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Meiosis

Terms:
Gamete sex cell (sperm or egg)
Haploid (n) - half the # of chromosomes that a
species has in its body cells (in humans, n = 23)
gametes have this haploid (n) number of
chromosomes
Diploid (2n) the FULL number of chromosomes
in a body cell for a species (in humans, 2n = 46)
Zygote cell that results when sperm and egg
fuses together

More terms
Homologous chromosomes when sister
chromosomes have genes for traits located
on the same place on the chromatids ex. ll
Synapsis when two pairs of homologous
chromosomes moves towards each other
to form a tetrad llll
Occurs during Prophase 1
Tetrad formed by two pairs of
homologous chromosomes joining
llll
Occurs during Prophase 1

Crossing over/recombination
when the homologous
chromosomes trade genes and
traits with their pair (an exchange
of chromatid segments)
This allows for genetic variability!
Occurs during Prophase 1

Disjunction separation of homologous


pairs of chromosomes to opposite poles
of the cell
Occurs during Anaphase 1
Nondisjunction- when a mutation stops
normal disjunction from occurring
Thomas Carty- Mrs. Palacios favorite
student

MEIOSIS
and Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis
Essential for sexual reproduction
one diploid (2n) eukaryotic cell divides
to generate 4 haploid cells (gametes)

Results in a reduction of chromosome


number in the gamete cell
Allows for

genetic variation!!!

One 2n four 1n gametes


2n n+n+n+n

Diploid = 2n (in humans, 2n=46)


Haploid = n (in humans, n=23)
Each gamete contains one complete set
of chromosomes, or half of the genetic
content of the original cell (haploid)
Haploid sex cells (n) fuse with other
haploid cells (n) of the opposite sex
during fertilization to create a new
diploid cell (2n) or zygote

Steps of Meiosis

I pmat C pmat C
Note: there is no second
interphase
Meiosis 1 = reduction division
Meiosis 2 = similar to mitosis

Interphase

Interphase I
G1 Phase
S Phase
G2 Phase
Chromosomes are still uncondensed

Prophase I

Prophase I
Chromosomes are condensed (short
& thick)
Nuclear envelope disappears
Replicated chromosomes line up
with their homologous chromosomes
to form tetrads (4 chromosomes)
This is called synapsis
Crossing-over occurs here
providing for genetic variability

Metaphase I

Metaphase I
Tetrads line up on equatorial plane
of cell
Chromosomes attach to spindle
fibers

Anaphase I

Anaphase I - Disjunction
Homologous chromosomes of each
tetrad separate
Chromosomes move to opposite
ends of the cells towards the
centrioles
This is called Disjunction
Nondisjunction can occur here

Nondisjuction
Failure of homologous chromosomes to
separate properly
Sometimes both chromosomes of a pair
move towards the same pole of the cell
This would leave one cell with n+1
chromosomes (24) and the other cell
with n-1 chromosomes (22) instead of
the normal haploid 1n # of
chromosomes (23)

Nondisjunction

Telophase I

Telophase I
End of the first meiotic division
Cytoplasm divides in two daughter cells
Each of the daughter cells has half as
many chromosomes as the original cell
(n) = haploid or monoploid
Followed by Meiosis 2 (like mitosis)

Meiosis II begins with Prophase II


(note that the phases of the cell look similar to
the steps of mitosis, only there are two cells)

Prophase II
Each of the daughter cells forms a
spindle
Sister chromosomes move toward the
middle of the spindle
(Note there are no longer tetrads, and
crossing over does NOT occur here)

Metaphase II

Metaphase II
Chromosomes become attached to
the spindle fibers at their centromeres
Chromosomes line up on the
equatorial plane
Each chromosome is still made up of
sister chromatids

Anaphase II

Anaphase II
Centromeres divide
Sister chromosomes separate
The chromatids, which are now
single-stranded chromosomes,
move to opposite ends of the cell

Telophase II

Telophase II
Both daughter cells divide, forming
four haploid cells
In each cell, the chromosomes
return to their Interphase state
Nuclear membrane reappears

CYTOKENESIS:
cleavage furrow develops
followed by division of cytoplasm
formation of the nuclear membrane
Chromosomes begin to uncondense, replaced
by the chromatin that is characteristic of
Interphase.
When Meiosis II is complete, there will be a
total of four daughter cells, each with half
the total number of chromosomes as the
original cell.

In males, all four cells will


eventually develop into typical
sperm cells
In females. 3 of the 4 cells will
typically disintegrate (polar bodies),
leaving a single cell to develop into
an egg cell

Meiosis Overview

2 unique Events in
Meiosis:
1. Reduction Division only one
replication of DNA but two divisions

2. Crossing-over occurs in Prophase I,


allowing for much genetic
variability

Meiosis Snapshots

Mitosis vs. Meiosis


Mitosis
Creates 2
diploid
daughter cells
Identical DNA
in each
daughter cell

Meiosis
Creates 4 haploid
daughter cells
NOT identical DNA
(Daughter cells have
new assortment of
parental chromosomes)
Chromatids not identical
Crossing-over occurs

Meiosis Mutations
Disjunction normal separation of
chromosomes
Nondisjunction when the
separation does not occur correctly
Results in gametes with more, less,
or no genetic material in them
These can result in monosomy or
trisomy mutations

Klinefelters Syndrome
XXY, 47 total chromosomes
Almost always sterile
Rounded body type
Increased breast tissue
Small testicles
Low testosterone level

Treatment from
Klinefelters Syndrome
Hormone replacement therapy is the
best way to treat this disorder
Teenagers are typically given
testosterone injections to replace the
hormone that would normally be
produced by the testes
Synthetic testosterone works like
natural testosterone - it builds muscle
and increases hair growth

Klinefelter Syndrome is one of the


most common genetic
abnormalities. It affects between 1
in 500 and 1 in 1,000 males
The disorder is named for Dr. Harry
Klinefelter, who first reported its
symptoms in 1942

Turners Syndrome

Monosomy X (XO) 45 chromosomes


Short stature
Low hairline
Low-set ears
Reproductive sterility
Amenorrhea (absence of a menstrual period)
Increased weight; obesity
Webbed neck

Triple X Syndrome
XXX (47 chromosomes)
Extra X chromosome in each cell of
female
Normal sexual development in most
females
Possible early onset of menstruation
1 in 1,000 newborn girl

Triple X Karyotype

Triple X Symptoms
Tall stature
Small head (microcephaly)
Vertical skinfolds that may cover
the inner corner of the eyes
Delayed development
Possible infertility

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increased height,
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