, spreadable however, did not

maintain color and creases as
the previous test

Urban Decay Cosmetics, 24/7

(color perversion)

3, spread easily but did not

completely fill in the lines on
the skin

5, it spreads too easily it broke

when applying a lot of pressure

When focusing on the spreadability of the 3 products the

NYX, Slide on Eyeliners
tended to
not even show it`s true color when applying it lightly and even with pressure the line that I drew did
not maintain the color all the way through it tended to fade toward the end of the application.
However, when I looked at the spreadability of the liquid liner it did have a nice spreading agent but,
the product seemed to sink into the creases on the skin and did not maintain that color all the way
through. The other pencil applied to the skin nicely but, did not show up completely on the skin with
light pressure. When applied a lot of pressure while even applying to the skin, the product is so soft
that the pencil is very breakable but, has a strong constant color.

Through conducting this test I focused on how many rubs it would take to notice a

difference in the preciseness of the product. Using a scale of 1-5 finding out how much it actually takes
for the product to be smudged even slightly. 1 being very easy to smudge and 5 being very difficult

Light pressure applied to

product with pointer finger.

Heavy pressure applied to

product with pointer finger.

NYX, Slide on Eyeliners

2, maintained darkness and

hold towards the beginning but
completely faded the color
when smudged

2, smudged at the beginning

but moved product towards
the end of the line that was
being smudged

Wet N Wild, H2o Proof Liquid

Liner, 881 Ultra

5, did not smudge only towards

the center of the product it
was smudged slightly

5, did not smudge easily on

ends of the product smudged
very slightly but center part
where applied did not move

Urban Decay Cosmetics, 24/7

(color perversion)

1, very easily smudged

maintained good color and left
a nice outcome

1, completely smudged the

product and faded the color a
bit and creased on the skin

We know that a pencil is known to be a lot smoother and has a stronger chance of smudging which is
another experiment that I conducted. I applied the three different eyeliners to the back of my hand 2
lines for each product. After I did that I applied light pressure when attempting to smudge it on the
first trial and then heavy pressure rubbing it on the second trial. Based on my observations as I had
predicted both pencil products tended to smudge quite easily in comparison to the liquid that did not
smudge once even with alot of pressure.


As mentioned before it is obvious that the results calculated for a liquid liner will be
completely different from a pencil liner`s results. Through conducting all 5 of these experiments I have
noticed the certain strengths of each product some products share the results while the other
products ended up having completely different outcomes. When focusing on the spreadability it is
pretty self explanatory that the liquid is far easier to spread in comparison to the pencil liners but, the
lasting strength of the product tends to be overpowering. The ingredients that cause this long lasting
waterproofing agent are the mainly the oils and waxes that are existent in the product such as both,
Butylene Glycol and Sodium Polyacrylate that work as a film former creating a sort of barrier for the
product. As far as the waterproof agents in liquid liners there is Trimethylsiloxysilicate. When looking
at the pencil products(Urban Decay Cosmetics, 24/7 (color perversion), Urban Decay, 24/7 Glide-On
Pencil (zero), NYX, Slide on Eyeliners) we can see that Phenylpropyl Dimethylsilyl oxy silicate works as
another film former, Synthetic Wax separates oil and liquid components, Cera Microcristallina
(Microcrystalline Wax/Cire Microcristalline) acts as a bulking agent , Styrene/Acrylates/Ammonium
Methacrylate Copolymer as a film former, and Sodium Polyacrylate as another film former. Most of
these film formers and the waxes are known to be non toxic at a certain dosage. When looking at color
boldness (liquid) the ingredient that is used is Black 2/CI 77266 to create the a black colorant of the
product. As far as the pencils there is Mica
Titanium Dioxide(CI 77891),Carmine (CI 75470) ,
Oxides (CI 77499, 77492, 77491) , Ultramarines (CI 77007) , Ferric Ferrocyanide (CI 77510), Black 2 (CI
77266) , Yellow 5 Lake (CI 19140), CI 77491/77492/77499 (Iron Oxides) and Blue 1 Lake (CI 42090) all as
different coloring agents. Majority of these color agents are known to be quite toxic so it might be an
improvement if only certain ones were chosen (the less hazardous ones) to still recreate that dark
shade we really want. The main components that come along with preventing any possible eye
irritation from products are the film formers, antioxidants, pH adjusters, viscosity increasing agents,
and cleansing agent. The ingredients for liquid are Isododecane (increases the spreadability of the
product), Sodium Polyacrylate and Butylene Glycol both as film formers, Trimethylsiloxysilicate as a
bulking agent, Polypropylsilsesquioxane as a film former, Silica Dimethyl Silylate as an anticaking
agent, and Tocopherol as a form of vitamin ingredient. When we look at the pencil liners the main
ingredients that show up are Isododecane , Polybutene, Ceresin, Ozokerite, Tocopherol, Water,
Styrene/Acrylates/Ammonium Methacrylate Copolymer, Butylene Glycol, Sodium Polyacrylate, and
Coconut Acid as a cleansing agent. For the most part all of these ingredients have a low hazard level
however, I feel that not all are needed the safest ones will be ideal such as Ozokerite and Synthetic
Wax. The spreadability for both consistencies are similar specifically come from any type of
moisturizer or viscosity increaser. The ingredients used are Cyclopentasiloxane( skin conditioning
agent), Isododecane (increases the spreadability of a product),Polybutene (viscosity increasing agent),
Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil (skin conditioning agent), Hydrogenated Cotton Seed Oil (skin
conditioning agent), Ceresin (viscosity increasing agent), Ozokerite(emulsion stabilizer),
Trihydroxystearin( skin conditioning agent), C11
12 Isoparaffin( skin conditioning agent),
Trimethylpentanediol / Adipic Acid / Glycerin Crosspolymer( skin conditioning agent), Tocopherol(
skin conditioning agent), Ceresin(viscosity increasing agent), and Synthetic Wax (seperates oil and
liquid components). Most of these products tend to cause a slight irritation in the eyes but, is key to
have as far as the spreadability of the product so it is not hard and makes the application process
difficult. However, smudging is quite similar it is a bit different the main component for this is any kind
of wax because it creates a smoother texture and makes the smudging process very easy. The
ingredients that are both in liquid and pencil are Ceresin(viscosity increasing agent), Synthetic Wax
(separates oil and liquid components), and Isododecane (increases the spreadability of a product). After
categorizing each ingredient for each test now we can compare all ingredients to each other based on
its toxic level and even after conducting the experiment and separating the chemicals the most
functionable one would be the Urban Decay, 24/7 Glide-On Pencil (zero) due to its lasting power and
majority of safe ingredients. All eyeliners we may believe are created the same and are useful for the
same purposes but, that is not always the case.