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11/3/2014

INDUSTRIAL
POWERQUALITY

Topic4

BEF44903
By:Engr.Dr.Kok BoonChing (JEK2013)

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

Outlines

4.1MotorStartingStudies
4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPowerFactorCorrection
4.3HarmonicsTreatmentinIndustrialPowerSystems
4 4 V lt
4.4VoltageSagAnalysis
S A l i
4.5FlickerAnalysis

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

Directon
Directonlinestarting
Whenitisswitchedon,the
motorbehaveslikea
motor behaves like a
transformerwithits
secondary,formedbythe
verylowresistancerotor
cage,inshortcircuit.
Thereisahighinduced
currentintherotorwhich
resultsinacurrentpeakin
pp y
themainssupply
Currentonstarting=5to8
ratedCurrent
Torqueonstarting(ST)=0.5
to1.5ratedtorque(RT)

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

Stardeltastarting
Star
Theprincipleistostartthe
motorbyconnectingthestar
motor by connecting the star
windingsatmainsvoltage,
whichdividesthemotors
ratedstarvoltageby3.
Thestartingcurrentpeak
(SC)isdividedby3,
SC=1.5to2.6RC(RCrated
Current).
Asthestartingtorque(ST)is
As the starting torque (ST) is
proportionaltothesquareof
thesupplyvoltage,itisalso
dividedby3:
ST=0.2to0.5RT(RTRated
Torque)

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

Resistancestatorstarting
Themotorstartsatreduced
voltagebecauseresistorsare
voltage because resistors are
insertedinserieswiththe
windings.
Whenthespeedstabilises,the
resistorsareeliminatedand
themotorisconnected
directlytothemains.This
p
processisusuallycontrolled
y
byatimer.
Thestartingcurrentand
torquevaluesaregenerally:
SC=4.5RC
ST=0.75RT

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

Autotransformerstarting
Inthefirstplace,the
autotransformerisstar
connected,thenthemotoris
connectedtothemainsviapart
oftheautotransformerwindings.
Thestarconnectionisopened
beforegoingontofullvoltage.
Thisoperationtakesplacewhen
thespeedbalancesoutatthe
endofthefirststep.
The piece of autotransformer
Thepieceofautotransformer
windinginserieswiththemotor
isshortcircuitedandthe
autotransformerisswitchedoff.
Thevaluesobtainedare:
SC=1.7to4RC
ST=0.5to0.85RT

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

Slipringmotorstarting
Aslipringmotorcannotbe
starteddirectonlinewithits
started direct on line with its
rotorwindingsshortcircuited,
otherwiseitwouldcause
unacceptablecurrentpeaks.
Resistorsmustthereforebe
insertedintherotorcircuitand
thengraduallyshortcircuited.
Thecurrentabsorbedismore
The current absorbed is more
orlessproportionaltothe
torquesupplied.Forexample,
forastartingtorqueequalto2
RT,thecurrentpeakisabout2
RC.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

Softstarterstarting
Thisisaneffectivestarting
systemforstartingand
system for starting and
stoppingamotorsmoothly.
Controlbycurrentlimitation
setsamaximumcurrent(3to
4xRC)duringthestarting
stageandlowerstorque
performance.Thiscontrolis
especiallysuitable for
turbomachines
turbomachines (centrifugal
(centrifugal
pumps,fans).
Controlbytorqueadjustment
optimises torque
performanceinthestarting
processandlowersmains
inrushcurrent.Thisissuited
toconstanttorquemachines.

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

Frequencyconverterstarting
Thisisaneffectivestarting
systemtousewheneverspeed
mustbecontrolledandadjusted.
Itspurposesinclude:
startingwithhighinertialoads,
startingwithhighloadsonsupplies
withlowshortcircuitcapacity,
optimisation ofelectricity
consumption adapted to the speed
consumptionadaptedtothespeed
of"turbomachines".

Itisasolutionprimarilyusedto
adjustmotorspeed,starting
beingasecondarypurpose.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

10

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

11

Voltagedrop/dip

VoltageFlicker

PQduring
Motor
Starting

Inrushcurrent

Voltage/Current
Harmonics

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.1MotorStartingStudies

12

EXAMPLE4.1:Voltagedropduringmotorstarting
An
plans
to
A industrial
i d t i l customer
t
l
t
connect a new induction motor
to the power supply system as
shown in the diagram.
Using the permissible level of
voltage fluctuations as a
criterion, decide whether the
motor should be installed.
For the planned number of 20
starts per hour the voltage
change: Kmax = 3%

SupplySystem
ZS =(1.55+j1.66)m
1MVA
11kV/415V
%Z=5%
X/R=5
PCC
ZL =(25+j60)m
M

75kW
415V
PFStart =0.3
KSOC =7kVA/kW

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

13

PowerFactorinSinusoidal Situations
R

Vsin (t)

v(t ) V1 sin(0t 1 )
i (t ) I1 sin(0t 1 )

PFtrue

Pavg
S

MotorLoad
(Linear)

Pavg
Vrms I rms

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

14

Forthepurelysinusoidal case,
PFtrue PFdisp

Pavg
P2 Q2

V1 I1
cos(1 1 )
2
2

V1 I1
2 2
cos(1 1 )

wherePFdisp iscommonlyknownas
thedisplacementpowerfactor,and
where(11)isknownasthe
power factor angle
powerfactorangle.

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

15

EffectofPFonPowerLosses
7.00

P
PowerLosses(pu)

6.00
5.00

Displacementpowerfactor
greatlyaffectslosses

4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

PF

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

16

PowerFactorinNonsinusoidal Situations
Whensteadystateharmonicsarepresented,the
When steady state harmonics are presented the
voltagesandcurrentscanberepresentedby
Fourierseriesoftheform,

v(t ) Vk sin( k0t k )


k 1

Vrms

i (t ) I k sin( k0t k )
k 1

I rms

Vk2

k 1 2

I k2

k 1 2

V
k 1

2
krms

I
k 1

2
krms

Pavg Vkrms I krms cos( k k ) P1avg P2 avg P3avg ...


k 1

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

17

Totalharmonicdistortion(ordistortionfactor),

THDV

2
Vkrms
k 2

100%

V1rms

THDI

2
I krms
k 2

I1rms

V
k 2

2
k

100%

V1

100
00%

I
k 2

I1

2
k

100
00%

Vrms V1rms 1 (THDV / 100) 2

I rms I1rms 1 (THDI / 100) 2

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

18

Truepowerfactor,
PFtrue

Pavg
V1rms I1rms

1
1 (THDV / 100)

1 (THDI / 100) 2

EXAMPLE4.2
Calculatethetruepowerfactorforthefollowingmeasurements:
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency(Hz)
Voltage (V)
Voltage(V)
Current (A)
Current(A)
50
5030
4150
150
1570
9.525
250
5010
5.840
350
5020
1.235

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

19

EffectofPFtrueonPowerLosses
8.00
Pow
werLosses(pu)

7.00
6.00

NonLinearLoad

5.00
4.00
3.00

Linear Load
LinearLoad

2.00
1.00
0.00
1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

PF

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

20

10

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

21

Averagepowerfactorvaluesforthemostcommonlyused
equipmentandappliances

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC
Why to improve
Whytoimprove
thepower
factor?
Reduction
of losses
oflosses
(kW)in
Reduction
ofvoltage cables
drop
Increasein
available
power

22

Reductionin
Reduction thecostof
ofcablesize electricity

11

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

Howtoimprovvethepowerfacctor?

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

23

Automatic
capacitorbanks

Fixedcapacitors

Attheterminalsof
inductivedevices(motors
andtransformers)

Atthebusbars ofa
generalpowerdistribution
board

Atbusbars supplying
numeroussmallmotors
andinductive

Attheterminalsofa
heavilyloadedfeeder
y
cable

Incaseswherethelevelof
loadisreasonably
constant

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC
(Design)

24

IndentifySystemRequirements
Frequencyandvoltage
(system&capacitors)

Totalsystemloading(P&Q)

OverallPFandtargetPF

CapacitorSizing
Considerharmonicscondition(capacitor
voltage > system voltage) frequency?
voltage>systemvoltage),frequency?

CalculatecompensatedQaccordingtothe
system needs
systemneeds.

AnalysisforPossiblePQ
Resonanceeffect?

Switchingtransient?

12

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC
(Design)
QC Q1 Q2

P tan cos 1 PF1 tan cos 1 PF2

25

KFactor
PFDesired
PFOriginal

0.85

0.86

0.87

0.88

0.50
0 51
0.51
0.52
0.53

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC
(Design)

26

Differencesinvoltage/frequencylevelbetweenthe
supplysystem andthecapacitor usedwillproduce
differentinjectedreactivepowerintothesystem.
different injected reactive power into the system
Thefactortobeconsideredisasfollows:
QCAP

V
QS CAP
VS

f
QCAP QS CAP
fS

where,
where
QCAP =Effectivereactivepowerprovidedbycapacitor
QS =Effectivereactivepowerinjectedintosupplysystem
VCAP =Capacitorvoltagelevel
VS =Supplysystemvoltagelevel

13

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

27

EXAMPLE4.3
Incoming
3phase,50Hz,400V

C1

C2

M1

M2
L1

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

Component
M1
M2

L1
C1

C2

28

Description
8unitsof3phaseinductionmotor,eachoneratedat2kVA,
0.78laggingpowerfactorwith88%efficiency.
24unitsofsinglephaseconveyormotor,connectedinbalance
3phasecoordination,eachoneratedat300W,0.82lagging
powerfactorwith78%efficiency.
Lumploads,ratedat10kVAr,0.9laggingpowerfactor.
6 steps power factor corrector with the switching arrangement
6stepspowerfactorcorrectorwiththeswitchingarrangement
of(1:1:2:2:4:4).Theunitcapacitorusedisratedat525V,
2kVAr.
3stepspowerfactorcorrectorwiththeswitchingarrangement
of(1:2:3).Theunitcapacitorusedisratedat440V.

14

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

29

Analysetheaveragepowerfactorofthisfactorywhenboth
powerfactorcorrectors,C1andC2aredisabled.
RecommendtheproperkVAr ratingfortheunitcapacitorused
inC2ifthepowerfactorforthegroupmotorcircuit,M1isto
becorrectedatleastto0.95lagging.AssumeC2isswitchedto
step3.
AnalyseagaintheaveragepowerfactorforthisfactoryifC1
andC2areswitchedtostep4andstep2,respectively.
d C2
it h d t t 4 d t 2
ti l
IftheC1andC2inFigureareaccidentallyswitchedtoits
maximumstepsandL1isdisconnectedduetotheshortcircuit
event,predicttheoverallpowerfactorforthisinstallation.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

30

SomeissuesinPFCapplication:
Avoidnuisancetrips
causebycapacitor
switchingtransients
Currentlimiting
fusesat150%to
175%ofthe
capacitorrated
current
Donotsettootight
ortooloose

Protection

Capacitorshouldbe
dischargetoa
residualvoltageof
50V,1minuteafter
itisdisconnected
Greaterswitching
transientswillbe
resulted if not
resultedifnot
properlydischarged

Capacitor
Discharge

Avoidresonanceas
itincreasesthe
heatingand
dielectricstresses
Seriesresonance
mightcausezero
voltageatsome
frequencies
Parallelresonances
willamplify
harmonicsat
specificfrequencies

Harmonics

15

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

31

Series
Series
Resonance

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

32

Parallel
Parallel
Resonance

16

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

33

Resonance

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

34

Whentohavefiltertoeliminatetheharmonics?

Powerfactor
correction(kvar)is
greaterthan25%of
the transformer kVA
thetransformerkVA

Noproblemis
expectedif
below15%

RISK

Harmonicproducing
load(e.g.driveload)
isgreaterthan40%of
the transformer kVA
thetransformerkVA

kVAtransformer
Z transformer kVAr

Noproblemis
expectedifbelow
25%

17

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

35

CAPACITORSWITCHINGTRANSIENTS
Capacitorswitchingtransientisanormalsystem
Capacitor switching transient is a normal system
eventthatcanoccurwheneveracapacitoris
energised.
Typically,deenergising acapacitordoesnot
causeasystemtransient.
Thetransientoccursbecauseofthedifference
betweenthesystemvoltageandthevoltageon
thecapacitor.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

36

Themagnitudeofthetransientwillvarybased
ontwovariablesatthetimeoftheswitching.
on two variables at the time of the switching.

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

37

Thesevariablesaretheinitialvoltageonthe
capacitor(trappedcharge,usuallyclosetozeroifthe
capacitorhasbeenallowedtodischarge)andthe
instantaneoussystemvoltageatthetimeofthe
switching.
Thegreaterthedifferencebetweenthesetwo
voltages,thegreaterthemagnitudeofthetransient.
Theworstcasetransientwilloccurwhenthesystem
h
ll
h
h
voltageisatpeakvoltageandthereisatrapped
chargeonthecapacitorofpeaksystemvoltageat
theoppositepolarity.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

I transient VS VC

C
L

38

Where,
VS :Instantaneoussystemvoltage(V)
VC :Instantaneouscapacitorvoltage(V)
C:CapacitorvalueinF
L:InductancevalueinH

19

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

39

BACKTOBACKCAPACITORSWITCHING
Thissituationoccurswhenasecondcapacitoris
This situation occurs when a second capacitor is
switchedoninclose(electrical)proximitytoa
previouslyenergised capacitor.
Inthiscaseahigherfrequencytransientinitially
occursasthepreviouslyenergised capacitor
sharesitschargewiththenewlyenergized
capacitor.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

40

Figurebelowshowstheenergisation ofa50
kVAr,480Vcapacitorstepwithtrappedcharge
kVAr, 480 V capacitor step with trapped charge
andwith150kvar ofothercapacitorstepsin
service.

20

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4.2ApplicationofIndustrialPFC

41

MINIMISINGCAPACITORTRANSIENTS
Therearetwobasicwaystominimizecapacitor
There are two basic ways to minimize capacitor
switchingtransients.
Switchthecapacitoratapointintimewhenthe
systemvoltagematchesthevoltageonthe
capacitor,evenifthereisatrappedcharge.
Insertsomeimpedance,resistanceorinductance,in
I
i
d
i
i d
i
thecircuittominimise thetransient(limitthe
capacitorinrushcurrent,thusminimising the
resultingvoltageoscillation).

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

Fundamental(50Hz)

Fifthharmonic(250Hz)

Thirdharmonic(150Hz)

Resultingwaveform

42

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

43

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

44

Thisperiodicphenomenon(harmonics)canbe
representedbyaFourierseriesasfollows:
represented by a Fourier series as follows:
n

y (t ) Y0 Yn 2 sin nt n
n 1

where:

Accordingto
standards,harmo
nicordersabove
40 areneglected.

Y0 =theamplitudeoftheDCcomponent,whichisgenerally
= the amplitude of the DC component which is generally
zeroinelectricalpowerdistribution(atsteadystate),
Yn =theRMSvalueofthenth harmoniccomponent,

n =phaseangleofthenthharmoniccomponentwhent=0.

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BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

45

Harmonicssourcesin
pp
industrialapplications:
Staticconverters(n=kp
1ofcurrentharmonics)
Arcfurnaces
Lighting(dischargelamps
orfluorescentlamps
producing3rd harmonics)
Variablespeeddrives
Weldingmachines

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

46

Oneofthemostcommonharmonicssourcesin
industrialapplicationsisrectifierloads.
industrial applications is rectifier loads.
Theharmonicloadcurrentdemandsofrectifiers
maybecalculatedfromtherectifierformulasto
findI1,thenfindtheoddharmonics(Single
phase)or5,7,11,13th harmonics(sixpulse)
using1/hrule
/

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

47

Example4.4
A1000kVA
A 1000 kVA threephasesixpulserectifierserves
three phase six pulse rectifier serves
a2000VDCloadusingthedelayangletohold
theDCvoltageconstantoverallloadsinthe
range100kWto250kW.Thesupplytransformer
isratedat1100kVA,13.8kV/6900V,x=20%,50
Hz.Estimatethefifthandseventhharmonic
currentsonthehighvoltagesideofthe
transformerinthe100kWand250kWoperating
range.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

48

Solution:
Findtransformerreactance,
Find transformer reactance
X base

VLL2 (6900V ) 2

43.28
1100kVA
S

LS X S 0.2 43.28 8.656


Vdc

3 2

VLL cos(( )

cos( ) cos( )
PFdisp cos(

3LS

dc
2LS I dc
2VLL

SixpulseRectifierFormula

24

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

49

At250kW,
3 2
8.656 250kW
6900cos 3
2000

2000

71.003
cos( ) cos

2LS I dc
2VLL

cos(71.003 ) cos(71.003)

2(8.656)(250kW / 2000)
2 (6900)

13.042
PFdisp cos( / 2) 0.216

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems
S
I1

50

P
250kW

1157 kVA
PFdisp
0.216
S
48.405 A
3 VLL ( P )

1
I 5 I1 9.68 A
5
1
I 7 I1 6.92 A
7

25

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

51

At100kW,
3 2
8.656 100kW
6900cos 3
2000

2000

74.990
cos( ) cos

2LS I dc
2VLL

cos(74.990 ) cos(74.990)

2(8.656)(100kW / 2000)
2 (6900)

5.206
PFdisp cos( / 2) 0.2149

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems
S
I1

52

P
100kW

465.33kVA
PFdisp 0.2149
S
19.468 A
3 VLL ( P )

1
I 5 I1 3.89 A
5
1
I 7 I1 2.78 A
7

26

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

53

CurrentHarmonicValue(A)

Summary
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
I5(250kW)

I7(250kW)

I5(100kW)

I7(100kW)

HarmonicOrderbyApplicationPower

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

54

CONSEQUENCESOFHARMONICS
INSTANTANEOUS
INSTANTANEOUS
EFFECTS

LONGTERM
LONGTERM
EFFECTS

Disturbcontrollers

Additionalheatingon
inductiveloads/equipment

Additionalerrorsin
inductiondiskelectricity
meters

Vibrationsandnoise

Disturbprotectivedevices

Interferenceon
communicationandcontrol
circuits

27

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

55

Somesymptomscausedbyharmonics:

Voltagenotching
Erraticelectronicequipmentoperation
Computerand/orPLClockups
Overheating(motors,cables,transformers,neutrals)
Motorvibrations
Audiblenoiseintransformersandrotatingmachines
Nuisancecircuitbreakeroperation
Timingordigitalclockerrors
Electricalfires
Voltage/generatorregulatormalfunctioning

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

56

Compatibilitylevelsforvoltagetolerance,voltageunbalanceand
powerfrequencyvariations

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

57

HarmonicStandardforIndustrialNetworks IEC6100024:2002
Oddharmonicsnonmultipleofthree

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

58

HarmonicStandardforIndustrialNetworks IEC6100024:2002
Oddharmonicsmultipleofthree

29

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

59

HarmonicStandardforIndustrialNetworks IEC6100024:2002
Evenharmonics

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

60

Compatibilitylevelsfortotalharmonicdistortion

30

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

61

Harmonicmitigationmethods:
Passivefilter(ortunedfilter)
Passive filter (or tuned filter)
Activefilter
Multipulse transformer
Harmonicsmitigationtransformer

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

62

Passivefilter

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

63

TunedFilter
hn

fn

f0

XC

kV 2
QC

Xn
Q

XC
1

X L 0 LC

Xn X LXC L / C

Z F (h) R j hX L X C / h
Z F (h) R 2 hX L X C / h

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

64

EXAMPLE4.5
Aseriesfilteristunedtothe11
A series filter is tuned to the 11th harmonic.
harmonic
GivenXC =405Ohm.Calculatethefilter
elements.Takethequalityfactor(Q)as50.

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4.3HarmonicsTreatmentin
IndustrialPowerSystems

65

EXAMPLE4.6
Whatisthetuningorderandthequalityfactor
What is the tuning order and the quality factor
fora36kVseriestunedfilterwithXC =544.5
Ohms,XL =4.5OhmsandR=0.825Ohms?

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Activefilter

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Multipulse transformer

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Harmonicsmitigationtransformer

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IEEEStd.11591995/MSIEC61000

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Maincausesofvoltagesagsinindustrialpower
systems:
Faults inthesystem,includinglightningstrike
Transformerenergising
Heavyloadswitching,mainlylargemotor (>300HP)

Typesofvoltagesags:

Sudden

SinglePhaseSags
PhasetoPhaseSags
ThreephaseSags

Q
EXAMPLE
Startinglargemotorsorby
electricalfaultsinsidethefacility

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SinglePhaseSags
Themostcommonvoltagesags,over70%,aresingle
The most common voltage sags over 70% are single
phaseeventswhicharetypicallyduetoaphaseto
groundfaultoccurringsomewhereonthesystem.
Thisphasetogroundfaultappearsasasinglephase
voltagesagonotherfeedersfromthesame
substation Typical causes are lightning strikes tree
substation.Typicalcausesarelightningstrikes,tree
branches,animalcontactetc.Itiscommontosee
singlephasevoltagesagsto30%ofnominalvoltage
orevenlowerinindustrialplants.

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PhasetoPhaseSags
2Phase,phasetophasesagsmaybecausedby
2 Phase phase to phase sags may be caused by
treebranches,adverseweather,animalsor
vehiclecollisionwithutilitypoles.Thetwophase
voltagesagwilltypicallyappearonotherfeeders
fromthesamesubstation.

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ThreephaseSags
y
p
g
Symmetrical3phasesagsaccountforlessthan20%
ofallsageventsandarecausedeitherbyswitching
ortrippingofa3phasecircuitbreaker,switchor
recloser whichwillcreatea3phasevoltagesagon
otherlinesfedfromthesamesubstation.3phase
sagswillalsobecausedbystartinglargemotors but
this type of event typically causes voltage sags to
thistypeofeventtypicallycausesvoltagesagsto
approximately80%ofnominalvoltageandare
usuallyconfinedtoanindustrialplantorits
immediateneighbours.

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Meteringsystems?
Metering systems?
Monitoringsystems?
Accuracyproblems?

77

Motorquality?Speed
Motor quality? Speed
variation?Motordrives
effects?

EFFECTSOF
VOLTAGESAGS
ControlSystem?PLC?
Electronicprocesscontrols?
Sensors?Computercontrols?
VSD?

Industrialprocesses?
Manufacturingstoppage?
Restartproduction?

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Thedipmagnitudeduringafaultisdependent
ontwoimpedances,thesourceimpedance,
on two impedances, the source impedance, ZS
andtheimpedancetothefault,ZF

VPCC

ZF
E
ZS ZF

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Industrialcustomerswhohaveinvestedheavily
inproductionequipmentwhichissusceptibleto
in production equipment which is susceptible to
voltagesagsmusttakeresponsibilityfortheir
ownsolutionstovoltagesagsorlosesome
benefitfromtheirinvestment.
Voltagesagsareafactoflife
theycannotreadilybe
eliminatedfromregularutility
systems.

Replacementofcomponentsor
devices,whichareespecially
sensitive,withlessvoltage
sensitivesubstitutesor
installationofsomeformof
protectionagainstvoltagesags.

BEF44903 IndustrialPowerSystems Topic4

4.4VoltageSagAnalysis
Identifythe
Problem
Equipment
Identification
Whichequipment
issusceptibleto
unplanned
stoppages?
Identifythe
VoltageSags
Determinethe
Determine the
frequency,depth
anddurationof
thevoltagesags

Measurethe
Problem
InstallMetering
Installationofan
electronicmeter
withwaveform
capturecapability
Record
Unplanned
Production
Stoppages
pp g
MeterCostvs.
Costof
Unplanned
Production
Stoppage

80
Choosea
Solution
Calculatethetype
ofvoltagesag
correctionof
expectedfuture
voltagesag
events
Correctthe
problemby
changingsome
sensitive
components
Identifythesize
oftheloadtobe
protectedinkVA
anditssupply
voltage

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Somepossiblevoltagesagscorrectionmethods:

Ferroresonant
Transformer

Uninterruptible
PowerSupply
(UPS)

Flywheeland
Motor
Generator(MG)

Dynamic
Voltage
Restorer(DVR)

StaticVar
Compensator
(SVC)

SagProofing
Transformers

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Ferroresonant Transformer
Alsoknownasaconstantvoltagetransformer(CVT),isa
Also known as a constant voltage transformer (CVT), is a
transformerthatoperatesinthesaturationregionofthe
transformerBHcurve.
Voltagesagsdownto30%retainedvoltagecanbemitigated
usingthistechnique.
Ferroresonant transformersareavailableinsizesuptoaround25
kVA.
kVA

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UninterruptiblePowerSupply(UPS)
UPSmitigatevoltagesagsbysupplyingtheloadusingstored
UPS mitigate voltage sags by supplying the load using stored
energy.
Upondetectionofavoltagesag,theloadistransferredfromthe
mainssupplytotheUPS.

BlockDiagramofanofflineUPS

BlockDiagramofanonlineUPS

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FlywheelandMotorGenerator(MG)
Flywheelsystemsusetheenergystoredintheinertiaofarotating
Flywheel systems use the energy stored in the inertia of a rotating
flywheeltomitigatevoltagesags.
Theflywheelisacceleratedtoaveryhighspeedandwhena
voltagesagoccurs,therotationalenergyofthedecelerating
flywheelisutilised tosupplytheload.

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DynamicVoltageRestorer(DVR)
DVRinjectsvoltageintothesystemin
ordertobringthevoltagebackuptothe
levelrequiredbytheloadduringvoltage
sag.
Injectionofvoltageisachievedbya
switchingsystemcoupledwitha
transformerwhichisconnectedinseries
with the load
withtheload.
ThedifferencebetweenaDVRwith
storageandaUPSisthattheDVRonly
suppliesthepartofthewaveformthathas
beenreducedduetothevoltagesag,not
thewholewaveform.

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StaticVar Compensator(SVC)
ASVCisashuntconnectedpowerelectronicsbaseddevice
A SVC is a shunt connected power electronics based device
whichworksbyinjectingreactivecurrentintotheload,thereby
supportingthevoltageandmitigatingthevoltagesag.

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SagProofingTransformers
Alsoknownasvoltagesag
Also known as voltage sag
compensators,arebasicallya
multiwindingtransformer
connectedinserieswiththeload.
Effectiveforvoltagesagsto
approximately40%retained
voltage.
g
Onlyavailableforrelativelysmall
loadsofuptoapproximately5
kVA.

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Flickerisdefinedasthevariationintheluminosity
p
g
producedinalightsourcebecauseoffluctuationsin
thesupplyvoltage.
Themainsourcesofflickerarelargeandfastload
variationsindustrialloads,suchaselectricarc
furnaces,motors,rollingmills,mash
welders electric welders and electric boilers
welders,electricwelders,andelectricboilers.
Thevoltageflickerischaracterised byvariationof
voltagemagnitudeintherangeof10%ofnominal
voltageandwithfrequencies between0.2to30Hz.

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Rectangularfluctuationatafrequencyof8.8Hzandanamplitude
V=0.4V(i.e.,V/V=40%),whichmodulatesamainssignalof
50HzandamplitudeV=1V.
50 H
d
li d V 1 V

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