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Data

Communications

Analog and Digital Signals

Analog - voice

Digital computer oriented data

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

Analog to Digital? How's it done?

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

A Network Model
Source

Destination

Transmitter

Receiver
Carrier

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

Transmission Modes
Simplex

Half Duplex

Full Duplex
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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

Encoding Data:
The Telegraph Network
hello
world

H EL L O WO R L D
. . .-.. .-.. --- .-- --- .-. .-.. -..

Point to point
Relayed (switched) by operator
Protocol

The DOT is the Basic UNIT of Length (sometimes called a DIT).


The DASH (DAH) is equal in length to three DOTS.
The space between the DOTS and DASHS within a character (letter) is
equal to one DOT.
The space between characters (letters) in a word is equal to three
DOTS.
The space between words is equal to seven DOTS.

3 March 2004

Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

Encoding Data:
Character Sets - ASCII

Most common encoding scheme for text data


128 most common characters used
7 bits (2^7 = 128)
Split up into the following:

Text and numerals ( A,a, Z,z, 1,..0 )


Punctuation ( .,;:!? etc. )
Symbols ( @#$%&*(){}[]/|\ etc.)
Formatting/editing characters (tab, space, CR, LF, BS etc.)
Control characters ( ESC, SOH, STX, ETX, BEL, BS, DLE,
NAK, ACK, DEL, etc. )
http://www.mcs.vuw.ac.nz/courses/COMP204/2003T1/Handouts
/ascii.shtml

3 March 2004

Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

Networks

How do we categorise?

Geographic

Topology, geography
Technology
Wide area networks
Metropolitan networks
Local area networks
Personal networks

Technologies

Circuit switched
Packet switched

3 March 2004

Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

What's a network?
Consider the physical topology
Topology Types:

Topology = The map or plan of the network.


The physical topology describes how the wires or cables are laid out,
and the logical topology describes how the information flows.
3 March 2004

Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

What's a network?
Consider the physical topology
Point-to-Point Connections:

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

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What's a network?
Consider the physical topology
Point-to-Multipoint Connections:

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Mesh Networks
A
Partial Mesh
B

A
B

Full Mesh

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

C
E

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Star Topology

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Bus Topology

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Ring Topology

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Classification of Networks by
Size and Community

A company
or home

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A city wide
network
Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

A country
wide
network

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Single to Multiple LANs

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Metropolitan Area Network

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Wide Area Network

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The Telephone Network


home
EO
GMSC
cellular
network

EO

PSTN
EO

EO

IGE

IGE

EO

EO
Leased Line

PBX

PSTN

EO

EO

GMSC = Gateway
Mobile Switching Centre

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EO

EO

EO = End Office (= local


Telephone Exchange)

Private Network
e.g. IBM

Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

IGE = International
Gateway Exchange
(or National GE)
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Example Network
end
office

modem

Digital Signal
Inside the
PSTN Network

Telephone
Exchange

end
office

modem
Copper Cable
Analog Signal
(voice band)

Modem = Modulator - Demodulator


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Asynchronous
RS-232C
Digital
COM port

Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

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The
Internet
Hierarchical Infrastructure
International/National
ISPs
Connected by NAP
Network Access Points
(also called peering points
Or Internet eXchanges)
Regional ISP
(Local) ISP
ISP = Internet Service Provider
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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

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Internet Connections
LAN

Private
Backbone

LAN

Large/
Medium
Enterprise

GW

ISP

Global
Backbone

GW

Access via
Leased Lines
(high speed)

GW

Campus
LAN
Access via PSTN, ADSL or cable
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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

University
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Whats a Protocol?

Initiate transmission (State)

Transmit data (State and Semantics)

Identify destination (Address)


Agreement with the destination (Syntax)
Data representation (Protocol or Data?)
Error management (Protocol or Data?)
Flow control (Timing)

Terminate transmission (State)


How is going to decide what are the
characteristics of the protocol?

Committees, Industry consortia, standards bodies

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

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An Architecture

From Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4ed., Prentice-Hall, 2003.


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You can create complex protocols


based on ASCII

They were used before other types of data were


widely used

Used to control peripherals e.g. modems, printers, etc

E.g. to control dialing of a modem (Hayes command set)


E.g. to tell the printer when the end of a line was reached
(CR), or to go down a line (LF)

Used to communicate between an old fashioned


terminal (which is dumb) and a mainframe computer

Protocol called BSC or Bisync


Lets think up a protocol based on ASCII .. You will need
pen and paper and the ASCII character set
Lets do it!

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

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Roundup

Introduced the concepts of wire line networks (rather


than wireless networks)
Data encoding overview
Network Architectures
Protocol Basics

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What is the mode of transmission


for
components
of
a
computer?
Internal view / External View?
Lets use an external view:
Keyboard, mouse, monitor?
Printer port (LPT#)?
Serial port (COM#), modem,
USB, LAN (Ethernet)?
Firewire, SCSI, etc?
Sound cards?
From https://secure.linuxports.com/howto/intro_to_networking/a8607.htm

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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

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The Computer (dont learn this diagram ):


The Internal View?

From http://www.vaughns-1-pagers.com/c-5.pc_block.6.2.pdf

Buses:
Local Bus
Hard disk:
EISA
IDE
SCSI
PCI bus
Network
USB bus
(see
COMP203)
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Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

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