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# GEOMETRIC

DIMENSIONING
AND
TOLERANCING
Contact :
Octagon Consultants – Pune
Contact No. – 020 25439282.
Mobile - 9325084622.

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Geometry

## • It is the science of the properties and relations of

lines, surfaces and solids.

2
Various Geometric Shapes

3
Dimension

## • It is a measurable extent, as length, breadth and

depth.

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Tolerance
• It is a allowable variation in any measurable
property.

## • The total amount that features of the part are

permitted to vary from the specified dimension.
• The tolerance is the difference between the
maximum and minimum limits.
• Two common methods to specify tolerances
– limit tolerances
– plus-minus tolerances
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Limit tolerances

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Plus Minus Tolerances

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Dimension Anatomy

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What is GD&T

## • ASME Y14.5M-1994 - The national standard

for dimensioning and tolerancing in the
United States.
• ASME stands for American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
• The Y14.5 is the standard number. "M" is to
indicate the standard is metric, and 1994 is
the date the standard was officially
approved.

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What is GD&T
Geometric Dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is
a language used on mechanical engineering drawings
composed of symbols that are used to efficiently and
accurately communicate geometry requirements for
associated features on component and assemblies.

## A method to specify the shape of a piece of

hardware on an engineering drawing.

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What is GD&T

## • A set of fourteen symbols used in the

language of GD&T. It consists of well-defined
of symbols, rules, definitions and conventions,
used on engineering drawings to accurately
describe a part.
• GD&T is a precise mathematical language
that can be used to describe the size, form,
orientation, and location of part features.
• GD&T is also a design philosophy on how to
design and dimension parts.

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Why GD & T ?

## Since GD & T is a language of communication

on engineering drawing it is better to understand
by the study of engineering drawing with and
without GD & T symbols.

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## • Use of this language or tool “can provide economic and

• Maximizes quality of the products.
• Provides uniformity of specification and interpretation
(reducing guesswork and controversy)

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• Geometric dimensioning dramatically reduces the need for
drawing notes to describe complex geometry requirements
on a component or assembly by the use of standard
symbology.

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• Ensures the design requirements are carried out.
GD&T facilitates an efficient means to communicate
specific datums on a part. Without the use of a datum
system (zero reference) on a part, it is not clear to
manufacturing or quality where to manufacture or measure
from. Additionally, the use of datums dramatically
simplifies the design and specification of parts for use in
manufacturing and quality verification steps. .

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• Provides maximum production tolerances (Bonus &
Round tolerances always provided)

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• Provides maximum production tolerances (Bonus &
Round tolerances always provided)

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• Create a part design that focuses on the product
function.
• Convert product requirements into dimensional
specifications.
• Better define parts without the need for
assumptions.
• Document the design for future use.
• Discover problems in the design stage.
• Ensure that parts will assemble.
• Have less "hand fitting" at assembly.
• Ensure that parts are inspected as intended.
• Inspect parts more quickly.
• Reduce scrap or rework.
• Make a replacement that fits into the assembly.

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• Have multiple sources on various parts of an
assembly.
• Make valid engineering calculations.
• Have common parts across similar assemblies.
• Design subassemblies in different locations and
have them function correctly.
• Do tolerance analysis to study the effect of part
tolerances on the assembly.
• Use state of the art software tools to analyze parts in
an assembly.
• Use state of the art software tools to inspect the
parts.
• Reduce the risk caused by vague specifications.
• And finally saves money.

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Key Terms

Feature
The general term applied to a physical portion of a part,
such as a surface, pin, hole, or slot.

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Key Terms

Feature Of Size
One cylindrical or spherical surface, or a set of two
opposed elements or opposed parallel surfaces,
associated with a size dimension.

## Examples: Cylinder, sphere, slot, etc.

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Key Terms
Actual Local Size
The value of any individual distance at any cross
section of a FOS

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Key Terms
Actual Mating Envelope (AME)
A similar perfect feature counterpart that can be
so it just contacts the surfaces at the highest points
(Envelope is an imaginary, mathematical surface
of a perfect form which establishes a boundary for
a physical feature.)
It is derived from an actual part
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Actual Mating Envelope (AME)

31
Actual Mating Envelope (AME)

32
Tolerance Stack-up
tolerances is that
tolerances taken in the
same direction from one
point of reference are
consequence is that
tolerances to the same
point taken from different
directions become
called tolerance stack
up.
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Tolerance Stack-up
TOOL APPLICATION
Tolerance stacks are an important tool used to
evaluate the variable features and dimensions of a
single part or an assembly of parts. Tolerance
stacks are used in the calculation of fits and fit-ups,
tolerance accumulation/allocation, datum selection
and the use of datum and feature modifiers.

34
GD&T Concepts
Basic Dimension
• A numerical value used to describe the theoretically
exact size, profile, orientation, or location of a feature
or datum target.
• A basic dimension is always associated with a
feature control frame or datum target. Block tolerance
does not apply and the applicable tolerance will be
given to the feature control frame.

## • Specified by enclosing the numerical value in a rectangle

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Basic Dimension

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Regardless of Feature Size
(RFS)

## “Regardless of feature size”, a statement to the

effect that the size of the considered feature may
not influence the tolerance or the datum reference
frame under consideration.

## Indicates a geometric tolerance applies at

whatever size the part is produced.

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Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

## The condition in which a feature of size

contains the maximum amount of material
everywhere within the stated limits of size.

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Least Material Condition (MMC)

## The condition in which a feature of size contains

the least amount of material everywhere within
the stated limits of size.

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Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

40
Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

41
Bonus Tolerance

## • An additional tolerance for a geometric

control permitted with MMC or LMC
modifiers

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Bonus Tolerance

43
Bonus Tolerance

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Bonus Tolerance

45
Bonus Tolerance

46
Bonus Tolerance

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Bonus Tolerance

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Bonus Tolerance

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Bonus Tolerance
• When the MMC modifier is used, it means:
– the stated tolerance applies when the FOS is at
MMC
– as part size goes away from MMC, an increase in
the stated tolerance is permitted
– the increase is equal to the departure from MMC -
called the bonus tolerance
– geometric characteristic can be verified with a
fixed gage

50
Bonus Tolerance

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Virtual Condition
• The boundary generated by the collective effects of
MMC, size limit of a feature and any associated
geometric tolerance.

## • The Virtual Condition of a feature is a concept used

to describe the worst-case envelope which either of
two features must lie within in order to mate
acceptably. For a shaft that fits into a hole, the shaft
virtual condition must be smaller than the hole
virtual condition.
52
For an external feature of size, such as a shaft, the
virtual condition is equal to the size at MMC plus the
size of the tolerance zone. For the shaft in Figure , the
diameter of the virtual condition is the diameter of the
MMC shaft plus the diameter of the position tolerance
zone

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For an internal feature of size, such as a
hole, the virtual condition is equal to the
size at MMC minus the size of the
tolerance zone. For the hole in Figure ,
the diameter of the virtual condition is
the diameter of the MMC hole minus the
diameter of the position tolerance zone.

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Figure shows the shaft and hole virtual
conditions superimposed. Since the shaft
virtual condition is smaller than the hole
virtual condition, the two parts will always
mate.

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Virtual Condition

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Virtual Condition

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Virtual Condition

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Virtual Condition

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Virtual Condition

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In summary, the way to calculate virtual
condition (VC) for a shaft and hole is:

## SHAFT VC = MMC diameter + Position

Tolerance Zone Diameter

## HOLE VC = MMC diameter - Position

Tolerance Zone Diameter

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Application Of Virtual Condition

## Virtual condition is extremely

useful in the design of functional
to virtual condition will ensure
that a part will always mate with
its counterpart.

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Functional gauge design
• GDT functional gauges designed according to virtual
condition ensures part fit. Virtual condition is the
envelope for worst-case part fit. A part which fits on
such a functional gauge is guaranteed to fit to all mating
parts.

## • Virtual condition is extremely useful in the design of

functional gauges. A functional gauge made to conform
to virtual condition will ensure that a part will always
mate with its counterpart.
In summary, the way to calculate virtual condition
(VC) for a shaft and hole is:
SHAFT VC = MMC diameter + Position Tolerance
Zone Diameter
HOLE VC = MMC diameter - Position Tolerance
Zone Diameter
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Symbols and Modifiers
Feature Control Frame
A rectangular box that is divided into compartments
within which the geometric characteristic symbol,
tolerance value, modifiers, and datum references are
placed.

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Symbols and Modifiers
Geometric Tolerances are divided into five
categories

1. Form control
2. Orientation control
3. Location control
4. Composite control
5. Profile controls

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Symbols and Modifiers
Form control

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Symbols and Modifiers
Orientation Control

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Symbols and Modifiers
Location Control

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Symbols and Modifiers
Composite Control

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Symbols and Modifiers
Profile Controls

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Summary of control tolerances

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Symbols and Modifiers
Modifiers

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Free State
• Free state variation is a term used to describe distortion of a part after
removal of forces applied during manufacture.
• This distortion is principally due to weight and flexibility of the part
and the release of intern1 stresses resulting from fabrication.
A part of this kind, for example, a part with a very thin wall in
proportion to its diameter, is referred to as a non-rigid part. In some
cases, it may be required that the part meet its tolerance requirements
while in the free state. In others, it may be necessary to simulate the
mating part interface in order to verify individual or related feature
tolerances. This is done by restraining the appropriate features. The re-
straining forces are those that would be exerted in the assembly or
functioning of the part.

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Projected Tolerance Zone
When it is desired to project a stated tolerance zone beyond the boundaries
of a part the projected tolerance zone symbol is used. The symbol is placed
after the stated tolerance and any modifiers and is followed by a value for the
projection distance. The use of this symbol in local and general notes is
prohibited.

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Projected Tolerance Zone
The Projected tolerance zone modifier is generally used for threaded holes and
holes that will receive a pin (usually a press fit) and the designer is concerned
that the screw or pin projecting from the hole might interfere with the surface of
the clearance hole in the mating part. In these cases it is more important to
know where the stud or fastener will be rather than where the hole or tapped
hole is.

The projected value is usually the maximum thickness of the mating part or the
maximum height of the pin or stud.

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GD&T Rules
As the purpose of the GD&T is to describe the engineering intent
of the item, there are some fundamental rules need to be applied.

## • All dimensions must have a tolerance.Nothing can be made to a

perfection;therefore, an appropriate tolerance must be
available.Tolerances may come in the form of limits of size applied to
basic dimensions, ± style tolerance applied directly to dimensions as a
tolerance block or a general note. The only exception is when a
dimension is marked as minimum, maximum,stock or reference.
• All dimensions necessary to exactly reproduce the shown geometry
must be present.Measurement and scaling should not be required.
• In order to avoid ambiguities, only the minimum dimensions required
required, they should be marked as reference.

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GD&T Rules
• Dimension should be applied to features and arranged in such a
way as to represent the function of the individual features.
• Descriptions of manufacturing methods should be avoided. The
geometry should be described without explicitly defining the
method of manufacture.
• If certain sizes are required during the processing, but are not
required in the final geometry (due to shrinkage or other causes)
they should be marked as NON-MANDATORY.
• All symbols should be arranged for maximum readability. They
should be applied to visible lines in true profiles whenever possible.
• When geometry is normally controlled by gage sizes or by code, the
dimensions should still be included but should with the gauge or
code number in parentheses following or below the dimension.

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GD&T Rules
• Angles of 90° are assumed when basic dimensions or centerlines
are used but no angular dimension is explicitly shown.
• Dimensions and tolerances are valid at 20° Celsius unless stated
otherwise.Unless explicitly stated, all dimensions and tolerances are
valid when the item is in a free, unconstrained state.
• Dimensions and tolerances apply to the full length, width, and depth
of a feature.
• Dimensions only apply at the level of the drawing where they are
placed. If the intention is for them to apply at multiple levels, this
must be stated.

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GD&T Rules
Standard Rules
• Rule #1
• Where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits of
size of the individual feature describe the extent to which
variation in the geometric forms as well as size are
allowed.
• When Rule #1 applies, the size limits define the size and form of
an FOS (not orientation, location or relation between FOS)

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When Rule #1 Applies
• Form of feature:
• Surfaces must not
extend beyond a
boundary of perfect
form at MMC
• Where actual size
has departed from
MMC toward
LMC, a variation
in form is allowed
equal to that
amount of
departure

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Standard Rules
• Rule #1
• The control of geometric form based on
size is not applicable to :
¾ Stock such as bars
¾ Sheets
¾ Tubings
¾ Structural shapes

## The forms of these shall be as per the industry

standard norms.
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• Rule #1 boundary:
The part must be within the MMC envelope.

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Standard Rules

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Standard Rules
• Rule #2a
• For all applicable geometric tolerances,
RFS applies with respect to the individual
tolerance, datum reference or both,
where no modifying symbol is specified.
• Modifiers for MMC and LMC must be
specified on the drawing where it is
required.

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Standard Rules
• Rule #2a
• Characteristics and controls which can be
applicable to size features and thus to which
RFS applies under Rule#2 unless modified to
MMC or LMC are:
¾ Straightness
¾ Perpendicularity
¾ Angularity
¾ Parallelism
¾ Position

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Standard Rules
• Rule #2a
• Characteristics and controls which are always applicable
at RFS under Rule #2 and due to the nature of the
requirement cannot be applied at MMC or LMC are:
¾ Circular Runout
¾ Total Runout
¾ Concentricity
¾ Symmetry
¾ Flatness
¾ Roundness
¾ Cylindricity
¾ Profile of line
¾ Profile of surface

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Standard Rules
• Rule #2b Pitch Diameter Rule
• Each tolerance of orientation or position and datum
reference specified for a screw thread applies to the axis
of the thread derived from the pitch cylinder.
Where an exception to this is necessary, it has to be
mentioned below as MAJOR or MINOR

## • Each tolerance of orientation or location and datum

reference specified for gears, splines must designate the
specific feature of the gear to which it
applies(PITCH,MAJOR DIA, MINOR DIA)

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Standard Rules
• Rule #2c Datum/Virtual condition Rule
• A virtual condition exists for a datum feature of
size where its axis or center plane is controlled
by a geometric tolerance. In such cases, the
datum feature applies at its virtual condition
even though it is referenced in a feature control
frame as MMC or LMC.

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Datum

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Datum feature

## • An actual feature of a part that is used to

establish a datum.

## Datum feature Symbol

• The symbolic means of indicating
a datum feature consists of a
capital letter enclosed in a
square frame and a leader line
extending from the frame to the
concerned feature, terminating
with a triangle.
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Datum vs. datum feature

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Datum vs. datum feature

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Datum feature symbol

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Datum feature symbol

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Datum feature symbol

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Datum feature symbol

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Datum feature symbol

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Datum target
• A specified point , line or area on a part used to
establish a datum.

## Datum target frame

• The datum targets are indicated by a circular
frame divided in two compartments by a
horizontal line. The lower compartment is
reserved for a letter and a digit.The letter
represents the datum feature and the digit
datum target number. The upper
information, such as dimensions of the
target area. If there is not sufficient space
within the compartment, the information may
be placed outside and connected to the
appropriate compartment by a leader line.
101
Datum target
• A specified point , line or area on a part used to
establish a datum.

102
Common_datum
• A common_datum is a type of
Datum that corresponds to a datum
that is established from more than
one datum feature.
On technical drawing, a datum that
is established from multiple datum
features is indicated by by placing
the identifying letters of the datum
features, separated by a dash, within
a single compartment in a feature
control frame. There is no
significance to the order of the
datum feature identifying letters
within a compartment of the feature
control frame.
103
Datum system
• A group of two or more separate datums
used as a combined reference for a
toleranced feature.

## • Datum reference frames are coordinate systems

used to locate and orient part features.

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Datum reference frame
• A framework that consists of three mutually
perpendicular datum planes, three datum
axes(located at the intersection of each pair of
datum planes), and a datum point (that is located at
the intersection of the three datum planes)..

## • A Cartesian coordinate system established using the

Datums extracted from a set of Datum Features
referenced in a Feature Control Frame.Datum Reference
Frames serve to orient and locate tolerance zones.

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Datum reference frame

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107
Datum reference frame
• Datums Are Mutually Perpendicular - Even When the
Datum Features Are Not.
• It isn't always possible or practical to select datum features that
are mutually perpendicular to one another when establishing a
datum reference frame. Notice that datum feature C is not
nominally perpendicular to datum feature B. The datum feature
simulator for C would be made at 35° to the datum feature
simulator for B (shown here in red). The actual datum planes
(shown in blue), which comprise the datum reference
framework, would however be mutually perpendicular to one
another as is illustrated in the last figure. The deviation of the
hole from the 55mm BASIC location would be measured from
the third datum plane-not from the sharp point on the actual
part.

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Datum reference frame

109
Datum precedence
• A datum precedence assignment corresponds to the
specification of the order in which a datum is established
within a datum system.
• On technical drawings, the precedence of a datum within a
datum system is typically specified in a feature control frame.
The location of the compartment containing the letter(s)
corresponding to the datum feature(s) from which the datum is
established indicates the assigned precedence. The
compartment for the primary datum (if it exists) is immediately
to the right of the compartment containing the tolerance value.
The compartment for the secondary datum (if it exists) is
immediately to the right of the compartment for the primary
datum. Lastly, the compartment for the tertiary datum (if it
exists) is immediately to the right of the compartment for the
secondary datum.
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Datum precedence
EXAMPLE—Figure (b) contains a feature control frame that specifies a datum
system in which datum A is the primary datum, datum B is the secondary datum,
and datum C is the tertiary datum.

111
Datum precedence
EXAMPLE—Fig. (c) contains a feature control frame that specifies a datum
system in which datum A is the primary datum, datum C is the secondary datum,
and datum B is the tertiary datum.

112
Datums of size
• MMC and LMC on a Datum Reference do not Affect the Feature's
Tolerance!
Referencing a datum feature at MMC or LMC does not change the
tolerance on the feature(s) being toleranced. These modifiers, however,
may allow the part to float or shift relative to the datum reference frame.
Notice that the 15mm diameter hole references both B and C at their MMC.
Therefore, if both B and C are produced at their MMC, there is no shift of
the datum feature relative to the datum reference frame established by A, B
and C. If, however, datum feature B happened to be produced at 8.1 (its
LMC size) and was perfectly perpendicular to the primary datum, the part
could shift as much as 0.2mm total, relative to the datum reference frame.
In other words, the part could be slid left or right 0.2mm total while
maintaining contact with datum A in order to bring the 15mm hole into its
allowable position tolerance zone. Some inspectors treat this 0.2mm shift
as an additional bonus tolerance on the 15mm hole which would allow
additional deviation in all directions. This would be incorrect since no
movement of the part is allowed perpendicular to the primary datum.

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Datums of size

114
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Datum simulators

116
Datum simulators

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Datum simulators

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Datum simulators

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Datum simulators

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Composite Datum Features
• A composite datum feature is a datum feature that is composed of other
features. Figures depict two examples of composite datum features.

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Composite Datum Features

122
Dimension origin
• When a dimension origin is
specified for the distance between
two features, the feature from
which the dimension originates
defines an origin plane for defining
the tolerance zone. In such cases,
the origin plane shall be established
using the same rules as are
provided for primary datum
features.
• Signifies that the dimension
originates from the plane
established by the shorter
surface and dimensional limits
apply to the other surface.

123
Dimension origin

124
Dimension origin

125
Pattern locating tolerance zone
framework(PLTZF) and Feature relating
tolerance framework(FRTZF)
• The control of the location of the pattern as a group is
called the patrem-locating tolerance zone framework

## • When the pattern consists of two or more features, there is

the possibility, through the use of composite tolerancing,
to control the relative location of features within the
pattern. This is done by specifying a secondary location
tolerance, called the feature relating tolerance zone
framework

126
Form control

127
Flatness

## • Flatness is the condition of surface having all of its

elements in one plane.

128
Flatness
• A flatness error (out of flat condition) is the amount a
surface can very from a flat plane.
• Flatness is the distance between two parallel planes,
which includes all the elements (high and low points) of a
surface.

129
Flatness
• A flatness control zone is two parallel planes spaced apart
by the flatness tolerance value.
• In theory one plane of the tolerance zone is oriented by
the high points of the surface.
• The remaining plane is parallel to the first plane and
offset by the flatness tolerance value.

130
Flatness

• Size tolerance:
The actual local size must be within the maximum and
minimum limits of the size dimension.

131
Flatness

• Rule #1 boundary:
The part must be within the MMC envelope.

132
Flatness

• Flatness Control:
All surface elements of the tolerance feature must lie
between two parallel planes 0.2 apart.

133
Flatness

• Inspection of Flatness:
One plane of flatness tolerance zone is established by a
surface plate.
When the part is brought into contact with the surface
plate, the high points of the part contact the surface plate
surface. Thus, the high points of the surface are contacting
one plane of the tolerance zone.
A dial indicator is placed in the hole of a surface plate.
The dial indicator is calibrated to zero when it is line with
surface plate.
When the part is placed on the surface plate and moved in
a random fashion over the dial indicator. The dial
indicator is reading the difference between the surface
high and low points. 134
Flatness
• Inspection of Flatness:
The maximum dial indicator reading is the distance
between the places that contain the high and low points of
the surface. This is the flatness error of the surface.

135
Flatness

136
Flatness Applications

## •To ensure the integrity of mating or mounting

surfaces
•To ensure that surfaces seal properly
•Appearance

137
Flatness
• Examples:
Sealing surface.

138
Flatness
• Examples:
Sealing surface.

139
Flatness
• Examples:
Flange mounting.

140
Flatness
• Examples:
Flange mounting.

141
Flatness
• Examples:
Flange mounting.

142
Straightness

## • A condition where an element of a surface or an axis

is a straight line.

## • Straight can be defined for

¾ Straight of surface
¾ Straightness of Axis(RFS)
¾ Straightness of Axis(MMC)

143
Straightness

144
Straightness

145
Straightness

146
Straightness

147
Straightness

148
Straightness

149
Straightness

150
Straightness

151
Straightness

152
Straightness

153
Circularity

• Circularity is a condition of a
surface of revolution.

## • Controls the roundness of

any feature with circular
cross section.

154
Circularity

## • The circularity tolerance is

applied in either view of the
drawing, whichever is most
convenient.

## • The tolerance zone for a

circularity tolerance is
bounded by two concentric
circles.

155
Circularity

156
Circularity

## • The tolerance value is

distance between the circles,
not the distance between the
diameters..

## • Tolerance specifies a tolerance

zone within which the element
or axis must lie.

157
Circularity

## • All elements of the surface are to be within the

specified size tolerance and the boundary of a
perfect form at MMC.

## • Tolerance value should equal to or less than, one

half of the size tolerance(limits)

158
Circularity

## • Circularity of each circular element compares the

form of each element to a circle. Since the control of
the surface itself is of concern, its size variation is
irrelevant to the form. Therefore, MMC or RFS
principles cannot be applied.

## • Part size may vary within its tolerance, yet the

circularity tolerance remains the same.Where size of
the produced part approaches LMC, the roundness
tolerance proportionately diminishes.

159
Circularity
Inspection

160
Circularity
• Circularity tolerance does not associate with the
datum reference, each circular element relates to a
perfect counterpart of itself, a circle thus no datum is
needed.

161
Circularity
Circularity and the position

162
Circularity
Circularity Inspection

163
Cylindricity
Cylindricity describes a condition of a surface of
revolution in which all points of a surface are equidistant
from a common axis.

164
Cylindricity
• Cylindricity tolerance
specifies a tolerance zone
bounded by two
concentric cylinders within
which the surface must lie.

• Cylindricity tolerance
differs from circularity
tolerance in that it applies
to the total surface (entire
length) simultaneously.
165
Cylindricity

## • The cylindricity tolerance

must be less than the
feature size tolerance.

• Cylindricity tolerance is
composite control of form
which includes circularity,
straightness and taper.

166
Cylindricity
• All the elements of the surface controlled are to be
within the specified size tolerance and the boundary
of perfect form at MMC.
• Cylindricity tolerance relates to the control of the
surface form which is irrelevant to size, therefore
RFS or MMC principle cannot be applied.
• Cylindricity tolerance is applicable only to cylindrical
features, either inside or outside cylinders.

167
Cylindricity
• Cylindricity tolerance does not associate with a
datum reference, the cylindrical elements relate to a
perfect counterpart of itself, a cylinder, thus no
datum is needed.

168
Cylindricity
Cylindricity inspection

169
Orientation Control

170
Perpendicularity
• This could be considered flatness or straightness of an
axis 90 degrees to a datum.

171
Perpendicularity

## • Two common tolerance zones for a

perpendicularity control are.
-Two parallel planes.
-A cylinder.
• Usually, when perpendicularity is
applied to a surface or a planar
feature of size, the tolerance zone is
two parallel planes.
• When perpendicularity is applied to
a cylindrical feature of size and a
diameter symbol precedes the
tolerance zone is cylinder.

172
Perpendicularity

173
Perpendicularity
• When a perpendicularity is
applied to a planar surface,
the following conditions
apply.
1. The tolerance zone is two
parallel planes.
2. The tolerance value defines
the distance between the
tolerance zone planes.
3. All elements of the toleranced
surface must be within
tolerance zone.
4. The flatness of the surface is
also controlled.
174
Perpendicularity
• When perpendicularity is applied to a feature of size, it
controls the orientation of the axis (or center plane) of the
actual mating envelope of the feature of size.

175
Perpendicularity
• When a perpendicular control
contains the MMC modifier, a
fixed gauge may be used to
verify the requirement.
• The gauge size is equal to the
worst case boundary of the
tolerance feature.
• Three points of contact must
be maintained between the
primary datum feature and the
gauge surface.
• The orientation of the
toleranced feature may vary
as long as the part will fit into
the gauge. 176
Perpendicularity

177
Perpendicularity

178
Perpendicularity
• Examples:
Assembly-Pilot diameter to mounting face.

179
Perpendicularity
• Examples:
Orientation-Controlling the orientation between datum
features.

180
Perpendicularity
• Examples:
Orientation-Bracket mounting surface.

181
Parallelism

## •The condition of a surface

or axis which is equidistant
at all points from a datum of
reference.
•The considered feature
surface must lie within a
tolerance zone between
two parallel planes, the
stated tolerance apart,
which is parallel to the
datum plane.
182
Parallelism
• Parallelism tolerance always requires a datum
reference ; it is the control of a feature in its orientation
to a datum feature.

183
Parallelism

## • The parallelism tolerance must be less than the

associated size dimension.(and more appropriately
less than one half the size tolerance.
• The parallelism tolerance and size tolerance is
verified separately. The surface must be within the
specified size limits.

184
Parallelism
Parallelism vs. Flatness
• One common area of confusion
within GDT is between
parallelism and flatness. With,
parallelism, a reference is
made to a datum plane, while
flatness is independent of a
datum.
• Slide shows a block on a
surface plate whose three
points of contact define the -A-
datum plane. As specified, the
opposite face of the block must
lie within two planes which
straddle a plane parallel to and
2.0 from -A- and .125 to either
side of it.
185
Parallelism
Parallelism vs. Flatness

## • Next slide shows a

flatness specification
on the same surface.
No datum plane is
involved. A "best fit"
plane (3 point contact)
defines the mid-plane,
and all surface points
must lie between two
planes which are
parallel to this plane,
and .125 to either side
of it.

186
Parallelism

## • When a surface is to be parallel to a datum, the feature

control frame is either connected by a leader to the
surface or directly connected to the extension line of
the dimension.

187
Parallelism
• When parallelism is applied to an axis the axis of the
hole may be specified within a tolerance zone that is
parallel to a given datum.
• The feature control frame is place with the diameter
dimension

188
Parallelism

## – Parallelism to line elements.

• When it is desirable to control only individual line elements,
rather than the entire surface, the note “EACH ELEMENT”

189
Parallelism

190
Parallelism

191
Parallelism

192
Parallelism

193
Parallelism

194
Parallelism

195
Angularity
• The distance between two
parallel planes, inclined at a
specified basic angle in which
the surface, axis, or center
plane of the feature must lie.

## • The condition of a surface,

center plane or axis being
exactly at a specified angle
(other than 90 degree) from a
datum plane or axis.

## • This could be considered

flatness or straight of an axis at
some angle to a datum.

196
Angularity
• Angularity tolerance always requires a datum reference,
it is control of a feature in its orientation to a datum
feature.

197
Angularity

## –Figure 1 the application of angularity to a surface.

–Figure 2 is the application of angularity to an axis.
–Figure 3 is the application of angularity to a center plane

198
Angularity

• Angularity tolerance is
independent of the size
tolerance and is verified
separately. The part also
meet all size requirements.
Aspects of the controlled
angular surface , which is
also dimensioned and
toleranced as a separate
requirement, must also meet
such requirements.

199
Angularity
• Inspection of Angularity:When setting up a part for
the measurement of angularity on a sine bar, it is
difficult to orient the part before performing the
inspection.

200
Angularity
• This problem is overcome if second datum is
referenced in the angularity callout.

201
Composite Control

202
Circular Runout
• Runout is a composite
tolerance used to control
the functional
relationship of one or
more features of a part
to a datum axis.
• A composite control
affects the form, location
and the orientation.
• Runout controls are
often used to control the
co-axiality of the
diameters.

203
Circular Runout

## • There are two types of

runout control, circular
runout and total runout. The
type used is dependent
upon design requirements
and manufacturing
considerations. Circular
runout is normally a less
complex requirement than
total runout.

204
Circular Runout
• There are two two requirements when using a
runout control
1. The datum reference must establish a datum axis.
2. Runout must be applied at RFS.

205
Circular Runout

specification.

feature.

## A single diameter can only be used when it is long enough

to orient the part.

## If a diameter is too short to establish an axis for

inspection, the diameter will not serve well as a primary
datum feature for the part in its assembly.
206
Circular Runout
2. Use two or more coaxial diameters a sufficient distance
apart as datum features to create a single datum axis.
Two or more diameters are used to establish a datum axis
when they serve an equal role in establishing the
orientation of the part in its assembly.

207
Circular Runout
2. Use a surface as a primary datum feature and use a
diameter at a right angle as a secondary datum feature.
A surface primary and a diameter secondary are used
when the surface orients the part and the diameter locates
the part in the assembly.
When the surface is used as a primary datum feature, the
diameter should be very short.

208
Circular Runout
• A dial indicator is often used to
verify a runout control
• First, the part is located in a
chuck or collet to establish
datum axis A.
• A dial indicator is placed on the
surface being checked.
• As the part is rotated 360 degree,
the dial indicator movement is
the runout value of the circular
element.
• Several independent dial
different places along the
diameter.

209
Circular Runout
Summary:
• The dial indicator movement (runout error) can be a result
of form error of the diameter.

## • The dial indicator movement (runout error) can be a result

of axis offset of the diameters.

## • In industry, most parts have a combination of form error

and axis offset. When the dial indicator reading is taken, it
combines several types of part errors into a single dial

210
Circular Runout
Summary:
• Since the dial indicator reading contains several types of
errors and provides a single out put (runout error) a runout
control is considered a composite control.

211
Circular Runout
Examples:
• Locate coaxial diameters on a part.

212
Circular Runout
Examples:
• Create an axis from coaxial diameters.

213
Total runout Runout
• Surfaces Constructed at Right Angles to a Datum Axis
• A total runout tolerance
for a surface constructed
at right angles to a datum
axis specifies that all
points of the surface
must lie in a zone
bounded by two parallel
planes perpendicular to
the datum axis and
separated by the
specified tolerance.
214
Total runout Runout
• Surfaces Constructed Around a Datum Axis
• A total runout tolerance
zone for a surface
constructed around a datum
axis is a volume of
revolution generated by
datum axis.
• Is the variation across the
entire surface of a
cylindrical feature.

215
Total Runout
• Total runout is used to control the combined variations
of circularity, straightness, coaxiality, angularity, taper
and profile when applied to surfaces around and at right
angles to a datum axis.

## • Note that total runout cannot be applied to conical or

curved surfaces as can circular runout.

216
Runout circular vs. total

217
Runout circular vs. total

218
Location Control

219
Position

True Position

• The theoretically
exact location of a
FOS as defined by
basic dimensions.

220
Position

Position Tolerance
defines a zone within
which the axis or
center plane of a
feature is permitted to
vary from true
(theoretically exact)
position.

221
Position
Location tolerances control
position as well as orientation
and form.Thus for a hole , a
location tolerance will control
the position of the hole axis
relative to specified datums,
tilt of the axis of the hole, and
form deviations such as
convexity or concavity of the
axis.

222
Position

223
Position

• A position tolerance
controls the position of
the feature relative to
one or more datums.

## • All points on the axis of

the hole must lie within
the tolerance zone. The
zone applies over the
complete depth of the
hole.

224
225
226
Position

227
228
Concentricity
• Concentricity describes a
condition in which two or more
features (cylinders, cones,
spheres, etc.) In any
combination have a common
axis.
• Concentricity is that condition
where the median points of all
diametrically opposed elements
of a figure of revolution (or
correspondingly located elements
of 2 or more radially disposed
features) are congruent with the
axis (or center point) of a datum
feature.
229
Concentricity

## • Concentricity tolerance is a cylindrical

(or spherical) tolerance zone whose axis
(or centre point) coincides with the axis
or centre point of the datum feature(s).
The median of all correspondingly
located elements of the feature(s) being
controlled, RFS must lie within the
cylindrical or spherical tolerance zone.
The specified tolerance and the datum
reference can only apply on RFS basis.

230
Concentricity
• A Concentricity (coaxiality) tolerance controls the axis of one feature
relative to the axis of another feature. In following case , the axis of
the larger cylinder must lie within a cylindrical tolerance of 0.04 mm
of the axis of the smaller cylinder (defined as datum A)

231
Concentricity
• Concentricity tolerance is more
restrictive and potentially costly
requirement due to the possible need for
detailed analysis of the part in
verification. Before concentricity
tolerance is selected, the options of
position tolerance at MMC or runout
tolerance should be considered.

## • Concentricity tolerance considers in

composite the effect of various surface
errors such as out of straightness, out of
circularity, out of cylindricity, etc as the
median points are determined.
232
Concentricity
• Concentricity verification requires a form of differential
measurement at opposed elements of the surface, to
determine the resultant feature median point. Where
precision spindle machine methods are used, polar graph
printout and analysis with overlay gages will achieve the
same results. Computerization analysis is also used where
such capability is available.
• Concentricity tolerance is always specified and implied on
an RFS basis. If MMC principles are desired, consider
position tolerance.
• All size tolerance must be met independent of the
concentricity tolerance.

233
Concentricity

234
Concentricity

235
Concentricity and position
• Position may use the MMC and LMC modifiers on
the tolerance and Datum references.
• Concentricity ignores the size, roundness and
cylindricity of the feature
• The next slide shows a possible gage (ignoring gage
tolerance and wear allowance) that could be used
when MMC is the modifier. If the sizes are within the
size tolerances but the part doesn't fit the gage, the
features position (coaxiality) is out of spec. This type
of control works well when the main concern is the
assembly of this part to another. The gage may
usually be thought of as representing the worst
mating part
236
Concentricity and position

237
Runout vs. Concentricity
• Avoid specifying concentricity. Concentricity requires
deriving the median line of a feature. All of the
features shown below are concentric. Usually,
designs require that a feature be round as well as
concentric like example A. A better geometric control
is usually circular runout. Circular runout controls
circularity (roundness) as well as concentricity.

238
Symmetry
• Symmetry is condition in which a feature (or
features) is symmetrically disposed about a canter
plane of a datum feature.
• Symmetry tolerance is the distance between two
parallel planes equally disposed about the center
plane of the datum feature.
• All size tolerances must be met independent of
the symmetry tolerance.

239
Symmetry

240
Profile Controls

241
Profile Tolerances
• Profile tolerance
– The outline of an object represented either by an external
view or by a cross section through the object.

## – Profile tolerances may be used to control form,

orientation and location.

## • There are two profile tolerance types,

– Profile of a line and profile of a surface.
– Note: when the profile is other than flat, basic dimensions must be used
to describe the profile.
» A basic dimension is depicted with a box around the dimension and
is considered an exact dimension

242
Profile Tolerances
• Profile of a Line
– A two-dimensional cross section tolerance that extends along the
length of the feature.
– The line profile tolerance is used where parts have changing cross
section along their length and do not have to be along the entire
feature.

## – Figure shows the feature control frame for profile of a line

geometric tolerance.

243
Profile Tolerances

244
Profile of a Line
– Many automobile companies use an exact profile to gage sheet metal parts that
have changing cross sections.
• The hood of an automobile is a good example of such a cross section that
has a changing profile.
• The profile tolerance is assumed a bilateral tolerance, which is the tolerance
both above and below the true profile line.
• The following examples give usage of the profile of a line tolerance.

## special case of using

Cross section of a simple profile of a line to control all profile of a line for a
contour that is controlled around a cross section of a wing. unilateral specification.
by line profile tolerance.
245
Profile of a Surface
• Profile of a Surface
– Used to control all the elements of a surface and treats
them as a single entity.
– Profile of a surface, as its definition states, covers all
points on a surface in three dimensions.

## – Figure shows the feature control frame for profile of a

line geometric tolerance.

246
Profile Tolerances

247
Profile of a Surface
– As with profile of a line, profile of surface can be measured with a mater gage to
control features of the surface or profile.
– The following examples give usage of the profile of a surface tolerance.
• Figure 1 is a cross section of a plate with a slot. The slot is controlled by a
profile of a surface tolerance. That means that the depth of the slot as well as
it’s cross sectional profile is controlled.
• Figure 2 uses profile of a surface to control the surface of a part similar to
that seen in figure

248
Profile of a Surface

249
Profile of a Surface

250
Profile

251
THANKS TO

GEOMETRIC
DIMENSIONING
AND TOLERANCING
252

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