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NEW SYSTEM JAPANESE


Patented Learning Method
(Japan Edition)
By MINEKO EBIHARA

Vol. 1

First published in 1988 by Bunka Language Pte. School, 402 Orchard Road #05-15/16 Delfi
Orchard, Singapore 238876
Revised in April 1991.

(Japan edition)
First published in April 2012 by Mineko Ebihara, 4-6-21 Kamakurayama, Kamakura,
Kanagawa, 248-0031 Japan

Copyright

1988 Mineko Ebihara

All rights reserved.

ISBN 981-00-2685-4

NEW SYSTEM JAPANESE


Patented Learning Method
(Japan Edition)
By MINEKO EBIHARA

Vol. 1

URL: http://japanese.wook.jp/
Sounds (for computer and smart phone)
URL: http://www.voiceblog.jp/newsystem-japanese/

50-on (Japanese Syllabary)



o

iwanai

kaeranai

yomanai

ha

(i)

yomimasu

hi

kaeru

yu

yomu

hu

()
yomeba

he

iimasu

ya
()

kaerimasu

iu

ieba

kaereba

ioo

kaeroo

itte

kaette

(e)

yo

yomoo

ho

yonde

Sounds (for computer and smart phone)


URL: http://www.voiceblog.jp/newsystem-japanese/

pa

yobanai

pi

yobimasu

pu

yobu

pe

yobeba

JAPAN PATENT NO. 1780123

po

yoboo

yonde

and Hiragana

shinanai

matanai

kikanai

hanasanai

shinimasu

machimasu

hanashimasu

kikimasu

matsu

shinu

hanasu

kiku

shineba

mateba

hanaseba

shinoo

matoo

kikeba

kikoo

hanasoo

shinde

matte

hanashite

kiite

da

za

oyoganai

ji

ji

oyogimasu

zu

zu

oyogu

de

ze

oyogeba

do

zo

oyogoo

oyoide

kya

kyu

kyo

gya

gyu

gyo

sha

shu

sho

ja

ju

jo

cha

chu

cho

nya

nyu

nyo

hya

hyu

hyo

bya

byu

byo

pya

pyu

pyo

mya

myu

myo

rya

ryu

ryo

CONTENTS
Maegaki

Introduction

Usage and examples of each form of the verb

18

Magic Verb Sheet

20

Usage of particles

23

Greetings and manners

34

Dai ikka [Lesson 1]

37

Group-1

verb, iku and exception verb kuru

dictionary-form

ikundesu/ikimasu

ikanaindesu/ikimasen

(direction)

ni/niwa

Verbs

(present affirmative sentence)

(present negative sentence)

(purpose)

nai-form, masu-form and

ka

wa

(question)

(topic)

Copula

e/ewa

desu

doko

[where]
Dai nika [Lesson 2]
Verbs

conditional-form, volitional-form and te-form

the listeners advice)


ittekudasai
itsu

42
ikooto

(request/advice)

[when]

Numerals

---

ikeba iidesuka? (asking for

omoimasu (speakers plan/thought/idea)


ni/niwa

(time of action)

no

(connecting nouns)

1-10,000

Dai sanka [Lesson 3]


Group-2
mo

47

verb, okiru and exception verb suru

[also]

nani

karadesu [because ---]

[what]

nanji

Expression

o/wa

[what time]

(object of transitive verbs)

dooshite

[why]

---

of time and minutes

Dai yonka [Lesson 4]

54

Group-1

verbs and their te-form (1)

ga/wa

(subject)

final)

dare

de/dewa

[who]

nan

of the months and days of the month

ikanaidekudasai(negative

(place of action)
[what]

to

nannichi

ko/so/a/do

words

[and]

request/advice)
yo/ne

(sentence

[what day of the month]

Name

Dai goka [Lesson 5]


Group-1

verbs and their te-form (2)

de/dewa
made

61
ikimashoo

(method/means/medium)

[to/until]

ikutsu

to/towa

[how many]

([Lets go])

([with])

ikura

kara

[how much]

[from]
Counting

money

Dai rokka [Lesson 6]


Group-2
ka

verbs

69

ikimasenka?

(confirmation)

yoku

donna

(invitation [Wont you go?])

[what kind of]

ya

donogurai

[and, etc.]

[how long]

[often]/tokidoki [sometimes]

Dai nanaka [Lesson 7]


Potential

verbs

77

koraremasuka?

of potential verbs)

Copula

([Are you able to come?])

negative form dewa arimasen

ga/wa
yoku

(object

[well]/

sukoshi [a little]
Dai hachika [Lesson 8]
Verbs,

83

iru/irassharu/oru/aru

form [not at all]


persons]

ni/niwa(plac

i-adjectives

Counting

nanban

e of existence)

[which number]

mo

+ negative

nannin

[how many

people

Dai kyuuka [Lesson 9]


Verbs

know]

90

te-form + iru/inai (states)


ni/niwa

(place of state)

---

ni sundeiru ([I live in---])

shika

shitteiru

[I

+ negative form (nothing but)

na-adjectives

Dai jikka [Lesson 10]


Adjectives

97

negative form

Lessons in roman letters


Dai

ikka [Lesson 1]

Dai

yonka [Lesson 4]

Dai

nanaka [Lesson 7]
Dai jukka [Lesson 10]
Index

104
Dai

nika [Lesson 2]

Dai

goka [Lesson 5]

Dai

Dai

sanka [Lesson 3]

Dai

hachika [Lesson 8]

rokka [Lesson 6]

Dai

kyuuka [Lesson 9]

171

polite non-polite

non-polite

be
I am, you are, he is,---

polite -pattern-pattern

-pattern non-polite
polite non-polite


polite
non-polite

I am a student .Are you a student?


amamare

am/are/is be

---

Group-1

polite non-polite

Group-1 Group-2
2

stem
Group-1

stem
stemGroup-2

stem

stem
stem

stem

a b a
b

a b

aaa

*
*


(there is/are)

1)

1)

2)

2)

3)

3)

4)

4)

5)

5)

6)
7)
8)
9)
1)5)

1)5)

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
1)5)

(Magic Verb Sheet)


50-on and Hiragana

1988 24

50-on and Hiragana

50

INTRODUCTION
Patented Learning Method
The conventional method of Japanese language teaching and its problem
Having taught Japanese language for years, we noticed that the majority of foreigners
learning the language face one common problem. The problem lies in the inability of these students
to comprehend what we Japanese are speaking, although they themselves are able to express the
message they wish to convey.
According to them, Japanese do not speak in accordance to what we learn from the
available textbooks. In other words, what these students learn is entirely different from the actual
spoken Japanese that we native Japanese practice.
Actually, the Japanese language is considered difficult even by Japanese people, who
thought it not possible for foreigners to master. But this is wrong. This concept is partly due to the
lack of a systematic and methodical approach towards teaching Japanese as a foreign language. We
did away with the conventional approach and devised an entirely different system: one which gives
the average students a very solid foundation and at the same time required of them less effort and
time to learn.
In the Japanese language, the most unique feature is the conjugation of verbs. The
conjugation of Japanese verbs depends not only on its tenses but also on the meanings. In the process
of mastering basic Japanese the ability and the need to master its verb conjugation is most
fundamental and of utmost importance. This is true not only to our language but also to the French
and German languages where conjugation of their articles and adjectives are fundamental and
emphasized upon from the very beginning
The current practice in teaching Japanese language, however, emphasizes only on the
usage of the masu-form being the polite form of verbs during the early stage, while the non-polite
form (dictionary-form, nai-form, etc.) and other forms are introduced one after another only in the
later stages. These serve to impress the masu-form on students rendering them difficult to master
the other forms later. This results in a great disadvantage when communicating with Japanese as our
use of verbs in conversation is not limited to the masu-form alone. For instance, when the students
hear the word ikoo during a simple conversation by native Japanese, they do not recognize it as a
verb associated with ikimasu (to go).

New system of teaching Japanese (Japan Patent No. 1780123)


This textbook, with its new system, introduces verbs with their several forms to the
learners right from the very beginning. As in the teaching of English language, when verb-to be is
introduced, it is taught with its various forms such as I am, you are, he is, etc. The Japanese

language should also be taught likewise, if students learn a verb iku (to go) with its various forms
such as ikanai/ikimasu/iku/ikeba/ikoo/itte, they are able to recognize it in any form when it is heard.
In addition, the pronunciation drills of fifty-on (Japanese syllables) and the conjugation of
Group-1 verbs interdependently help to speed up the learning process by five to ten times in
comparison with the conventional method.

Effect of the new system


To evaluate the new system, beginners to the language were divided into two main groups
- one group using the conventional method while the other using our new system. Both groups
studied for 36 hours over a period of three months under the same conditions. The group using the
conventional method, even the linguistically inclined, had difficulty in changing verbs from polite to
non-polite or from dictionary-form to their various conjugations. However, the group using our new
system was able to do so almost instinctively.
It is commonly believed, that 1) masu-form is enough for the beginners to communicate
and 2) teaching various forms causes confusion to students as they cannot absorb them. We strongly
object to these ideas and have no doubt whatsoever that our new system of verb conjugation
presented in this book should be taught to beginners without hesitation.

Using the particle wa. Avoiding the pitfall of merely comparing the use of wa with ga.
The correct use of particles, like verbs is extremely important in the Japanese language
especially the use of wa versus case particles like ga, o or ni. Conventional textbooks for beginners
singularly love to lock on to the comparison of wa versus ga, as if their relationship is somehow so
unique as to merit special attention. Furthermore the particle ga is always taught to be linked with
the use of certain verbs like aru, iru ... or adjectives like hoshii, suki, joozu ... The particle wa on the
other hand is taught to be used with other verbs or adjectives beginning with its putatively required
conformance to a pattern like N1 wa N2 desu - a subject marker as it were. We think that this is
a highly improper way of teaching the use of wa. In Japanese syntax, the use of wa is not linked to
any particular verb or adjective at all. In fact wa's unique function in Japanese expressions relegates
it to a category apart from the case particles (ga, o, ni, de...).
Case particles
ga
o
wa

ni
de
:
:

10

So if conventional textbooks were to insist on comparing the proper use of wa with ga again as if they were somehow special, then they should also compare wa with o, which is also
equally special.
Let us look at the following four sentences:
Tanaka-san wa ashita kuru

-(i)a

Tanaka-san ga ashita kuru

-(i)b

Hon wa asoko de kau

-(ii)a

Asoko de hon o kau

-(ii)b

(or Hon o asoko de kau)


In Japanese, the role of wa in both sentences (i)a and (ii)a is identical. So when conventional
textbooks compare sentences like (i)a and (i)b to distinguish the use of wa from ga, they should also
similarly compare sentences like (ii)a and (ii)b to distinguish wa from o. They are equally valid
comparisons.
Equally valid are comparisons of the use of niwa and ni, use of dewa and de, or use of
ewa and e for that matter as seen in the following illustrations:
Getsuyoobi niwa gakkoo e iku

-(iii)a

Getsuyoobi ni gakkoo e iku

-(iii)b

Isetan dewa seeru o yatteiru

-(iv)a

Isetan de seeru o yatteiru

-(iv)b

Oosaka to Kyooto ewa ashita iku

-(v)a

Oosaka to Kyooto e ashita iku

-(v)b

We see then that wa as used is functionally a separate and distinct particle from the other
case particles introduced. Case particles perform syntactical functions like marking a subject or an
object, indicating direction of movement, time of action or event, place of action or event and the
like. The particle wa by contrast performs no such functions. It acts rather as a highlighter of
whatever portion of the syntax which precedes it. What wa highlights is commonly called the topic
of a sentence. And what follows it is in effect the information content the speaker wishes to know or
convey about the topic. We say then that wa qualifies the rest of the sentence.

Topic
Whole sentence
Rest of sentence

11

Now, if for any reason, a word or part of a sentence accompanied by any one of the case
particles were selected to assume the role of topic of a sentence, the particle wa will simply show
up right after said case particle. Please refer to the group of sentences (iii)a to (v)a for illustrations.
The presence of wa in any of these sentences does not alter the grammatical or functional role of any
of the case particles with which it is attached to. The particle ni in (iii)a fulfils the same time
modifying function as ni in (iii)b. Similarly, de in (iv)a does not change its place modifying role in
(iv)b, the presence of wa not withstanding. By the same token, if Tanaka-san ga in (i)b were selected
to become a topic of the sentence, we would expect the topicalized expression to look like this:
Tanaka-san gawa ashita kuru
This follows the train of thought we have established for the group of sentences (iii)a - (v)a. But by
convention of the Japanese language, the ga here when it precedes wa becomes superfluous and is
dropped from the expression. The sentence thus assumes the like of (i)a. Tanaka-san in (i)a remains
the subject of the expression. Analogously hon in (ii)b is an object marked by the object marker o.
When it - hon, is designated as a topic of the sentence as well, wa should also logically be appended
to o. But again by convention, o must be omitted when followed by wa. Likewise there is no change
in hon's status in the syntax as an object.
The practice of omitting case particles after the insertion of wa can also take place under
some circumstances - not dealt with here, for case particles other than ga and o.
Key points to remember:
* The particle wa marks the topic of a sentence.
* The use of wa is independent of the grammatical case standing of that part of a syntax which it
marks as a topic.
We often come across variants of the following problem found in conventional textbooks:
When to use wa and when to use ga.
We know from our discussion thus far that wa's specific function is that of a topic marker. It is a
particle in Japanese which role as we have said is separate and distinct from that of the other case
particles like ga, o and ni. The above problem posed therefore misses the point. The issue should
simply be: When to use wa. The answer: The particle wa is used whenever we wish to tropicalize
any part of a sentence, and if its attachment to that part happened to result in it being suffixed to ga
or o (generally speaking) we strike these latter particles out from our sentence as a matter of
convention. The grammatical case of that part of the sentence topicalized by wa has not changed. It
is as if an invisible ga or o were still there. So why the mixed-up between wa and ga, as if their
comparison were something special? We surmise it is because the part of a sentence indicated by ga
(marking the subject here), or any part of a sentence indicated by wa (topic marker) is commonly
place at the head of a sentence. Their coincidental juxtaposition here plus the practice of deleting ga
when it is followed by wa probably lie at the root of the inappropriate question comparing the use of

12

wa with ga, thus creating the erroneous impression that they are somehow quite similar and
interchangeable. See example sentences (i)a and (i)b.
Another conjecture on our part as to the root of the confusion between wa and ga probably
also lies in the way sentences (i)a and (i)b may both be translated into the English as follows:
Mr. Tanaka is coming tomorrow
In this English statement, Mr. Tanaka can be (a) a subject, OR (b) a subject and a topic at the same
time. But in Japanese the presence of wa in sentence (i)a resolves any ambiguity that Mr. Tanaka is
also a topic.
So regarding the frequently posed problem leading to our preceding discussion of when to
use wa and when to use ga, the latter part of the problem When to use ga should not even be posed.
For if we know when to use wa, we should also know when to use, gawa, niwa, dewa, ewa and so on.
(Our assumption here being that the poser of the question is conversant with the function and use of
the case particles.) The diagrammatic representation below shows the one-to-one relationship
between each of the case particles and its mapped element gawa, dewa, niwa, owa ...
Set of case particles

ga

Set of case particles + wa

gawa

de

dewa

ni

niwa

owa

no particle*

wa

(null element)

(*Note that we have included in the diagram above the null element i.e. with
no case particle, mapping over to its wa counterpart.)

It follows naturally from our reasoning that our textbook will instruct the use of wa independent of
the teaching of the use of ga.
We have alluded at the beginning of this discussion that conventional textbooks love to
link ga with certain favorite verbs (aru, iru ...) and adjectives (hoshii, suki, joozu ...). Furthermore
we observe that when sentences formed by these favorite verbs or adjectives are expressed in the
negative, the particle wa replaces the affirmative ga. Examples follow:

13

(Affirmative)

(Negation)

1) Hon ga aru

1') Hon wa nai

2) Yamada-san ga iru

2') Yamada-san wa inai

3) Kuruma ga hoshii

3') Kuruma wa hoshiku nai

4) Koohii ga suki da

4') Koohii wa suki ja nai

5) Tenisu ga joozu da

5') Tenisu wa joozu ja nai

We believe that this approach to teaching is not appropriate.


In the first place, ga can be used with any verb or adjective other than those illustrated
above. After all ga is only a subject marker. The erroneous impression one derives from the
examples above points to those verbs or adjectives being somehow uniquely associated with ga. The
following equally correct sentences should also plainly illustrate the use of ga with other equally
valid verbs and adjectives:
6) Watashi ga iku
7) Takushii ga kuru
8) Koko ga shizuka da
9) Heya ga hiroi
In the second place, we can replace any one of the ga particles when we wish to topicalize
the subject. (Remember that it is actually not a replacement as such but that the appending of wa to
ga causes the latter to be stricken out as a matter of usage convention.) So if we wish to topicalize
the subjects in sentences 1) - 5), their transformation will look like these:
1") Hon wa aru
2") Yamada-san wa iru
3") Kuruma wa hoshii
4") Koohii wa suki da
5") Tenisu wa joozu da
Similarly, looking at the group of sentences 1') - 5'), the wa particles may also be replaced
by ga if we do not wish to topicalize the subjects. Simple declaratives in the negative need not
necessarily be accompanied by wa. Therefore, the following alternative to sentence 1') is also
possible.
Hon ga nai
The point here is that ga marks the subject of all verbs and adjectives, whether they are expressed in
the negative or not, unless we wish to topicalize the subject which ga marks, in which case wa
replaces ga.
In our textbook, we set forth two uses of wa:
a) The particle wa to topicalize any part a statement;
b) The particle wa to reply to a question in the negative.

14

(Everytime we negate something in answer to a question we are actually


topicalizing it.)
Now, let us look at the following question and answers illustrating use (b):
Q : Ashita gakkoo e iku n desu ka?
Al: Iie, ashita wa ikanai n desu. (negating ashita)
A2: Iie, gakkoo ewa ikanai n desu.

(negating gakkoo e)

Again we see that in negating any question, we are conceptually topicalizing a part of it, hence the
requirement for wa. In setting forth two uses of wa, we are merely doing it as a matter of
convenience. In reality, these two uses are but two applications under one principle
- the principle of wa as a topic marker.

Concision of expression
In Japanese, a characterization is concision of expression. Words normally required in the
English make-up of sentences may be deemed to be superfluous in Japanese. They are therefore
dropped from the expression. The following question:
Yamada-san wa ashita tenisu o shimasu ka?
should be answered thus in the affirmative:
Hai, shimasu.
It should never be answered in the following manner:
Hai, watashi wa ashita tenisu o shimasu.
If we wish to answer the question in the negative we say:
Iie, shimasen
or

Iie, ashita wa shimasen

(negating ashita)

or

Iie, tenisu wa shimasen

(negating tenisu)

or

Iie, watashi wa shimasen

(negating watashi)

We should avoid saying:


Iie, watashi wa ashita wa tenisu wa shimasen.
It is incumbent upon the student to grasp the importance of expressing himself in as short a
manner as possible sufficient to get his point across. He must eschew the frequently taught method
of expressing himself or answering in the full English-like sentence equivalent. This idiomatic way
of expressing oneself in Japanese must be drilled into the rote memory at the outset to facilitate one
to comprehend idiomatic Japanese dialogues later on. The student will then instinctively know by
this way of being trained what words not germane or implicit to an utterance have been dropped
from an expression. For example, the topicalized personal pronoun watashi wa is usually omitted in
spoken Japanese as its presence is understood.
The model expressions and sentences in our textbook strive at omitting those words not

15

commonly included in idiomatic Japanese usage. The student's acquisition of the skills to express
himself in natural Japanese as well as comprehension of the spoken tongue is thus facilitated.

Concluding remarks
We believe that our approach to the teaching of Japanese to students at the entry level has
met with considerable success. The methodology we have adopted allows for a very rapid mastery of
basic means of communicating in idiomatic Japanese with all its commonly encountered variants as
used by the Japanese themselves.
Our new system of teaching elementary Japanese still has great scope for improvement.
Nevertheless we do hope that our textbook will provide a significant first step contribution toward
the study of Japanese.
A highlight of our textbook is found in the underscoring of all verbs, particles and certain
words occurring in the dialogues and practice sections. The chart Usage and examples of each form
of the verb provides practical and easy reference to verb forms, usage as well as a reference guide
to the lessons where these forms and usages are introduced.
50-on (Japanese Syllabary) and Hiragana at the beginning of the textbook and Magic
Verb Sheet are patented (Japan Patent No. 1780123).

April 1991

Mineko Ebihara

Japan edition
In Japan edition of New System Japanese Vol. 1, the following changes have been
made:The chart 50-on and Hiragana has been doubled in size; illustrations are included for better
understanding of new words and expressions; a different font is used for roman letters and words no
longer commonly used are replaced by new words.

April 2012

Mineko Ebihara

16

17

(Usage and examples of each form of the verb)


(Refer to Magic Verb Sheet next page for the rules of the conjugation)
Basic forms

Example

1.

-form

2.

-form

3. Dictionary-form

4.

Conditional-form

5. Volitional-form

6.

-form

USAGE
1Non-polite negative sentence final

4'

potential-form

EXAMPLES

LESSON
TO REFER

(I don`t go to school.)
Politenegative sentence final

(I don`t go to school.)
Negative request/advice

(Please don`t go to school.)


2Polite affirmative sentence final

(I go to school.)
3Non-polite affirmative sentence final

(I go to school.)
Politeaffirmative sentence final

(I go to school.)
4Asking for listeners advice

(When should I go?)


5Speakers plan/thought/idea

(I plan to go tomorrow.)
6Request/advice

(Please go now.)
4' Potential/ability


(I`m able to go today.)

18

Dooshi
(Usage and examples of each form of the verb)
(Refer to Magic Verb Sheet next page for the rules of the conjugation)
Basic forms

Example iku

1.

nai-form

ikanai

2.

masu-form

ikimasu

3.

Dictionary-form

iku

4.

Conditional-form

ikeba

5.

Volitional-form

ikoo

6.

te-form

itte

USAGE
1Non-polite negative sentence final

4' Potential-form

ikeru

EXAMPLES
Gakkooe ikanai.

LESSON TO
REFER

(I don`t go to school.)
Politendesunegative sentence final

Gakkooe ikanaindesu.

(I don`t go to school.)
Negative request/advice

Gakkooe ikanaidekudasai.

(Please don`t go to school.)


2Polite affirmative sentence final

Gakkooe ikimasu.

(I go to school.)
3Non-polite affirmative sentence final

Gakkooe iku.

(I go to school.)
Politendesuaffirmative sentence final

Gakkooe ikundesu.

(I go to school.)
4Asking for listener`s advice

Itsu ikeba iidesuka?

(When should I go?)


5Speaker`s plan/thought/idea

Ashita ikooto omoimasu.

(I plan to go tomorrow.)
6Request/advice

Ima ittekudasai.

(Please go now.)
4' Potential/ability

Kyoo ikeru.

(I`m able to go today.)


19

(
1780123
)

MAGIC VERB SHEET


Table-1 Conjugation of verbs
Group-1
ex.

Form

Group-2
ex.

Exception

Exception

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form/
Potential-form

-form

-form

Volitional-form

-form

See Table-2

Refer to Lesson 1 for and , Lesson 3 for and and Lesson 7 for Potential-form.

Table-2 -form and -form of Group-1 verbs

Line of
conjugation

-form
-form

Examples

-form
-form

Refer to Lesson 4 and 5 for -form of Group-1 verbs.

20

Exception

MAGIC VERB SHEET (JAPAN PATENT NO.1780123)


Table-1 Conjugation of verbs
Group-1
ex. iku

Form

Group-2
ex. okiru

Exception
kuru

Exception
suru

nai-form

ikanai

okinai

konai

shinai

masu-form

ikimasu

okimasu

kimasu

shimasu

Dictionary-form

iku

okiru

kuru

suru

Conditional-form/
Potential-form

ikeba/ikeru

okireba/okirareru

kureba/korareru

sureba/dekiru

ikoo

okiyoo

koyoo

shiyoo

okite

kite

shite

Volitional-form
te-form

See Table-2

Refer to Lesson 1 for iku and kuru, Lesson 3 for okiru and suru and Lesson 7 for Potential-form.

Table-2 te-form and te-form of Group-1 verbs

Line of
conjugation

te-form
ta-form

ka
ki
ku
ke
ko

ga
gi
gu
ge
go

sa
shi
su
se
so

ite
ita

ide
ida

shite
shita

Examples

kiku

oyogu

hanasu

te-form
ta-form

kiite
kiita

oyoide
oyoida

hanashite
hanashita

ta
chi
tsu
te
to

ra
ri
ru
re
ro

wa
i
u
e
o

na
ni
nu
ne
no

tte
tta

matsu

matte
matta

ba
bi
bu
be
bo

ma
mi
mu
me
mo

Exception

nde
nda

kaeru

iu

shinu

yobu

yomu

iku

kaette
kaetta

itte
itta

shinde
shinda

yonde
yonda

yonde
yonda

Itte
itta

Refer to Lesson 4 and 5 for te -form of Group-1 verbs.

21

22


USAGE OF PARTICLES
(not applicable)

Usage and Lessons to refer

(a) Direction of movement (L.1)

Adding wa
(Ref. notes 2)

Single usage
(Ref. notes 1)

Adding mo
(Ref. notes 3)

ewa

emo

(b) Purpose (L.1)

ni

niwa

nimo

(c) Time of action/event (L.2)

ni

niwa

nimo

(d) Place of existence (L.8)

ni

niwa

nimo

(e) Subject of sentence/clause


(L.4)

ga

wa
gawa)

(f) Object of transitive verbs


(L.3)

wa
owa)

mo
( omo)

(g) Object of potential verb


(L.7)

wa
gawa)

mo
( gamo)

(h) Place of action/event (L.4)

de

dewa

demo

(i) Method/means/medium (L.5)

de

dewa

demo

(j) [With] (L.4)

to

towa

tomo

wa

mo

(k) With adverbs (L.3)

ga

no particle

mo
( gamo)

23

Notes 1 Single usage

A)

With the word which is not understood by listener and mentioned about for the first time

B)

With the interrogative word

* A) and B) in the following examples refer to the above A) and B) respectively.

(a) Direction of movement:

(I'm going to the bank.)


Ginkooe ikundesu.

(Where are you going?)

Dokoe ikundesuka?

(b) Purpose/reason:

ni

(I'm going shopping.)


Kaimononi ikundesu.
N.A

(c) Time of action/event: ni


(Please come at eleven o'clock.)
Juuichijini kitekudasai.

(What day should I go?)

Nanyoobini ikeba iidesuka?


Exception: (When are you going?)
Itsu ikundesuka?
(

Itsuni ikundesuka? )

(d) Place of existence: ni

(It is in the box.)

Hakono nakani arimasu.

24

(Where is it?)

Dokoni arundesuka?

ga

(e) Subject of sentence/clause:

(The wind is strong.)

Kazega tsuyoidesu.

(Who is going?)

Darega ikundesuka?

(f) Object of transitive verbs:


(I'll do my homework tonight.)

Konban shukudaio surundesu.

(What are you going to do?)

Nanio surundesuka?

ga

(g) Object of potential verbs:

(I can eat Japanese food.)


Nihon ryooriga taberaremasu
(What language are you able to speak?)
Nanigoga hanasemasuka?

(h) Place of action:

de

(I think I will listen to the radio there.)


Sokode rajioo kikooto omoimasu.

(Where should I swim?)

Dokode oyogeba iidesuka?

(i) Method/means/medium:

de

(Please write in pencil.)


Enpitsude kaitekudasai.

(How should I go there?)

Nande ikeba iidesuka?

25

to

(j) [With]:

(I'm going to play tennis with my friend.)

Tomodachito tenisuo yarundesu.

(Whom are you going with?)

Dareto ikundesuka?

(k) With adverbs: no particle


(Please go now.)
Ima ittekudasai.
) (I wake up early every morning.)
Maiasa hayaku okimasu.

Notes 2 Adding wa

In the following cases, add wa


A) To negate certain thing in the negative answer. Refer to Lesson 1.
B) To mention about certain thing as a topic. In this case the word with wa is normally
placed at the beginning of the sentence. Refer to Lesson 3.
* A) and B) in the following examples refer to the above A) and B) respectively.

(a) Direction of movement:

ewa

(Are you going to work/the office?)


Kaishae ikundesuka?
(No, I'm not going to work/the office [but
go to some other place].)
Iie, kaishaewa ikanaindesu.
(Where are you going?)
Dokoe ikundesuka?

(I'm going to the post office.)

Yuubinkyokue ikundesu.

26

(Then, when do you go to the bank?)


Ginkooewa itsu ikundesuka?
(I'll go to the bank tomorrow.)
Ginkooewa ashita ikundesu.

(b) Purpose: ni

niwa

(Are you going shopping?)


Kaimononi ikundesuka?
(No, I'm not going shopping [but doing
some other things].)
Iie, kaimononiwa ikanaindesu.

(I'm going to the movie.)

Eegani ikundesu
(Aren't you going shopping?)
Kaimononiwa ikanaindesuka?

(I'll go shopping next week.)

Kaimononiwa raishuu ikimasu.

(c) Time of action/event:

ni

niwa

(Are you going to church on


Sunday?)
Kyookaiewa nichiyoobini ikundesuka?
(No, I'm not going on Sunday [but
on other days].)
Iie, nichiyoobiniwa ikanaindesu.

(I go to work everyday, but not on Sundays.)


Mainichi kaishae ikundesu. Demo nichiyoobiniwa ikanaindesu.
(Then, what do you do on Sundays?)
Nichiyoobiniwa nanio surundesuka?
(I go to church on Sundays.)
Nichiyoobiniwa kyookaie ikimasu.

27

(d) Place of existence:

ni

niwa

(Is your sister downstairs?)


Oneesanwa shitani irasshaimasuka?
(No, she is not downstairs.)
Iie, anewa shitaniwa orimasen.
(I'm going to Kyoto.)
Kyootoni ikundesu.
(What is there in Kyoto?)
Kyootoniwa naniga arundesuka?
(There are a lot of temples in
Kyoto.)
Kyootoniwa oteraga takusan arimasu.

(e) Subject of sentence/clause:

ga

wa

(Is Mr.Kimura going?)


Kimurasanga ikundesuka?
(No, he is not going [but some other
persons are going].)
Iie, Kimurasanwa ikanaindesu.
(Who is going to Japan?)

Nihonewa darega ikundesuka?


(Mr.Tanaka is going.)
Tanakasanga ikundesu
(When is he going?)

Tanakasanwa itsu ikundesuka?

(f) Object of transitive verbs:


wa

(Do you play tennis today?)

Kyoo tenisuo surundesuka?

28

(No, I don't play tennis [but do some other things

today]. ) Ref.(k)
Iie, tenisuwa shimasen
(What are you going to do?)
Nanio surundesuka?
(I'm going to play tennis.)
Tenisuo surundesu.

(Where do you play tennis?)

Tenisuwa dokode surundesuka?

(g) Object of potential verbs:

ga

wa

(Can he speak Japanese?)


Sonohitowa nihongoga hanaserundesuka?
(No, he can't speak Japanese [but speak

Other language].)
Iie, nihongowa hanasenaindesu.

(What language are you able to speak?)

Nanigoga hanaserundesuka?

(I can speak English.)

Eegoga hanasemasu
(Are you able to speak Japanese?)
Nihongowa hanasemasuka?

(I can speak a little Japanese.)

Nihongowa sukoshi hanasemasu.

(h) Place of action/event:

de dewa

(I'm going to swim there. Is it all right?)


Sokode oyogimasu. iidesuka?
(I'm sorry, please don't swim there
[but swim in other places].)
Sumimasen, sokodewa oyoganaidekudasai.
(Where are you going?)

29

Dokoe ikundesuka?
(I'm going to school.)
Gakkooe ikundesu.
(What do you do at school?)
Gakkoodewa nanio surundesuka?
(I study at school.)
Gakkoodewa benkyooshimasu.

(i) Method/means/medium:

de

dewa

(Do you go there by bus?)


Basude ikundesuka?

(No, I don't go there by bus [but by some other

means].)
Iie, basudewa ikanaindesu.

(Please come by bus or taxi.)

Basuka takushiide kitekudasai.

(How long does it take by bus?)

Basudewa donogurai kakarimasuka?


(About
thirty minutes. It takes fifteen minutes by taxi.)
Sanjippunguraidesu. Takushiidewa juugohunguraidesu.

(j) [With]:

to towa

(Do you go to the movie with your cousin?)


Eeganiwa itokoto ikundesuka?

(No, I don't go with my cousin [but with

someone else].)
Iie, itokotowa ikanaindesu.
(I'm going to play tennis with Mr.Yamada.)
Yamadasanto tenisuo surundesu.
(Do you often play with him?)
Yamadasantowa yoku surundesuka?

30

(Yes, I do often.)
Ee, yoku shimasu.

(k) With adverbs: no particle

wa

(Do you play tennis today?)

Kyoo tenisuo surundesuka?

(No, I don't play today [but some other days].)Ref.(f)

Iie, kyoowa shimasen.


(I get up

at seven o'clock everyday. But I'll get up at five o'clock tomorrow.)


Mainichi shichijini okimasu. Demo ashitawa gojini okimasu.
(Why do you get up at five o'clock?)
Dooshite gojini okirundesuka?
(I'm going jogging tomorrow.)
Ashitawa joginguo surundesu.

Notes 3 Adding mo(also/too) Refer to Lesson 3.

(a) Direction of movement:

e emo

(I'm going to Tokyo. I'm going

To Osaka, too.)
Tookyooe ikundesu. Oosakaemo ikimasu.

(b) Purpose:

ni

nimo

(I'm going shopping. I'm going to the

movie, too. )
Kaimononi ikimasu. Eeganimo ikimasu.

(c) Time of action/event:

ni

nimo

(I go to school on Mondays.)
Gakkooewa getsuyoobini ikimasu.

31

(Do you go on Thursdays, too?)


Mokuyoobinimo ikimasuka?
(No, I don't go on Thursdays.)
Iie, mokuyoobiniwa ikimasen.
(d) Place of existence:

ni

nimo

(There is a telephone here.


There is one over there, too.)
Denwawa kokoni arimasu. Asokonimo arimasu.

ga

(e) Subject of sentence/clause:

mo

(Mr.Tanaka is coming today.)

Kyoowa Tanakasanga kimasu.


(Isn't Mr.Yamada coming?)
Yamadasanwa konaind esuka?
(Mr.Yamada is also coming.)
Yamadasanmo kimasu.

(f) Object of transitive verbs:

mo

(I play tennis. I play golf, too.)


Watashiwa tenisuo shimasu. Goruhumo shimasu.

(g) Object of potential verbs:

ga

mo

(Mr.Tanaka can

Speak English. He can speak French, too.)


Tanakasanwa eegoga hanasemasu. Huransugomo hanasemasu.
(h) Place of action/event:

de demo

(I study at school.)

Benkyoowa gakkoode shimasu.

(Do you study at home, too?)

Uchidemo surundesuka?

32

(Yes, I study at home, too)


Hai, uchidemo shimasu.

(i) Method/means/medium:

de

demo

(How do you go to work

everyday?)
Mainichi nande kaishae ikundesuka?
(I go by bus. How about you?)
Basude ikundesu. Xsanwa?

(I go by

train. Sometimes I also go by bus.)


Watashiwa denshade ikundesu. tokidoki basudemo ikimasu.

(j) [With]:

to tomo

(Usually I go

with my friend. Sometimes I also go with my cousin.)


Taitee tomodachito ikimasu. tokidoki itokotomo ikimasu.

(k) With adverbs: no particle


mo

(I play tennis today.)

Kyoo tenisuo surundesu.

(Tomorrow, do you play, too?)

Ashitamo shimasuka?
(Yes, tomorrow I play, too.)
ashitamo shimasu.

33


(Greetings and manners)
Aisatsuto manaa
4:00

Asa

6:00
8:00

Ohayoogozaimasu

10:00

12:00

Hiru

1400

Konnichiwa

1600
18:00

20:00

Yoru

24:00

Konbanwa

2:00

Sayoonara

34

Shitsureeshimasu


Doozo

Arigatoogozaimasu

Iie

Sumimasen

Iie

Shitsureeshimasu

Doozo

Hajimemashite

(
)

( )desu
Yoroshiku onegaishimasu

35

(Classroom expressions)
Kyooshitsude tsukau kotoba
(1)

Lets start.

Hajimemashoo.
(2)

Please say together.

Isshoni ittekudasai.
(3)

Please say again.

Mooichido ittekudasai.
(4)

(To the teacher)

Please say slowly.

Yukkuri osshatte kudasai


(5)

Please listen.

Kiitekudasai.
(6)

Please look at your textbook.

Kyookashoo mitekudasai.
(7)

Please read together.

Isshoni yondekudasai.
(8)

Please write your name.

Namaeo kaitekudasai.
(9)

Do you understand?

Wakarimasuka?
(10)

I understand.

Wakarimasu.
(11)

I don't understand.

Wakarimasen.
(12)

Do you have any question?

Shitsumonwa arimasuka?
(13)

I don't have.

Arimasen.
(14)

Owarimashoo.

36

Let's finish.

(Dialogue) 1

(In the morning / 4:00a.m 10:00a.m)

-------

(In the afternoon /10:00a.m. 7:00p.m.)

37

(Verbs)

All the verbs are classified in three groups, Group-1, Group-2 and Irregular (exception)
verbs.

The conjugation rules of Group-1 and Group-2 are different from each other.
There are only two irregular verbs; (to come) and (to do).

Six basic forms of the verbs, (to go) and


(Group-1)

(Exception)

-form

-form

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

Notes: 1) Each verb of Group-1 has its own conjugation line. The conjugation line of
the verb is . , , and of each
form are common to all the Group-1 verbs.
2) is one of the two irregular(exception) verbs.

Present/future sentence final


Polite
-pattern

Non-polite

Polite
-pattern

Affirmative

(-form)

(Dic-form)

Negative

(-form)

Affirmative

(-form)

(Dic-form)

Negative

(-form)

38

is used when:
1. Speaker comes back where he/she is now, not to his/her own place.
2. Listener or 3rd person comes where speaker is now or to

Others

speaker's place.

Otherwise is used.
Speaker
Copula

(am/are/is) Ref.

Speakers house

is used to identify a thing/person.


e.g.

(I am Chan.)
(That's right.) opp.: (It's wrong/I'm not, etc.)

(Particles)
Particles are attached to nouns, pronouns and certain adverbs and adjectives to indicate the
function of the words in the sentence.
Topic of sentence:
e.g.

(May I have your name, please?)


(Are you a Chinese?)

Direction of movement:
e.g.

(I'm going to school.)

Purpose:
e.g.

(I'm going shopping.)

Negation of certain thing in the negative answer:


e.g.

(I'm not going to my office/to work.)

Particles are also attached to certain sentences.

Interrogative sentence final:


e.g.

(Where are you going?)

(Misc.)

39

(Mr./Mrs./Miss. --)
is an honorific suffix. Family name + is normally used to address or
refer to the 2nd person or 3rd person.

/Bye)
can be used under any circumstances.

/
means Yes.(That's right.) and means No. (That's wrong.).

(1)

(Practice)

(where)

(words)

A: /

B: /
(2)

A: /
B: /
/

(3)

A:

B:

/
40

(4)

A:

B:

(5)

A:

B:

(Place)

---

(Purpose)

---

41

(In the evening /night/ 7:00p.m. 2:00a.m.)

-------

42

-form

-form

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

Conditional-form + : Asking for the listener's advice


e.g.

(What time should I go there?)


(When should I go ?

Ref. )

(Which day should I come?

Ref.

Volitional-form + : Speaker's plan/thought/idea


e.g.

(I plan to go to the swimming pool.)


(I plan to go there on Monday.
Ref.
(I'm thinking of coming here on
Monday.

Ref.

-form + : Making a request/giving an advice


e.g.

(Please come to my house.)


(Please come here at eleven o'clock.)
(Please go there now.

Ref. )

Time of action/event:
e.g.

(Are you going


anywhere this Sunday?)
(What time should I go?)

43

Connecting nouns:
e.g.

(this Sunday)
(my house)

Pronouns)

To refer to the speaker, (female) and (male) are used and only when it is
necessary. It should be omitted when it is understood. Man can also use in formal
situations.

(when)

(what day)

(week)

(1)

A:

B:

A:

B:

A:

B:

A:

B:

(2)

(3)

(4)

44

2
(1)

(Particle for negative answers.)

A:

B:

(2)

A:

B:

/
/

(Numerals)

11

30

12

40

13

50

4 /

14 /

60

15

70 /

16

80

7 /

17 /

90

18

100

9 /

19 /

1,000 /

10

20

10,000

45

(1)

(2)

B:

which page
which line

A:
B:

46

A:

47

Six basic forms of the verbs, (to get up) and (to do)
(Group-2)

(Exception)

-form

-form

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

Notes:

1) Stem (Dictionary-form without ) of Group-2 verb never changes.


Each form is obtained by simply adding , , , ,
and to the stem.
2) is one of the two irregular (exception) verbs.

(suru-verbs)
Certain nouns can be converted to verbs by adding ()
e.g.

(telephone)

(study)

()

(to telephone)

()

(to study)

The interrogative sentence with (why) must be -pattern, not


-pattern.
e.g.

(Why do you get up early?)


)

(Why aren't you playing?)

Its answer normally ends with (because) as well as .


e.g.

(Because I'm going


jogging.)
(Because I'm tired.)

48

Topic of sentences: (Ref. )


The word with is normally placed at the beginning of a sentence.
e.g.

(I think I will get up early


tomorrow.)


Ref.

(I'm going to Osaka next week.

(also/too)

e.g.

(Are you going to play tennis


today, too?)

(I'm also going to Osaka this

week. Ref. )

Object of transitive verbs:


e.g.

(Do you/Are you going to play tennis?)

When is added, drops.


e.g.

(Do you/Are you going to play tennis?)


(No, I don't/I'm not. Ref. )

(
When

is added, drops.

e.g.

(I work. I study, too.)

(Conjunctions)

(but)
is used in spoken Japanese, is in formal situations or in written
Japanese.

()

(what time)
(1)

49

(2)

(3)

()

(what)

(1)

(2)

50

(3)

(4)

51

(1)

()

(why)

(because)

(2)

(1)

(2)

52

(Fill in the blanks with [topic] or [also].)

(Expressions of time)

(Time/hour)

(Minutes)

1:00

11

25

2:00

12

30 /

3:00

13

4:00

14

35
40 /

5:00

6:00

15

16

45
50 /

7:00

17

55

8:00

8 /

18 /

60 /

9:00

19

10:00

10/

20 /

11:00

12:00

53

10

----

54

-form of Group-1 verbs (1)

(to listen/hear)

(to swim)

(to speak/talk)

-form

-form

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

Notes: 1) If the conjugation line of the verb is ,its -form is obtained


by putting , e.g. .
There is only one exception, ,-form of which is , not
.
2) If the conjugation line of the verb is , its -form is
obtained by putting , e.g. .
3) If the conjugation line of the verb is , its -form is
obtained by putting , e.g. .

-form + : Negative request/advice


e.g.

(Please don't swim in the sea.)

Subject of verb and other predicates:


e.g.

(Because the wind is strong.)

When is added, drops.


e.g.

(Are you Chinese?)


(

(Is today the 9th?)

)
55

When is added, drops.


e.g.

(It will be fine tomorrow, too)


(X

Place of action/event:
e.g.

(I'm thinking of swimming in the sea.)


(Please don't swim in the sea.)

Emphasis of statement:
e.g.

(Tomorrow is a holiday, you know?)

Expectation of the listener's agreement:


e.g.

(You are lucky, aren't you?)

-words

There are a few words such as

Listener

and (here ,there, over there and where).

Generally, is related to the speaker, is related to


listener or both speaker and listener and refers to the

Speaker

place/thing/person, etc. farther distance than . is


interrogative.
e.g.

(Please don't swim here.)


(Please swim over there.)
(What is that?)
Nominal

Place

Prenominal
Thing

(Always followed
by noun)

(here)

(this/this one)

(this)

(there)

(that/that one/it)

(that/the/its)

(over there)

(that/that one over there)

(that/the/its)

(where)

(which/which one)

(which)

56

(That's wrong. It's not)

opp.

and are used to answer to most of the questions with


or except adjective +.

(and)
is used with nouns and pronouns only, not to connect sentences.
e.g.

(news and weather forecast)

(Request, affirmative and negative)


(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

57

(Fill in the blanks with suitable particles.)

(who)

(1)

(2)

(object)

(object)

B
(3)

B
(4)

(5)

58

(object)

(object, negation)

(subject)

(subject)

(subject, [also])
(subject, negation)

(place of action)

(place of action)

(place of action)

(place of action, negation)

(Month and date)

(Month)

(Date)

11

21

12

22

13

23

14

24

15

25

16

26

17

27

18

28

19

29

10

20

30

11

31

12

10

what day of the month

59

(1)

(2)

60

61

-form of Group-1 verbs (2)

(to say/tell)

(to wait)

(to go/come back)

(to say/tell)

-form

-form

(1)

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

Notes: 1) -form of is , not


.
2) If the conjugation line of the verb is , or
,its -form is obtained by putting , e.g.
, , .

(to die)

(to call)

(to read)

-form

-form

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

Notes: 3) If the conjugation line of the verb is , or


, its -form is obtained by putting , e.g.
, , .
62

Stem of -form + Let's ... /Shall we ...?


e.g.

(Let's play together.)

(Lets meet at the Ueno Station.)

(from), (to/until/up to)


e.g.

(from 4 o'clock to 6 o'clock)


(from here to Ueno)

Method/means/medium:
e.g.

(Please go by Ginza Line.)

(Please don't write it in pen.)

(with)
e.g.

(I play tennis with my friends.)

(noun)/(pronoun) + ((Please give me )


e.g.

(Please give this to me.)

1 ( Making a request)
(Group 1)

*Note: Use particle with person. i.e. []


(1)

63

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

2 ( [Lets ])
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

64

(Drink)

---

()

3 (Fill the blanks with [method/means/medium] or [with].)

/* (how)
*Note: is used only to ask a way of action while can be used
under any circumstances.

65

(1)

B
(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(Method), (Transportation) ---

*Note:
used as an adverb.
66

is

(Tool)

---

(Language)

---

Hello!

4 (Asking for advice giving advice)


(1)


630

(2)

15

(3)

(4)

(7.00 a.m.)

(5)

(6)

(7)

67

(Hundred)

(Thousand)

(Yen)

4 /

7 /

9 /

10

()

()

(1)

(2)

68

(how much)

(how many)

B:

MENU

69

Group-2 verbs (Ref. )

(to sleep)

(to eat)

(to see/look/watch)

-form

-form

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

Negative form of -form + : Invitation

e.g.

(Wont you join me?)

(and etc.)
is used for more flexible situations than .
For example,

is limited to two things, and

, while may include other program.

Confirmation of the listeners statement: ( ) Tone is lowered.


e.g.

70

( ) (I see.)

( ) (I see, you are going to school.)

( ) (Are you going to school?)

(after that)
e.g.


(I study for about two hours. After that I watch T.V.)

(and)
is mainly used to connect sentences.
e.g.

(And what time do you go to bed?)

(about --)
is used only for point of time such as time, day/date, month, year, etc.
is used for other cases such as duration, volume, measurement, amount, etc.
e.g.

(at about eleven oclock)


(for about two hours)

(1)

A
B

71

(2)

(3)

(4)

(what kind of)


(1)

(2)

B (

B (

72

3 plan/thought
(1)

1200

(2)

(615)

(3)

(4)

730

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

73

(12)

515

4 giving an advice/making a request


(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

: Group-1

(Reading material)

---

74

(Hours/duration)

(Hours)

(Days)

(Month)

(Years)

10

(1)

(2)

(how long)

: Group-1


75

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

1:00

2:00

3:00

4:00

5:00

6:00

7:00

8:00

9:00

10:00

11:00

12:00

76

77

Potential verbs: Potential form of verbs)


Original verb

(Group-1

(Group-2)

Potential verb

Notes: 1) Rule of conjugation


A. Group-1 verbs
Potential form is obtained by using the 4th word of the conjugation line
and putting .
e.g. ( is the 4th word of the line
is the 4th word of the line )
B. Group-2 verbs
Potential form is obtained by adding to the stem.
e.g.

C. and
,

2) Potential form such as (to be able to go) is a different verb


as compared to the original verb, (to go). As such it has its full
conjugation and it is Group-2 verb irrespective of the Group of its origin.
e.g.

78

-form

-form

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional-form

-form

3) With potential verbs, use particle instead of .


e.g.

(I eat Japanese food.)

(I can eat Japanese food.)

4) Usage of potential verbs: Potential/ability


e.g.

(I'm able to speak Japanese.)

(Are you able to come at seven o'clock?)


5) and have two potential verbs each:
i.e.

and
and

means be able to hear physically [because its loud enough].


In other cases use .
e.g.

(Can you hear me?)

We can hear the foreign broadcast on this radio.)


means be able to see physically [because its bright enough,
big enough, clear enough, near enough]. In other cases use .
e.g.

(I can see clearly.)

Children cannot/are not allowed to see this movie.)

Object of potential verbs:


e.g.

(I speak Japanese. [ is for object of transitive

verb.])

(Im able to speak Japanese. [ is for object

of potential verb.])
When or is added, drops.
e.g.

I cant eat Japanese food.)

(I can speak Japanese, too.)

79

Copula

Ref.

[spoken Japanese][written Japanese] is


negative form of (to be).

(therefore)
e.g.

(Therefore, its all right.)

(a little/a few)

negative form (not at all)


e.g.

(I can't eat at all.)

in Dictionary-form/-form
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

80

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(Answer in -pattern with )


(1)

(2)

81

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

82

83

, , and

(Group-2)

(Group-1)

(Group-1)

(Group-1)

(1)

-form

-form

(1)

Dictionary-form

Conditional-form

Volitional -form

-form

Notes: 1) Conjugation
A. -form of is ,not
.
B. -form, Volitional-form and -form of are seldom used.
C. -form of is , not .
2) Verbs , , and mean to exist,
to be in/at, to be located/situated in/at, there is/are, etc.
3) refers to living things (except plants) and train/car/ship/plane with
driver/pilot.
4) and is used instead of according to
whom you refer to when you speak to superiors, those not close to you or
in formal situations.
A. refers to the listener, listeners family, people
associated to the listener or to superiors.
B. refers to the speaker, speakers family, people associated to the
speaker.
e.g.

(Is your father in?


84

(Im sorry, my father is not in at the moment.)

Listeners family

Listener

Speakers family

Superior

Speaker

Superiors family

5) refers to non-living things and plants.


e.g.

(There is no bread.)

(Where is the noodle?)

Place of existence:

e.g.

(Where is the noodle?)

(It is in the big box.)

(Adjectives)

There are two types of adjectives, (I-adjectives) and

(Na-adjectives

Ref. ).

All the end with .


When such as and are used to modify noun,
they are always placed immediately before the noun.
e.g.

big box

+ negative form of word


e.g.

([subject/object] not at all)

(There is nothing in the box.)


85

(I dont eat anything.)


(There is nobody.)
(Nobody comes.)

(Oh!)
is used mainly by women.

(1)

(2)


(family/kinship)

86

A
B

()

A
B

()

B
()

A
B

87

(1)

A
B

(2)

A
B

Viewer

(3)

A:

B: ,

A //
B

88

(Person[s])

7 /

9 /

10

(1)

A
B

(2)

A /
B

89

-----------

90

Copula (to be)

Copula / is used to identify a thing/person, such as (noun) is (noun/


-adjective).
e.g.

/
Mr.Koh is a student.)

/
My house is quiet.)
Present / future sentence final
(Words in brackets are spoken form.)

Polite
normal-pattern

Non-polite

Polite
-pattern

Affirmative

Negative

()

(
There are two polite(normal pattern) negative forms,
() and ) The former is more polite.

-form /
-form / is used to describe states.
e.g.

Where do you live?


/
Do you know Mr. Koh?

Exception: The negative form of is , not


.
e.g.

No, I dont know.)

91

Place of state:
e.g.

I live in Meguro.

When such as and are used to modify noun,


particle is added.
e.g.

quiet place

simple words

Modifying noun

Modifier

Pattern

(Pronouns)

Personal pronouns
To refer to the inferior or younger person, (2nd person, (3rd person,
male and 3rd person, female can be used. and also
mean boyfriend and girlfriend respectively. Otherwise, Family name is
used for 2nd person and 3rd person. or can also be used for 3rd
person.
e.g.


(Are you/Is Mr. Chan a Chinese?)

+ negative form (only/nothing but)

is always used with negative form of the word.


e.g.
92

(He understands only

simple words/He understands nothing but simple words.)

(There are only few/There is only little.)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

negative form
(1)

(2)

93

(3)

(4)

(5)

(1)

(2)

(1)

(Modifying noun)

(2)

94

(3)

(4)

95

96

DVD

DVD

97

Present/Future sentence final with adjectives


(1)
Polite
normal-pattern

Polite

Non-polite

-pattern

Affirmative

Negative

Exception: (good, fine, all right)


Polite
normal-pattern

Non-polite

Polite
-pattern

Affirmative

Negative

Notes: 1) without final is called stem. The stem of


is .
2) Negative form is obtained by adding //
to the stem.
e.g.

98

Is it hot there?

(No, its not hot here.)


3) There is one exception, . Negative form of is
, not ".
i.e.

Is the weather fine?)

(No, it is not [fine].)


4) Particle for negation (in bracket above) is often omitted.
(2) : Use copula /

(Ref. )

Polite
normal-pattern

Non-polite

Polite
-pattern

Affirmative

Negative

(spoken)

(spoken)

+ affirmative form of adjective (very)

+ negative form of adjective (not very)


e.g.

(It is very interesting.)


(It is not very difficult.)


---

(1)

(how about/is ---)

(2)

99

(3)

100

(1)

(2)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(1)

(2)

101

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

affirmative, negative
(1)

102

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

103

Dai ikka

Dai ikka
Kaiwa (Dialogue) 1 (Asa : In the morning/ 4:00-10:00 a.m.)
Chan

Ohayoo gozaimasu.

Kyooshi :

Ohayoo gozaimasu. Onamaewa?

Chan

Chandesu. Hajimemashite, yoroshiku onegaishimasu.

Kyooshi :

Chansanwa chuugokujindesuka?

Chan

Hai, soodesu.

Kyooshi :

Sayoonara.

Chan

Sayoonara.

Kaiwa 2 (Hiru : In the afternoon/ 10:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.)


Tanaka :

Konnichiwa.

Satoo

Konnichiwa. Dokoe ikundesuka?

Tanaka :

Gakkooe ikundesu. Satoosanwa kaishae ikundesuka?

Satoo

Iie, kaishaewa ikanaindesu. Kaimononi ikundesu.

Tanaka :

Soreja, mata. Shitsureeshimasu.

Satoo

Shitsureeshimasu.

104

Dai ikka

Dooshi (Verbs)

All the verbs are classified in three groups, Group-1, Group-2 and Irregular (exception)
verbs.

The conjugation rules of Group-1 and Group-2 are different from each other.
There are only two irregular verbs; kuru (to come) and suru (to do).

Six basic forms of the verbs, iku (to go) and kuru
iku (Group-1)

kuru (Exception)

nai-form

ikanai

konai

masu-form

ikimasu

kimasu

Dictionary-form (Dic-form)

iku

kuru

Conditional-form

ikeba

kureba

Volitional-form

ikoo

koyoo

te-form

itte

kite

Notes:

1) Each verb of Group-1 has its own conjugation line. The conjugation line
of the verb iku is kakikukeko. nai, masu, ba and o of each
form are common to all the Group-1 verbs.
2) kuru is one of the two irregular(exception) verbs.

Present/future sentence final


Polite
masu-pattern
Iku

Non-polite

Polite
ndesu-pattern

Affirmative

ikimasu (masu-form)

iku (Dic-form)

ikundesu

Negative

ikimasen

ikanai (nai-form)

ikanaindesu

kimasu (masu-form)

kuru (Dic-form)

kurundesu

kimasen

konai (nai-form)

konaindesu

Kuru Affirmative
Negative

105

Dai ikka

Kuru is used when:


1. Speaker comes back where he/she is now, not to his/her own place.
2. Listener or 3rd person comes where speaker is now or to

Others

speaker's place.

Otherwise iku is used.


Speaker
Copula desu (am/are/is)

Ref. Daikyuuka

Speakers house

Desu is used to identify a thing/person.


e.g.

Chandesu.(I am Chan.)
Soodesu. (That's right.) opp.: Chigaimasu (It's wrong/I'm not, etc.)

Joshi (Particles)
Particles are attached to nouns, pronouns and certain adverbs and adjectives to indicate the
function of the words in the sentence.
Topic of sentence: wa
e.g.

Onamaewa? (May I have your name, please?)


Chansanwa chuugokujindesuka? (Are you a Chinese?)

Direction of movement: e
e.g.

Gakkooe ikundesu. (I'm going to school.)

Purpose: ni
e.g.

Kaimononi ikundesu. (I'm going shopping.)

Negation of certain thing in the negative answer:


e.g.

wa

Kaishaewa ikanaindesu. (I'm not going to my office/to work.)

Particles are also attached to certain sentences.

Interrogative sentence final: ka


e.g.

Sonota (Misc.)
106

Dokoe ikundesuka? (Where are you going?)

Dai ikka

-- San (Mr./Mrs./Miss. --)


San is an honorific suffix. Family name + san is normally used to address or
refer to the 2nd person or 3rd person.

Sayoonara/ShitsureeshimasuBye)
Shitsureeshimasu can be used under any circumstances.

Hai/Iie
Hai means Yes.(That's right.) and Iie means No. (That's wrong.).

Renshuu (Practice)
doko (where)

Kotoba (words)
gakkoo
koko
kaimono

(1)

kaisha

yuubinkyoku

soko
eiga

A : Dokoe ikimasu ka/ ikundesuka?

iku

B : Kaishae ikimasu/ikundesu.
(2)

A : Yubinkyokue ikimasu ka/ikundesuka?


B : Hai, ikimasu/ikundesu.
Iie, (yuubinkyokuewa) ikimasen/ikanaindesu.

(3)

A : Eigani ikimasu ka/ikundesuka?


B : Hai, ikimasu/ikundesu.
Iie, (eiganiwa) ikimasen/ikanaindesu.

107

Dai ikka

(4)

A : Gakkooe kimasu ka/kurundesuka?

kuru

B : Hai, kimasu/kurundesu.
Iie, (gakkooewa) kimasen/konaindesu.
(5)

A : Kokoe kimasu ka/kurundesuka?


B : Hai, ikimasu/ikundesu.
Iie, (sokoewa) ikimasen/ikanaindesu

Basho (Place)

--- e iku

gakkoo

kaisha

koko

Mokuteki

(Purpose)

soko

doko

--- ni iku
kaimono

108

yuubinkyoku

eega

Dai nika

Dai nika
Kaiwa 1 (Yoru: In the evening/night/7:00p.m. 2:00a.m.)
Chan

Konbanwa.

Kyooshi :

Konbanwa. Ogenkidesuka?

Chan

Hai, okagesamade. Senseiwa ogenkidesuka?

Kyooshi :

Hai, arigatoo gozaimasu.

------------Chan :

Ja, oyasuminasai.

Kyooshi :

Oyasuminasai.

Kaiwa 2
Tanaka :

Kondono nichiyoobini dokokae ikimasuka?

Satoo

Puurue ikooto omoimasu. Isshoni ikimasuka?

Tanaka :

Iidesuka?

Satoo

Ee. Mazu watashino uchie kite kudasai.

Tanaka :

Nanjini ikeba iidesuka?

Satoo

Juuichijini kitekudasai.

Tanaka :

Wakarimashita.

109

Dai nika

Dooshi

iku

kuru

nai-form

ikanai

konai

masu -form

ikimasu

kimasu

Dictionary-form

iku

kuru

Conditional-form

ikeba

kureba

Volitional-form

ikoo

koyoo

te -form

itte

kite

Conditional-form + iidesuka? : Asking for the listeners advice


e.g.

Nanjini ikeba iidesuka? (What time should I go there?)


Itsu ikeba iidesuka? (When should I go?

Ref. renshuu)

Nanyoobini kureba iidesuka? (Which day should I come? Ref. renshuu)


Volitional-form + to omoimasu: Speakers plan/thought/idea
e.g.

Puurue ikooto omoimasu. (I plan to go to the swimming pool.)


Getsuyoobini ikooto omoimasu. (I plan to go there on Monday.
Ref. renshuu
Getsuyoobini koyooto omoimasu. (I'm thinking of coming here on
Monday.

Ref. renshuu

te -form + kudasai: Making a request/advice


e.g.

Watashino uchie kitekudasai. (Please come to my house.)


Juuichijini kitekudasai. (Please come here at eleven o'clock.)
Ima ittekudasai. (Please go there now. Ref. renshuu)

Joshi
Time of action/event: ni
e.g.

Kondono nichiyoobini dokokae ikimasuka? (Are you going


anywhere this Sunday?)
Nanjini ikeba iidesuka? (What time should I go?)

110

Dai nika

Connecting nouns: no
Kondono nichiyoobi (this Sunday)

e.g.

Watashino uchi (my house)


Daimeishi Pronouns)
To refer to the speaker, watashi(female) and boku(male) are used and only when it is
necessary. It should be omitted when it is understood. Man can also use watashi in formal
situations.
Renshuu 1

itsu: (when)

ima

kyoo

konshuu

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

ashita
raishuu

nanyoobi: (what day)

A:

Itsu ginkooe ikeba iidesuka?

shuu (week)

B:

Ima ittekudasai.

nichiyoobi

A:

Itsu kureba iidesuka?

getsuyoobi

B:

Ashita mooichido kitekudasai.

kayoobi

A:

Nanyoobini ikimasu ka/ikundesuka?

suiyoobi

B:

Getsuyoobini ikooto omoimasu.

mokuyoobi

A:

Nanyoobini kimasu ka/kurundesuka?

kinyoobi

B:

Getsuyoobini koyooto omoimasu.

doyoobi

111

Dai nika

Renshuu 2 (Particle wa for negative answers.)


(1)

A:

Nichiyoobini ikimasu ka?/ikundesuka?

B:

Hai, ikimasu/ikundesu.
Iie, nichiyoobiniwa ikimasen/ikanaindesu.

(2)

A:

Ashita kimasu ka?/kurundesuka?

B:

Hai, kimasu/kurundesu.
Iie, ashitawa kimasen/konaindesu.

Kazu (Numerals)

ichi

11

juuichi

30

sanjuu

ni

12

juuni

40

yonjuu

san

13

juusan

50

gojuu

yon/shi

14

juuyon/

60

rokujuu

70

nanajuu/

juushi
5

go

15

juugo

shichijuu
6

roku

16

juuroku

80

hachijuu

shichi/nana

17

juushichi/

90

kyuujuu
hyaku

juunana
8

hachi

18

juuhachi

100

kyuu/ku

19

juukyuu/

1,000

sen/issen

10,000

ichiman

juuku
10
112

juu

20

nijuu

Dai nika

Renshuu 3
(1)

A:

Nanpeejidesuka?
nanpeejiwhich page

B:
(2)

A:
B:

peejidesu.

nangyoomewhich line

Nangyoomedesuka?

gyoomedesu.

113

Dai sanka

Dai sanka
Kaiwa 1
Kimura :

Maiasa nanjini okirundesuka?

Yamada :

Shichijini okimasu. Demo ashitawa hayaku okiyooto omoimasu.

Kimura :

Dooshite hayaku okirundesuka?

Yamada :

Joginguo surukaradesu. Isshoni shimasuka?

Kimura :

Hai, ja nanjini okireba iidesuka?.

Yamada :

Gojihanni okitekudasai.

Kimura :

Hai, ja oyasuminasai.

Yamada :

Oyasuminasai.

Kaiwa 2
Tanaka :

Kyoomo tenisuo surundesuka?

Satoo

Iie, kyoowa shimasen.

Tanaka :

Dooshite shinaindesuka?

Satoo

Tsukaretakaradesu.

Tanaka :

Ja, ashita surundesuka?

Satoo

Ashitawa isogashiidesu. Asatte shiyooto omoimasu.

114

Dai sanka

Dooshi
Six basic forms of the verbs, okiru(to get up) and suru(to do)

okiru(Group-2)

suru(Exception)

nai-form

okinai

shinai

masu -form

okimasu

shimasu

Dictionary-form

okiru

suru

Conditional-form

okireba

sureba

Volitional-form

okiyoo

shiyoo

te-form

okite

shite

Notes:

1) Stem (Dictionary-form without ru) of Group-2 verb never changes.


Each form is obtained by simply adding nai, masu, ru, reba,
yoo and te to the stem.
2) Suru is one of the two irregular (exception) verbs.

Suru-dooshi (Suru-verbs)

Certain nouns can be converted to verbs by adding (o) suru.


e.g.

denwa (telephone)

denwa (o) suru

benkyoo (study)

benkyoo (o) suru

(to telephone)
(to study)

The interrogative sentence with dooshite (why) must be ndesu-pattern, not


masu-pattern.
e.g.

Dooshite hayaku okirundesuka? (Why do you get up early?)


( Dooshite hayaku okimasuka?)
Dooshite shinaindesuka? (Why aren't you playing?)
(

Dooshite shimasenka?)

Its answer normally ends with karadesu (because) as well as ndesu.


e.g.

Joginguo surukaradesu/surundesu. (Because I'm going

jogging.)
Tsukaretakaradesu/Tsukaretandesu. (Because I'm tired.)
Joshi

115

Dai sanka

Topic of sentences: wa (Ref. Dai ikka. The word with wa is normally placed at the
beginning of a sentence. Wa can be used more than once in a sentence.
Ashitawa hayaku okiyooto omoimasu. (I think I will get up early

e.g.

tomorrow.)
Oosakaewa raishuu ikimasu. (I'm going to Osaka next week.
Ref. Renshuu 4)
mo (also/too)
Kyoomo tenisuo surundesuka? (Are you going to play tennis

e.g.

today, too?)
Oosakaemo konshuu ikimasu. (I'm also going to Osaka this week.
Ref. Renshuu 4)

Object of transitive verbs: o


Tenisuo surundesuka? (Do you/Are you going to play tennis?)

e.g.

When wa is added, o drops.


Tenisuo surundesuka? (Do you/Are you going to play tennis?)

e.g.

Iie, tenisuwa shimasen. (No, I don't/I'm not. Ref. Renshuu 2)


( tenisuowa shimasen.)
When

mo is added, o drops.
Shigotoo shimasu. Benkyoomo shimasu. (I work. I study, too.)

e.g.

Benkyooomo shimasu.)

Setsuzokushi (Conjunctions)

demo (but)
Demo is used in spoken Japanese, shikashi is in formal situations or in written
Japanese.

Renshuu 1 (Dooshi okiru)


nanji (what time)
(1)

116

Maiasa nanjini okirundesuka/okimasu ka?

Rokujihanni okirundesu/okimasu.

Dai sanka

(2)

(3)

Ashita nanjini okirundesuka/okimasu ka?

Shichijini okiyooto omoimasu.

Ashitawa hayaku okitekudasai.

Nanjini okireba iidesuka?

Gojini okitekudasai.
Hai, wakarimashita.
Renshuu 2 (Dooshi suru, Joshi o)

nani

(1)

(2)

(what)

Suru-dooshi
joginguo suru

tenisuo suru

shigotoo suru

benkyooo suru

shukudaio suru

denwao suru

Nanio surundesuka/shimasu ka?

Shigotoo surundesu/shimasu.

Tenisuo surundesuka/shimasu ka?

Hai, surundesu/shimasu.
Iie, tenisuwa shinaindesu/shimasen.

117

Dai sanka

(3)

Itsu shukudaio surundesuka/shimasu ka?

(4)

Ashitano asa shiyooto omoimasu.

Itsu denwao sureba iidesuka?

Sugu shitekudasai

Suru-dooshi
joginguo suru

tenisuo suru

shigotoo suru
benkyooo suru

denwao suru

118

shukudaio suru

Dai sanka

Renshuu 3 (dooshite, karadesu)

dooshite

(1)

(2)

(why)

karadesu

(because)

Dooshite hayaku okirundesuka?

Kyookaie ikukaradesu.

Dooshite tenisuo shinaindesuka?

Nihongono ressunni ikukaradesu.

ressun

Nihongono benkyooo surukaradesu.


Renshuu 4 (Fill in the blanks with wa [topic] or mo [also].)

(1)

(2)

Mainichi shichijini okimasu. Ashita

gojini okimasu.

Mainichi shichijini okimasu. Ashita

shichijini okimasu.

Tookyooewa konshuu ikimasu. Oosakae

raishuu ikimasu.

Tookyooewa konshuu ikimasu. Oosakae

konshuu ikimasu.

119

Dai sanka

Jikan

(Expressions of time)
Hun (Minutes)

Jikan (Time/hour)
1:00 ichiji

1 ippun

11 juuippun

25 nijuugohun

2:00 niji

2 nihun

12 juunihun

30 sanjippun/
sanjuppun

3:00 sanji

3 sanpun

13 juusanpun

35 sanjuugohun

4:00 yoji

4 yonpun

14 juuyonpun

40 yonjippun/
yonjuppun

5:00 goji

5 gohun

15 juugohun

45 yonjuugohun

6:00 rokuji

6 roppun

16 juuroppun

50 gojippun/
gojupun

7:00 shichiji

7 nanahun

17 juunanahun

55 gojuugohun

8:00 hachiji

8 hachihun/

18 juuhachihun/

60 rokujippun/

happun

juuhappun

9:00 kuji

9 kyuuhun

10:00 juuji

10 jippun/

20 nijippun/

juppun

nijuppun

rokujuppun

19 juukyuuhun

11:00 juuichiji
12:00 juuniji

120

nanji

nanpun

Dai yonka

Dai yonka
Kaiwa 1
Kankookyaku : Umide oyogooto omoimasu. iidesuka?
Kakarino hito : Umidewa oyoganaidekudasai.
Kankookyaku : Dooshitedesuka?
Kakarino hito : Kyoowa kazega tsuyoikaradesu.
Kankookyaku : Ja, dokode oyogeba iidesuka?
Kakarino hito : Hoteruno puurude oyoidekudasai.
Kankookyaku : Wakarimashita. doomo sumimasen.
Kaiwa 2
Sumisu : Kyoowa kokonokadesuka?
Kimura : Chigaimasu. Tookadesu. Ashitawa kenkoku kinenbidesu. Yasumidesuyo.
Sumisu : Sorewa nandesuka?
Kimura : Kippudesu. Ashita sukiini ikundesu. Imakara kokode rajioo kikooto omoimasu.
Iidesuka?
Sumisu : Doozo kiitekudasai. Nanio kikundesuka?
Kimura : Nyuusuto tenkiyohooo kikundesu. ----------- Yokatta. Ashitamo haredesu.
Sumisu : Yokattadesune.

121

Dai yonka

Dooshi
Te -form of Group-1 verbs (1)
kiku

oyogu

(to listen/hear)

hanasu

(to swim)

(to speak/talk)

nai -form

kikanai

oyoganai

hanasanai

masu -form

kikimasu

oyogimasu

hanashimasu

Dictionary-form

kiku

oyogu

hanasu

Conditional-form

kikeba

oyogeba

hanaseba

Volitional-form

kikoo

oyogoo

hanasoo

te-form

kiite

oyoide

hanashite

Notes: 1) If the conjugation line of the verb is kakikukeko,its te -form is obtained


by putting ite, e.g. kiku kiite.
There is only one exception, iku,te -form of which is itte, not iite.
2) If the conjugation line of the verb is gagigugego, its te -form is
obtained by putting ide, e.g. oyogu oyoide.
3) If the conjugation line of the verb is sashisuseso, its te -form is
obtained by putting shite, e.g. hanasu hanashite.

nai-form + dekudasai: Negative request/advice


e.g.

Umidewa oyoganaidekudasai.

(Please don't swim in the sea.)

Joshi

Subject of verb and other predicates:


e.g.

ga

Kazega tsuyoikaradesu. (Because the wind is strong.)

When wa is added, ga drops.


e.g.

Chansanwa chuugokujindesuka? (Are you Chinese?)


(

Chansangawa chuugokujindesuka?)

Kyoowa kokonokadesuka? (Is today the 9th?)


(

Kyoogawa kokonokadesuka?)

When mo is added, ga drops.


e.g.

Ashitamo haredesu.. (It will be fine tomorrow, too)


(X

122

Ashitagamo haredesu..

Dai yonka

de

Place of action/event:
e.g.

Umide oyogooto omoimasu. (I'm thinking of swimming in the sea.)


Umidewa oyoganaidekudasai. (Please don't swim in the sea.)

Emphasis of statement:
e.g.

yo

Ashitawa yasumidesuyo. (Tomorrow is a holiday, you know?)

Expectation of the listener's agreement:


e.g.

ne

Yokattadesune. (You are lucky, aren't you?)

Kosoado-words
a
There are a few kosoadowords such as koko, soko,

Listener

asoko and doko (here, there, over there and where).


ko

Generally, ko is related to the speaker, so is related to

so

Speaker

listener or both speaker and listener and a refers to the


place/thing/person, etc. farther distance than so. Do is
interrogative.
e.g.

Kokodewa oyoganaidekudasai. (Please don't swim here.)


Asokode oyoidekudasai. (Please swim over there.)
Sorewa nandesuka? (What is that?)
Nominal

Place

Prenominal
Thing

(Always followed
by noun)

koko

kore (this/this one)

kono (this)

soko (there)

sore (that/that one/it)

sono (that/the/its)

asoko (over there)

are (that/that one over there)

ano (that/the/its)

doko

dore (which/which one)

dono (which)

(here)

(where)

123

Dai yonka

koko

soko

doko

Sonota

chigaimasu (That's wrong. It's not)

opp. soodesu

Soodesu and chigaimasu are used to answer to most of the questions with
desuka or ndesuka except adjective + desuka.
to (and)
To is used with nouns and pronouns only, not to connect sentences.
e.g.

Nyuusuto tenkiyohoo (news and weather forecast)

Renshuu 1 (Request, affirmative and negative)


(1)

kiku

(2)

kaku

(3)

oyogu

(4)

hanasu

124

kiitekudasai

kikanaidekudasai

Dai yonka

Renshuu 2(Fill in the blanks with suitable particles.)


dare (who)

Kotoba

(1)

(2)

rajio

nyuusu

tenkiyohoo

ongaku

ryooshin

itoko

Nanio kikundesuka? (object)

Nyuusu__ kikundesu. (object)

Ongaku__ kikundesuka? (object)


B

(3)

tomodachi

Iie, ongaku__ kikimasen. (object, negation)

Darega kurundesuka? (subject)

Ryooshin__ kurundesu. (subject)

Itokomo kurundesuka? (subject, [also])


B
(4)

(5)

Iie, itoko__ kimasen. (subject, negation)

Dokode oyogundesuka? (place of action)

Asoko__ oyogooto omoimasu. (place of action)

Umi oyogundesuka? (place of action)

Iie, umi oyogimasen. (place of action, negation)


125

Dai yonka

Hinichi (Month and date)

Tsuki

Hi

(Month)

(Date)

ichigatsu

tsuitachi

11

juuichinich

21

nijuuichinichi

nigatsu

hutsuka

12

juuninichi

22

nijuuninichi

sangatsu

mikka

13

juusannichi

23

nijuusannichi

shigatsu

yokka

14

juuyokka

24

nijuuyokka

gogatsu

itsuka

15

juugonichi

25

nijuugonichi

rokugatsu

muika

16

juurokunichi

26

nijuurokunichi

shichigatsu

nanoka

17

juushichinichi

27

nijuushichinichi

hachigatsu

yooka

18

juuhachinichi

28

nijuuhachinichi

kugatsu

kokonoka

19

juukunichi

29

nijuukunichi

10

juugatsu

10

tooka

20

hatsuka

30

sanjuunichi

11

juuichigatsu

31

sanjuuichinichi

12

juunigatsu

nangatsu

Renshuu 3

nannichiwhat day of the month

126

nannichi

Dai yonka

(1)

Raishuuno getsuyoobiwa nannichidesuka?

(2)

desu.

Otanjoobiwa itsudesuka?

Tanjoobiwa

gatsu

desu.

127

Dai goka

Dai goka
Kaiwa 1
Kobayashi :

Kondono nichiyoobini tomodachito tenisuo yarundesu. Isshoni


yarimashoo.

Yamamoto :

Nanjikara yarundesuka?

Kobayashi :

Yojikara rokujiimade yarundesu.

Yamamoto :

Ja, nanjini dokode aeba iidesuka?

Kobayashi :

Sanji yonjuugohunni uenoekide aimashoo.

Yamamoto :

Kokokara uenomade dooyatte ikeba iidesuka?

Kobayashi :

Chikatetsu Ginza-sen de ittekudasai.

Yamamoto :

Wakarimashita.

Kaiwa 2 (Kusuriyade)
Honda :

Sumimasen.

Ten-in :

Doo shimashitaka?

Honda :

Atamaga itaindesu.

Ten-in :

Ja, kono kusurio nondekudasai.

Honda :

Ikutsu nomeba iidesuka?

Ten-in :

Hutatsu nondekudasai.

128

Dai goka

Honda :

Wakarimashita. Ja, koreo kudasai. Ikuradesuka?

Ten-in :

Yonhyaku gojuuendesu.

Dooshi
Te-form of Group-1 verbs (2)
iu
(to say/tell)

matru
(to wait)

kaeru
(to go/come back)

ossharu
(to say/tell)

nai -form

iwanai

matanai

kaeranai

ossharanai

masu -form

iimasu

machimasu

kaerimasu

osshaimasu (1)

Dictionary-form

iu

matsu

kaeru

ossharu

Conditional-form

ieba

mateba

kaereba

osshareba

Volitional-form

ioo

matoo

kaeroo

ossharoo

te -form

itte

matte

kaette

osshatte

Notes: 1) Masu-form of ossharu is osshaimasu, not ossharimasu.


2) If the conjugation line of verb is waiueo, tachituteto or
rarirurero, its te-form is obtained by putting tte, e.g. iu itte,
matsu matte, kaeru kette.
shinu
(to die)

yobu
(to call)

yomu
(to read)

nai -form

shinanai

yobanai

yomanai

masu -form

shinimasu

yobimasu

yomimasu

Dictionary-form

shinu

yobu

yomu

Conditional-form

shineba

yobeba

yomeba

Volitional-form

shinoo

yoboo

yomoo

te -form

shinde

yonde

yonde

Notes: 3) If the conjugation line of verb is naninuneno, babibubebo or


mamimumemo, its te-form is obtained by putting nde, e.g.
shinu shinde, yobu yonde, yomu yonde.
129

Dai goka

Stem of masu -form + mashoo Let's ... /Shall we ...?


e.g.

Isshoni yarimashoo. (Lets play together.)


Ueno-ekide aimashoo. (Shall we meet at the Ueno Station?)

Joshi
kara (from), made (to/until/up to)
e.g.

Yojikara rokujimade (from 4 oclock to 6 oclock)


Kokokara uenomade (from here to Ueno)
de

Method/means/medium:
e.g.

ginzasende ittekudasai. (Please go by Ginza line.)


pendewa kakanaidekudasai. (Please dont write it in pen.)

to (with)
e.g.

Tomodachito tenisuo yarundesu. (I play tennis with my friends.)

Sonota
meeshi/(noun)/daimeeshi (pronoun) + o kudasai ((Please give me )
e.g.

Koreo kudasai (Please give this to me.)

Renshuu 1 ( Making a request)


Dooshi (Group 1)
iu
kaeru
shinu

au*

matsu
ossharu

yobu

yomu

yaru
nomu

*Note: Use particle ni with person. i.e. [hito]ni au


(1)

130

Mooichido iu.

Mooichido ittekudasai.

Dai goka

(2)

Mooichido ossharu.

(3)

Kimurasanni au.

(4)

Chotto matsu.

(5)

Gojini kaeru.

(6)

Ima yaru.

(7)

Takushiio yobu.

(8)

Uchide yomu.

(9)

Kusurio nomu.

Renshuu 2 (mashoo [Lets ..])


(1)

Isshoni yomu.

(2)

Sanjini au.

(3)

Uchie kaeru.

(4)

Ochao nomu.

(5)

Ongakuo kiku.

131

Dai goka

Nomimono (Drink)

--- o nomu

ocha

kohii

koocha

(o)mizu
biiru

gyuunyuu/muruku

(o)sake

Renshuu 3 (Fill the blanks with de [method/means/medium] or to [with].)


doo/dooyatte* (how

*Note: Dooyatte is used only to ask a way of action while doo can be used
under any circumstances.

Kotoba
chikatetsu
pen

132

basu

enpitsu

densha
eego

nihongo

Dai goka

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Dooyatte ikundesuka?
B

Basu

ikundesu.

Pen

Hai, doozo.

Eegode hanashimasu. iidesuka?

Sumimasen, eego

Dareto ikundesuka?

Ryooshin

Tenisuwa itokoto yarundesuka?

Iie, itoko

kakimasu. iidesuka?

hanasanaidekudasai.

ikundesu.

yaranaindesu.

Shudan (Method), Norimono (Transportation)


basu

--- de iku

densha

hikooki

aruite*
takushii
kuruma

jitensha

*Note: Aruite is used as


an adverb.

133

Dai goka

Doogu

(Tool)

--- de kaku

boorupen

enpitsu

shaapupenshiru

(Language)

Kotoba

--- de hanasu

nihongo

Konnichiwa!

eigo

Hello!

Renshuu 4 (Asking for advice giving advice)


(1)

Nanjini kaereba iidesuka?6:30

(2)

Rokujihanni kaettekudasai.

Nanpeejio yomeba iidesuka?15 peeji

(3)

Dokode mateba iidesuka?koko

(4)

Takushiiwa nanjini yobeba iidesuka? (7.00 a.m.)

(5)

Kusuriwa itsu nomeba iidesuka?maiasa

(6)

Naniyukino denshade ikeba iidesuka?Shinjuku

(7)

134

Doo sureba iidesuka? (?) Wakarimasen.

chuugokugo

Dai goka

Kazu
Kazu (1)

Kazu (2)

Hyaku

Sen

En

(Hundred)

(Thousand)

(Yen)

1 ichi

hyaku

sen

ichi-en

hitotsu

2 ni

nihyaku

nisen

ni-en

hutatsu

3 san

sanbyaku

sanzen

san-en

mittsu

4 shi/yon

yonhyaku

yonsen

yo-en

yottsu

5 go

gohyaku

gosen

go-en

itsutsu

6 roku

roppyaku

rokusen

roku-en

muttsu

7 shichi/nana

nanahyaku

nanasen

nana-en

nanatsu

8 hachi

happyaku

hassen

hachi-en

yattsu

9 kyuu/ku

kyuuhyaku

kyuusen

kyuu-en

kokonotsu

10 juu

(sen)

(ichiman)

juu-en

too

? ikutsu

nanbyaku

nanzen

nan-en

ikutsu

Renshuu 5
ikura (how much)
(1)

(2)

Korewa ikuradesuka?

B:

Kono kusuriwa ikutsu nomeba.iidesuka?

ikutsu (how many)

-endesu.

nonde kudasai.
135

Dai rokka

Dai rokka
Kaiwa 1

Kimura :

Itsumo yoru nanio surundesuka?

Yamada:

Shokujino ato nijikangurai benkyooo shimasu. Sorekara tokidoki

terebio mimasu.

Kimura:

Donna bangumio mirundesuka?

Yamada:

Taitee nyuusuya doramao mimasu. Kyoowa nihonno doramao

miyooto omoimasu.

Kimura:

Soodesuka. soshite nanjigoro(ni) nerundesuka?

Yamada:

Juuichijigoro(ni) nemasu.

Kaiwa 2 (Michide)

Kobayashi:

Konnichiwa.dokoe ikundesuka?
MENU

Yamamoto:

Shokujini ikundesu.

Kobayashi:

Ohiruwa dokode taberundesuka?

Yamamoto:

Kyoowa famiresude tabeyooto

Omoimas.. Isshoni ikimasenka?

136

Dai rokka

Kobayashi:

Gomennasai. Kyoowa tabenaindesu.

Yamamoto:

Dooshitedesuka?

Kobayashi:

Onakaga itaikaradesu.

Yamamoto:

Sorewa ikemasenne. Ja, shitsureeshimasu.

Kobayashi:

Shitsureeshimasu.

Dooshi
Group-2 verbs (Ref. Dai sanka)

neru

taberu

miru

(to sleep)

(to eat)

(to see/look/watch)

nai-form

nenai

tabenai

minai

masu-form

nemasu

tabemasu

mimasu

Dictionary-form

neru

taberu

miru

Conditional-form

nereba

tabereba

mireba

Volitional-form

neyoo

tabeyoo

miyoo

te-form

nete

tebete

mite

Negative form of masu -form + ka: Invitation

e.g.

Isshoni ikimasenka? (Wont you join me?)

Joshi

ya (and etc.)
Ya is used for more flexible situations than to.
For example, nyuusuto dorama is limited to two things, nyuusu and
dorama, while nyuusu ya dorama may include other program.

Confirmation of the listeners statement: ( ) Tone is lowered.


e.g.

137

Soodesuka ( ) (I see.)

Dai rokka

Gakkoue ikundesuka. ( ) (I see, you are going to school.)


Gakkoue ikundesuka. ( ) (Are you going to school?)
Setsuzokushi

sorekara (after that)


e.g.

Njikangurai benkyooshimasu. Sorekara terebio mimasu.


(I study for about two hours. After that I watch T.V.)

soshite (and)
Soshite is mainly used to connect sentences.
e.g.

Soshiite nanjigoroni nerundesuka?


(And what time do you go to bed?)

Sonota

---goro/gurai (about --)


Goro is used only for point of time such as time, day/date, month, year, etc.
Gurai is used for other cases such as duration, volume, measurement, amount, etc.
e.g.

Juuichijigoro (at about eleven oclock)


Nijikangurai (for about two hours)

Renshuu 1 (Dooshi neru, taberu, miru)


Kotoba
famiresu

resutoran

washoku

chuuka(ryorri)

dorama

(1)

138

kissaten
yooshoku

yooga

Konban nanjigoro nemasu ka/nerundesuka?

Juuichijigoro(ni) nemasu/nerundesu.

Dai rokka

(2)

(3)

Dokode gohan o tabemasu ka/taberundesuka?

Famiresude tabeyooto omoimasu.

Yoku washokuo tabemasuka/taberundesuka?

Hai, yoku tabemasu/taberundesu.


Iie, yokuwa tabemasen/tabenaindesu.

(4)

Konban terebio mimasuka/mirundesuka?

Ee, nihonno doramao miyooto omoimasu.

Renshuu 2 (Joshi ya)


donna (what kind of)
(1)

A Donna bangumio mirundesuka?

B (

(2)

o mimasu.

A Donna monoo taberundesuka?

B (

139

ya

ya

o tabemasu.

Dai rokka

Renshuu 2 plan/thought
(1)

Konben nanjini nerundesuka?1200

(2)

Juunijini neyooto omoimasu.

Ashita nanjni okirundesuka? (615)

(3)

Nanio taberundesuka?yooshoku

(4)

Nanjni kaerundesuka?730

(5)

Dokode oyogundesuka?puuru

(6)

Dareto ikundesuka?itoko

(7)

Donna bangumio mirundesuka?yooga

(8)

dokode koohiio nomundesuka?kissaten

(9)

Itsu tegamio kakundesuka?konban

(10)

Dokode yamadasanni aundesuka?hoteru

(11)

Itsu shukudaio surundesuka?atode

140

Dai rokka

(12)

Nanjini takushiio yobundesuka?515

Renshuu 4 giving an advice/making a request


(1)

Hayaku neru.

Hayaku netekudasai.

(2)

Takusan taberu.

(3)

Kyookashoo miru.

(4)

Shinbun o yomu.

(5)

Renshuuo suru.

(6)

Soreo toru.toru: Group-1

Yomimono (Reading material)

--- o yomu
shinbun

kyookasho

zasshi
hon

141

Dai rokka

Jikan/kikan (Hours/duration)
Jikan (Hours)

Hi (Days)

Tsuki (Month)

Nen (Years)

1 ichijikan

ichinichi

ikkagetsu

ichinen

2 nijikan

hutsuka(kan)

nikagetsu

ninen

3 sanjikan

mikka(kan)

sankagetsu

sannen

4 yojikan

yokka(kan)

yonkagetsu

yonen

5 gojikan

itsuka(kan)

gokagetsu

gonen

6 rokujikan

muika(kan)

rokkagetsu

rokunen

7 shichijikan

nanoka(kan)

nanakagetsu

nananen/shichinen

8 hachijikan

yooka(kan)

hachikagetsu

hachinen

9 kujikan

kokonoka(kan)

kyuukagetsu

kyuunen

10 juujikan

tooka(kan)

jikkagetsu/

juunen

jukkagetsu
? nanjikan

nannichi(kan)

nankagetsu
?

nannen

donogurai

Renshuu 5
donogurai (how long)
(1)

(2)

142

Mainichi donogurai shigotoo surundesuka?

Donogurai kakarundesuka?kakaru: Group-1

gurai shimasu.

gurai kakarimasu.

Dai rokka

Satoosanno mainichi

143

Dai nanaka

Dai nanaka
Kaiwa 1

Ishikawa:

Gomenkudasai.

Kawakami:

Hai, donatadesuka?

Ishikawa:

Ishikawadesu.

Kawakami:

Doozo, ohairikudasai.

Ishikawa:

Kawakami-san, kochirawa sumisu-senseedesu. Eegono senseedesu.

Sumisu:

Sumimsudesu. Hajimemashite, yoroshiku onegaishimasu.

Kawakami:

Kawakamidesu. Doozo yoroshiku. Sumisu-sensee wa


nihongowa hanasemasuka?

Sumisu:

Hai, sukoshi hanasemasu.

Kaiwa 2

Maikeru-sanwa nihonryooriwa taberaremasu ka?


Maikeru:

Ee, sukoshi. Demo sashimiya sushiwa zenzen taberaremasen.

Rinda:

Asatte uchide gomokuzushio tsukurundesu. kimasen ka?

Maikeru:

Gomokuzushitte nandesuka?

Rinda:

Osushidesu. Demo namajaarimasen yo. Dakara, daijoobudesu.

Maikeru:

Sodesuka.

144

Dai nanaka

Rinda:

Shichijigoro uchie koraremasu ka?

Maikeru:

Hai, ikemasu.

Dooshi

Kanoo-dooshiPotential verbs: Potential form of verbs)


Original verb

iku (Group-1)

okiru (Group-2)

kuru

suru

Potential verb

ikeru

okirareru

korarer

dekiru

Notes: 1) Rule of conjugation


A. Group-1 verbs
Potential form is obtained by using the 4th word of the conjugation line
and putting ru.
e.g.

iku ikeru (ke is the 4th word of the line ka ki ku ke ko


yomu yomeru me is the 4th word of the line
ma mi mu me mo)

B. Group-2 verbs
Potential form is obtained by adding rareru to the stem.
e.g.

okiru okirareru
neru

nerareru.

C. kuru and suru


kuru korareru, suru

dekiru

2) Potential form such as ikeru (to be able to go) is a different verb


as compared to the original verb, iku (to go). As such it has its full
conjugation and it is Group-2 verb irrespective of the Group of its origin.
e.g.

145

nai -form

ikenai

masu -form

ikemasu

Dictionary-form

ikeru

Conditional-form

ikereba

Volitional-form

ikeyoo

te -form

ikete

Dai nanaka

3) With potential verbs, use particle ga instead of o.


Nihonryoorio taberu. (I eat Japanese food.)

e.g.

Nihonryooriga taberareru (I can eat Japanese food.)


4) Usage of potential verbs: Potential/ability
Nihongoga hanaseru/hanasemasu.

e.g.

(I'm able to speak Japanese.)


Shichijini koraremasuka?
(Are you able to come at seven o'clock?)
5) Kiku and miru have two potential verbs each:
kiku kikeru and kikoeru

i.e.

miru mirareru and mieru


Kikoeru means be able to hear physically [because its loud enough].
In other cases use kikeru.
Kikoemasuka? (Can you hear me?)

e.g.

Kono rajiowa gaikokuno hoosooga kikemasu.


We can hear the foreign broadcast on this radio.)
Mieru means be able to see physically [because its bright enough,
big enough, clear enough, near enough]. In other cases use mirareru.
Yoku miemasu. (I can see clearly.)

e.g.

Kono eegawa kodomowa miraremasen.


Children cannot/are not allowed to see this movie.)
Joshi

Object of potential verbs:


e.g.

ga

Nihongoo hanasu. (I speak Japanese. [o is for object of transitive


verb.])
Nhongoga hanaseru. (Im able to speak Japanese. [ga is for object
of potential verb.])

When wa or mo is added, ga drops.


e.g.

Nihonryooriwa taberarenaindesu.I cant eat Japanese food.)


(

Nihonryoorigawa taberarenaindesu.

(I can speak Japanese, too.)


(

Nihongogamo hanasemasu.

146

Dai nanaka

Copula

Ref. Dai kyuuka

Jaarimasen [spoken Japanese] )/dewaarimasen [written Japanese] is


negative form of desu (to be).

Setsuzokushi

dakara/desukara (therefore)
e.g.

Dakara daijoobudesuyo. (Therefore, its all right.)

Sonota

sukoshi (a little/a few)

zenzen negative form (not at all)


e.g.

Zenzen taberaremasen. (I can't eat at all.)

Renshuu 1 Kanoo-dooshi in Dictionary-form/masu -form


(1)

Ryoorio suru.

(2)

Nihongoo hanasu.

(3)

Hyaku-meetoru oyogu.

(4)

Asa hayaku okiru.

(5)

Satoo-sanni au.

(6)

(O)sahsimio taberu.

(7)

Ashita eegani iku.

(8)

Asatte kokoe kuru.

(9)

Eegoo yomu.

147

Ryooriga dekiru/dekimasu.

nihongoga hanaseru/hanasemasu.

Dai nanaka

(10)

Yoku neru.

(11)

Tenisuo suru.

(12)

Kanjio kaku.

(13)

Depaatode kau.

(14)

(O)sakio nomu.

Renshuu 2 (Answer in masu-pattern with yoku/sukoshi/zenzen.)


(1)

Anohitowa nihongowa hanaserundesuka?


Hai, yoku/sukoshi hanasemasu.
Iie, zenzen hanasemasen.

(2)

Anohitowa oyogerundesuka?
Hai,
Iie,

(3)

Amerikademo sakurawa mirarerundesuka?

148

Dai nanaka

Hai,
Iie,
(4)

Nihondemo biibiishiiwa kikerundesuka?


Hai,
Iie,

Renshuu 3 (desu, jaarimasen)


(1)

Kyoowa suiyoobidesuka?
Iie, suiyoobijaarimasen.

(2)

Ano onnanohitowa gakuseedesuka?


Iie,

(3)

Sono otokonohitowa kaishaindesuka?


Iie,

(4)

Kono chikatetsuwa asakusa-yukidesuka?


Iie,

(5)

Sono kamerawa nihonseedesuka?


Iie,

149

Dai hachika

Dai hachika
Kaiwa 1 (Denwade)

Chan:

Moshimoshi.

Moshimoshi

Jimuin: Nihon booeki-sandesu.


Chan:

Chanto mooshimasuga, tanaka-sanwa irasshaimasuka?

Jimuin: Sumimasen, ima orimasen.


Chan:

Ja, orikaeshi denwao onegaishimasu.

Jimuin: Odenwabangoowa nanbandesuka?


Chan:

6737 no 3601 desu.

Kaiwa 2

Haruko: Saa, ohiruo tabemashoo.


Akiko:

Kyoowa panga naindesu.

Haruko: Ja, osobao tabemashoo.


Akiko:

Osobawa dokoni arundesuka?

Haruko: Ookii hakono nakani arimasuyo.


Akiko:

Ookii hakowa dokoni arundesuka?

Haruko: Tanano ueni arimasu.


Akiko:

150

Ara, hakono nakaniwa nanimo arimasen yo.

Dai hachika

Haruko: Hendesune.Ja, sotode tabemashoo.


Dooshi

iru, irassharu, oru and aru


iru

irassharu

(Group-2)

(Group-1)

(Group-1)

(Group-1)

inai

irassharanai

(oranai)

nai (aranai) (1)

imasu

irasshaimasu (1)

orimasu

arimasu

Dictionary-form

iru

irassharu

oru

aru

Conditional-form

ireba

irasshareba

oreba

areba

Volitional -form

iyoo

irassharoo

(oroo)

aroo

te -form

ite

irasshatte

(otte)

atte

nai -form
masu -form

oru

aru

Notes: 1) Conjugation
A. masu -form of irassharu is irasshaimasu ,not rassharimasu
B. nai -form, Volitional-form and te -form of oru are seldom used.
C. nai -form of aru is nai, not aranai.
2) Verbs iru, irassharu, oru and aru mean to exist, to be in/at
, to be located/situated in/at, there is/are, etc.
3) Iru refers to living things (except plants) and train/car/ship/plane with
driver/pilot.
4) Irassharu and oru is used instead of iru according to whom
you refer to when you speak to superiors, those not close to you or
in formal situations.
A. Irassharu refers to the listener, listeners family, people
associated to the listener or to superiors.
B. Oru refers to the speaker, speakers family, people associated to the
speaker.
e.g.

Otoosanwa irasshaimasuka?
(Is your father in?
Sumimasen, ima orimasen.
(Im sorry, my father is not in at the moment.)
151

Dai hachika

irassharu

oru

Listeners family

Listener

Speakers family

Superior

Speaker

Superiors family

5) Aru refers to non-living things and plants.


Panga naindesu. (There is no bread.)

e.g.

Osobawa dokoni arundesuka? (Where is the noodle?)


Joshi

Place of existence: ni
e.g.

Osobawa dokoni arundesuka? (Where is the noodle?)


Ookii hakono nakani arimasu. (It is in the big box.)

Keeyooshi

(Adjectives)

There are two types of adjectives, i-keeyooshi (i -adjectives) and na-keeyooshi.


(na-adjectives

Ref. Dai kyuuka).

I-keeyooshi
All the i-keeyooshi end with i.
When i-keeyooshi such as ookii and chiisai are used to modify noun,
they are always placed immediately before the noun.
e.g.

ookii hakobig box

Sonota

nanimo/daremo + negative form of word


e.g.

([subject/object] not at all)

Hakono nakaniwa nanimo nai. (There is nothing in the box.)


Nanimo tabenai. (I dont eat anything.)
Daremo inai. (There is nobody.)

152

Dai hachika

Daremo konai. (Nobody comes.)

ara/are (Oh!)
Ara is used mainly by women.

Renshuu 1 (iru, aru)


(1)

otokono hito

onnano hito

gaikokujin
ga imasu/irundesu.

chiisai kodomo
(2)

daigaku

takushiii

kyookai

ookii biru
ga arimasu/arundesu.

sakurano ki

shukudai

ressun

Renshuu 2 (iru, irassharu, oru)

Kazoku (family/kinship)
Otoosan

chichi

Okaasan

haha

oniisan

ani

watashi
oneesan

ane

otootosan

imootosan

otooto
imooto

153

Dai hachika

tomodachi
imasu.
sensee
ga

irasshaimasu.

chichi
orimasu.
seeto
Renshuu 3 (irassharu, oru)

A Otoosanwa dokoni irassharundesuka?


B Chichiwa nakani orimasu.

()

A okaasanwa dokoni
B

naka
ndesuka?

wa soto

.
ue

()

A Oniisanwa ueni

masuka?
shita

B Hai,
()

A Oneesanwa shitani
B Iie,

154

wa ue

wa shite

.
masuka?
masen.

soto

Dai hachika

Renshuu 4 ( aru)
(1)

A Denwawa dokoni arundesuka?


saki

B Rookano migigawa/hidarigawani arimasu.

(2)

hidari

A Otearaiwa dokoni arundesuka?


B Kaidanno saki/temaeni arimasu.

migi

temae
Viewer

(3)

A: Konohenni suupaawa arimasu ka?


eki
B: Hai,

byooin

otnari
no

toshokan

mukai

ni arimasu.

chikaku

mukai

tonari
chikaku

Renshuu 5 ( aru, nai)


A Pan/(o)soba/gohanwa arundesuka?
B Iie,

wa naindesu.

155

Dai hachika

Kazu

Hito (Person[s])

1 hitori

6 rokunin

2 hutari

7 shichinin/nananin

3 sannin

8 hachinin

4 yonin

9 kyuunin/kunin

5 gonin

10 juunin

? nannin

(1)

A Kyooshituni seetowa nannin imasu ka?


B

(2)

A Gakusee/kaishainwa nannin imasu ka?


B

156

imasu.

imasu.

Dai kyuuka

Dai kyuuka
Kaiwa 1 (Sushiyade)

Sumisu: Korewa nandesuka?


Itamae: Sorewa magurodesu.
Sumisu: Sono akainomo sakanadesuka?
Itamae: Iie, korewa sakanajanaindesu. kaidesu.
Sumisu: Sono shiroinowa nandesuka?
Itamae: Ikadesu.
Sumisu: Minna namanandesuka?
Itamae: Hai, soodesu.
----------Sumisu: Gochisoosamadeshita.
Itamae: Arigatoo gozaimashita. Mata doozo.
Kaiwa 2

Chan:

Dokoni sundeirundesuka?

Honda: Megurodesu. Megurowa shitteimasuka?


Chan:

Hai, tomodachino koosanga meguroni sundeirundesu. Shizukana


tokorodesune. Koo-san o shitteimasu ka?

157

Dai kyuuka

Honda: Shirimasen. Sonohitomo nihongoga hanaserundesuka?


Chan:

Iie, kantanna kotobashika wakaranaindesu.

Copula

da/desu (to be)

Copula da/desu is used to identify a thing/person, such as (noun) is (noun/


na -adjective).
e.g.

Koo-sanwa gakuseeda/desu.Mr.Koh is a student.)


Uchiwa shizukada/desu.My house is quiet.)

Present / future sentence final


(Words in brackets are spoken form.)

Polite
normal-pattern

Polite
-pattern

Non-polite

Affirmative

desu

da

nandesu

Negative

dewaarimasen
(jaarimasen)

dewanai
(janai)

dewanaindesu
(janaindesu)

dewanaidesu
(janaidesu)
There are two polite(normal pattern) negative forms, dewaarimasen (jaarimasen)
and dewanaidesu (janaidesu) The former is more polite.
Dooshi
te -form iru/inai
Te -form iru/inai is used to describe states.
e.g.

Dokoni sundeirundesuka?Where do you live?


Koo-san o/wa shitteimasuka?Do you know Mr. Koh?

Exception: The negative form of shitteiru is shiranai, not


shitteinai.
e.g.

158

Iie, shirimasen.No, I dont know.)

Dai kyuuka

Joshi

Place of state: ni
Meguroni sundeimasu.I live in Meguro.

e.g.
Keeyooshi

Na-keeyooshi
When na-keeyooshi such as shizuka and kantan are used to modify noun,
particle na is added.
shizukana tokoroquiet place

e.g.

kantanna kotobasimple words


Modifying noun

Modifier
meeshi
i-keeyooshi
na-keeyooshi

Pattern
(meeshi) no (meeshi)
(i-keeyooshi)
(meeshi)
(na-keeyooshi) na (meeshi)

Daimeeshi (Pronouns)

Personal pronouns
To refer to the inferior or younger person, anata (2nd person, kare (3rd person,
male and kanojo3rd person, female can be used. kare and kanojo also
mean boyfriend and girlfriend respectively. Otherwise, Family name san is
used for 2nd person and 3rd person. anohito or sonohito can also be used for 3rd
person.
e.g.

Chan-sanwa chuugokujindesuka?
(Are you/Is Mr. Chan a Chinese?)

Sonota
shika + negative form (only/nothing but)

Shika is always used with negative form of the word.


e.g.

Kantanna kotobashika wakaranaindesu. (He understands only


159

Dai kyuuka

simple words/He understands nothing but simple words.)


Sukoshishika arimasen. (There are only few/There is only little.)
Renshuu 1 (nandesu, janaindesu)
(1)

Anohitowa kaishainnandesuka? (koomuin)


Iie, kaishainjanaindesu. Koomuinnandesu.

(2)

Kono honwa kyookashonandesuka? jisho)


Iie,

(3)

Ano katawa ongakuno senseenandesuka? (kagaku)


Iie,

(4)

Sorewa sakananandesuka? (niku)


Iie,

(5)

Arewa (o)sobanandesuka? (udon)


Iie,

(6)

Korewa kanjinandesuka? (katakana)


Iie,

Renshuu 2 (shika + negative form)


(1)

Kyooshitsuowa takusan arundesuka? (hitiotsu)


Iie, hitotsushika arimasen.

(2)
160

Gaikokujinwa nannin irundesuka? (hutari)

Dai kyuuka

Hutarishika imasen.
(3)

Akainomo arimasu ka? (shiroino)


Iie,

(4)

Yoku wakarimasu ka? (sukoshi)


Iie,

(5)

Washokuwa yoku taberundesuka? (tamani)


Iie,

Renshuu 3 (o/wa shitteiru, ni sundeiru)


o/wa shitteimasu ka?

(1)

Hai, shitteimmasu/Iie, shirimasen.


(2)

Dokoni sundeirundesuka?
ni sundeirundesu.

Renshuu 4 (Modifying noun)


(1)

Sorewa nanno hondesuka/nandesuka?


Nihongo
Ongaku

no hondesu/nandesu.

Kagaku
(2)

Korewa dareno okanedesuka/nandesuka?

161

Dai kyuuka

okanedesu/nandesu.

(3)

I-keeyooshi

Na-keeyooshi

atarashii

shizuka

hurui

kantan

takai

benri

yasui

huben

muzukashii

kiree

Sorewa donna hoterudesuka/nandesuka?


Atarashii
Hurui
hoterudesu/nandesu.
Takai
Kiree

(4)

Sorewa donna zasshidesuka/nandesuka?


Muzukashii
zasshidesu/nandesu.
Benri

162

Dai kyuuka

I-keeyooshi

Na-keeyooshi
urusai

atarashii

shizuka

hurui

ookii

muzukashii

kantan

chiisai

benri
takai
yasui

huben

kitanai
kiree

163

Dai jukka

Dai jukka

Rii:

Uchini atarashii DVDga arundesu. Isshoni memasenka?

Koo:

Nanno DVDdesuka?

Rii:

Koohaku-utagassendesu. Kon-ya himadesuka?

Koo:

Kon-yawa tsugooga waruindesu.

Rii:

Ja, ashitawa doodesuka?

Koo:

Ashitano yoruwa himadesu.

Rii:

Ja, uchie kitekudasai.

Koo:

Nanjini ikeba iidesuka?

Rii:

Hachijigoro kitekudasai.

Kaiwa 2

Honda: Rinda-san, nihongowa muzukashiidesuka?


Rinda: Iie, amari muzukashikuarimasen. Totemo omoshiroidesu. Demo mo;jiga
takusan arimasune.
Honda: Hiraganawa kakemasu ka?
Rinda: Hai, zenbu kakemasu.
Honda: Katakanajya kanjiwa doodesuka?
Rinda: Mada zenzen kakemasen. Demo, moosugu naraundesu.
164

Dai jukka

Honda: Soodesuka. Ganbattekudasai.


Keeyooshi

Present/Future sentence final with adjectives


(1) I-keeyooshi
Polite
normal-pattern

Polite
ndesu -pattern

Non-polite

Affirmative

isogashiidesu

isogashii

isogashiindesu

Negative

isogashikuarimasen

isogashikunai

isogashikunaindesu

isogashikunaidesu

Exception: ii (good, fine, all right)


Polite
normal-pattern

Polite
Ndesu -pattern

Non-polite

Affirmative

iidesu

ii

iidesu

Negative

yokuarimasen

yokunai

yokunaindesu

yokunaidesu
Notes: 1) I-keeyooshi without final i is called stem. The stem of
ishogashii is isogashi.
2) Negative form is obtained by adding kuarimasen/kunai(desu)/
kunaindesu to the stem.
e.g.

Sokowa atsuidesuka?Is it hot there?


Iie, atsuku(wa)arimasen. (No, its not hot here.)

3) There is one exception, ii. Negative form of ii is


yokunai, not ikunai".
i.e. Tenkiwa iidesuka?Is the weather fine?)

165

Dai jukka

Iie , yoku(wa)naidesu. (No, it is not [fine].)


4) Particle wa for negation (in bracket above) is often omitted.
(2) Na-keeyooshi: Use copula da/desu

(Ref. Dai kyuuka)

Polite
normal-pattern

Non-polite

Polite
ndesu -pattern

Affirmative

himadesu

Negative

himadewaarimasen

himadewanai

himadewanaindesu

(spoken)

(himajaarimasen)

(himajanai)

(himajanaindesu)

himada

himanandesu

himadewanaidesu
(spoken)

(himajanaidesu)

Sonota
totemo/sugoku + affirmative form of adjective (very)

amari + negative form of adjective (not very)


e.g.

Totemo omoshiroidesu. (It is very interesting.)


Amari muzukashikuarimasen. (It is not very difficult.)

Renshuu 1
---wa doodesuka?

(1)

(how about/is ---)

Nihongowa doodesuka?
Muzukashiidesu/muzukashikunaidesu.

(2)

Ashistawa doodesuka?
Isogashiidesu/isogashikunaidesu.

(3)

Sono sakanawa doodesuka?


Oishiidesu/oishikunaidesu.

166

Dai jukka

I-keeyooshi
oishii

omoshiroi

Na-keeyooshi
mazui

isogashii

tsumaranai
ii

atsui

atsui

hima

warui

samui

tsumetai
chikai

tooi

167

Dai jukka

Renshuu 2 (ii, warui)


(1)

Ashitawa tsugooga iidesu/waruidesu.

(2)

Oosakawa tenkiga iidesu/waruidesu.

(3)

Watashino nekowa atamaga iidesu/waruidesu

Renshuu 3 (I-keeyooshi)
(1)

Sotowa atsuidesuka?
Hai,

(2)

Heyawa sasmuidesuka?
Iie,

(3)

Sono gakkoowa atarashiidesuka?


Hai,

(4)

Sono misewa takaidesuka?


Iie,

Renshuu 4 (ii, yokunai)


(1)

Raishuuwa tsugooga iidesuka?


Hai, iidesu.
Iie, tsugoowa yokunaidesu.

(2)

168

Tookyoowa tenkiga iidesuka?

Dai jukka

Hai,
Iie,
(3)

Yamadasanno inuwa atamaga iidesuka?


Hai,
Iie,

Renshuu 5 (Na-keeyooshi)
(1)

Sono hoteruwa benridesuka?


Iie,

(2)

Ashita himadesuka?
Hai,

(3)

Niwawa kireedesuka?
Iie,

(4)

Shikenwa kantandesuka?
Hai,

Renshuu 6 (sugoku + affirmative, amari + negative)


(1)

Kimura-sanno uchiwa tooidesuka?


Hai, sugoku tooidesu.
Iie, amari tookuarimasen.

169

Dai jukka

(2)

yamada-sanno uchiwa chikaidesuka?

(3)

Hoteruno heyawa shizukadesuka?

(4)

Sono kikaiwa benridesuka?

(5)

Toshokanwa ookiidesuka?

170

INDEX

62

90

34

37

40

61

61

65

90

61

42

83

85

61

34

70

61

82

77

65

47

47

44

61

56

90

61

45

95

44

100

98

53

83

69

59

49

92

42

86

86

67

42

86

69

94

56

58

47

97

102

82

44

83

86

35

83

64

84

62

65

83

88

66

84

56

86

86

82
70

83

61

42

86

93

86

42

54

35

35

96

77

42

34

171

69

54

()

42

47

97

92

45

42

88

61

54

77

42

83

75

69

83

54

38

58

81

66

82

91

98

85

43

37

90

86

42

79

103

54

37

75

82

54

88

79

37

96

37

71

45

62

54

90

93

47

65

54

45

65

75

65

97

57

44

93

82

52

40

75

74

54

54

37

67

86

89

45

93

46

()

65

93

95

77

59

44

90

37

61

40

92

44

79

82

56

44

61

88

90

90

77

87

38

70

45

77

53

56

34

69

66

44

62

82

42

83

87

34

47

49

71

67

45

34

45

61

97

45

42

45

77

50

98

66

53

90

47

88

69

82

39

37

77

90

40

74

90

69

37

37

84

100

66

56

34

74

39

45

83

37

54

69

37

88

44

45

54

42

51

53

99

91

75

77

86

102

77

77

50

54

69

93

35

43

95

88

77

97

74

61

77

64

73

88

83

35

56

37

80

75

69

47

58

94

81

44

58

88

69

85

47

74

60

69

56

61

69

()

54

66

48

97

86

100

83

()

54

83

88

85

61

45

86

54

67

37

61

50

()

71

61

85

37

52

59

64

67

77

38

37

35

98

47

42

54

43

59

61

47

67

59

100

77

54

97

69

45

100

37

37

100

42

42

54

91

93

59

83

59

42

54

95

65

47

95

54

83

53

102

83

89

69

83

55

86

69

75

37

46

101

84

59

88

82

65

65

48

66

95

59

65

88

42

54

61

67

66

89

67

97

83

45

79

88

44

85

54

37

34

74

37

69

61

83

86

35

65

41

65

45

53

59

55

47

77

42

52

69

90

86

61

42

47

89

100

37

98

62

61

45

98

59

47

67

44

62

()

83

98

74

41

62

44

35

97

35

45

79

83

88

72

65

101

69

59

67

61

69

95

65

54

90

67

47

97

61

58

63

71

77

59

88

95

67

44

54

40

66

71

52

40

46

54

80

59

63

71

90

71

88

55

45

71

53

42

71

42

97

Vol.1
19886
19914

Bunka Language Pte. School


402 Orchard Road #05-15/16
Delfi Orchard, Singapore 238876
Tel : 67373601

20124


248-0031
4-6-21
Tel :0467-31-9087

Mineko Ebihara 1988

ISBN 981-00-2685-4

ISBN 981-00-2685-4