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Ducati

This article is about the Italian motorcycle manufacturer.


For the electrical and electronic component manufacturer, see Ducati Energia.
Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. is an Italian company
that designs and manufactures motorcycles. Headquartered in Bologna, Italy, Ducati is owned by German automotive manufacturer Audi through its Italian subsidiary
Ducati Factory
Lamborghini, which is all owned by the Volkswagen
[1]
Group.

History

Ducati Cucciolo, 1950

businessmen soon bought the little engines in quantity,


and oered complete motorized-bicycle units for sale.
In 1950, after more than 200,000 Cucciolos had been
sold, in collaboration with SIATA, the Ducati rm nally
oered its own Cucciolo-based motorcycle. This rst
Ducati motorcycle was a 48 cc bike weighing 98 lb (44
kg) with a top speed of 40 mph (64 km/h) had a 15 mm
carburetor giving just under 200 mpg-US (1.2 L/100 km;
240 mpg- ). Ducati soon dropped the Cucciolo name in
favor of 55M and 65TL.

The rst Ducati logo, 19261930s[2]

In 1926 Antonio Cavalieri Ducati and his three sons,


Adriano, Marcello, and Bruno Cavalieri Ducati; founded
Societ Scientica Radio Brevetti Ducati in Bologna to produce vacuum tubes, condensers and other radio components. In 1935 they had become successful enough to enable construction of a new factory in the Borgo Panigale
area of the city. Production was maintained during World When the market moved toward larger motorcycles,
War II, despite the Ducati factory being a repeated target Ducati management decided to respond, making an impression at an early-1952 Milan show, introducing their
of Allied bombing.
Meanwhile, at the small Turinese rm SIATA (Societa 65TS cycle and Cruiser (a four-stroke motor scooter).
Italiana per Applicazioni Tecniche Auto-Aviatorie), Aldo Despite being described as the most interesting new maFarinelli began developing a small pushrod engine for chine at the 1952 show, the Cruiser was not a great sucmounting on bicycles. Barely a month after the ocial cess, and only a few thousand were made over a two-year
liberation of Italy in 1944, SIATA announced its inten- period before the model ceased production.
tion to sell this engine, called the Cucciolo (Italian for
puppy, in reference to the distinctive exhaust sound) to
the public. The rst Cucciolos were available alone, to
be mounted on standard bicycles, by the buyer; however,

In 1953, management split the company into two separate


entities, Ducati Meccanica SpA and Ducati Elettronica,
in acknowledgment of its diverging motorcycle and electronics product lines. Ducati Elettronica became Ducati
1

HISTORY

and Andrea Bonomi.

Ducati 175 Cruiser, 1952

In April 2012, Volkswagen Group's Audi subsidiary


announced its intention to buy Ducati for 860 million (US$1.2 billion). Volkswagen chairman Ferdinand
Pich, a motorcycle enthusiast, had long coveted Ducati,
and had regretted that he passed up an opportunity to
buy the company from the Italian government in 1984.
Analysts doubted a tiny motorcycle maker would have
a meaningful eect on a company the size of Volkswagen, commenting that the acquisition has a trophy
feel to it, and, is driven by VWs passion for nameplates rather than industrial or nancial logic. Italian
luxury car brand Lamborghini was strengthened under
VW ownership.[6][7] AUDI AGs Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. subsidiary acquired 100 percent of the shares of
Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. on July 19, 2012 for 747
million (US$909 million).[1]

1.1 Ownership
Since 1926, Ducati has been owned by a number of
groups and companies.
19261950 Ducati family
19501967 Government Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) management
Ducati Mach 1

1953 Split into Ducati Meccanica (now


called Ducati Motor) and Ducati Elettronica
(now called Ducati Energia)

Energia SpA in the eighties. Dr. Giuseppe Montano took


over as head of Ducati Meccanica SpA and the Borgo
Panigale factory was modernized with government assistance. By 1954, Ducati Meccanica SpA had increased
production to 120 bikes a day.

19671978 Government EFIM management


(control over day-to-day factory operations)

In the 1960s, Ducati earned its place in motorcycling


history by producing the fastest 250 cc road bike then
available, the Mach 1.[3][4][5] In the 1970s Ducati began producing large-displacement V-twin motorcycles
and in 1973, released a V-twin with the trademarked
desmodromic valve design. In 1985, Cagiva bought
Ducati and planned to rebadge Ducati motorcycles with
the Cagiva name. By the time the purchase was completed, Cagiva kept the Ducati name on its motorcycles. Eleven years later, in 1996, Cagiva accepted the offer from Texas Pacic Group and sold a 51% stake in the
company for US$325 million; then, in 1998, Texsas Pacic Group bought most of the remaining 49% to become
the sole owner of Ducati. In 1999, TPG issued an initial
public oering of Ducati stock and renamed the company Ducati Motor Holding SpA. TPG sold over 65% of its
shares in Ducati, leaving TPG the majority shareholder.
In December 2005, Ducati returned to Italian ownership
with the sale of Texas Pacics stake (minus one share) to
Investindustrial Holdings, the investment fund of Carlo

19731978 Headed by Cristiano de


Eccher[9]

19671973
Montano[8]

Headed

By

Giuseppe

19781985 VM Group
19851996 Cagiva Group ownership
19962005 Texas-Pacic Group (US-based) ownership and going public
Headed by CEO Federico Minoli, 19962001;
returning for 20032007
20052008 Investindustrial Holdings SpA
20082012 Performance Motorcycles SpA[10]
An investment vehicle formed by
Investindustrial Holdings, BS Investimenti and Hospitals of Ontario
Pension Plan

3
July 19, 2012 present Automobili Lamborghini The dry clutch eliminates the power loss from oil viscosS.p.A.[1]
ity drag on the engine, even though the engagement may
not be as smooth as the oil-bath versions, but the clutch
plates can wear more rapidly. Ducati has converted to
AUDI AG acquired 100% of the
wet clutches across their current product lines.
voting rights of Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A. via Audis Automobili
Lamborghini S.p.A. subsidiary

Ducati also extensively uses the Trellis Steel Frame conguration, although Ducatis MotoGP project broke with
this tradition by introducing a revolutionary carbon bre
frame for the Ducati Desmosedici GP9.

3 Product history
Ducati logo 19972008

[11]

See also: Ducati Museum


From the 1960s to the 1990s, the Spanish company
MotoTrans licensed Ducati engines and produced motorcycles that, although they incorporated subtle dierences, The chief designer of most Ducati motorcycles in the
were clearly Ducati-derived. MotoTranss most notable 1950s was Fabio Taglioni (19202001). His designs
machine was the 250 cc 24 Horas (Spanish for 24 hours). ranged from the small single-cylinder machines that were
successful in the Italian 'street races to the large-capacity
twins of the 1980s. Ducati introduced the Pantah in
1979; its engine was updated in the 1990s in the Ducati
2 Motorcycle designs
SuperSport (SS) series. All modern Ducati engines
are derivatives of the Pantah, which uses a toothed
belt to actuate the engines valves. Taglioni used the
Cavallino Rampante (identied with the Ferrari brand)
on his Ducati motorbikes, Taglioni chose this emblem of
courage and daring as a sign of respect and admiration
for Francesco Baracca, a heroic World War I ghter pilot
who died during an air raid in 1918.[15]

3.1 1950s
Main article: Ducati Singles

2006 Ducati PaulSmart 1000 LE

Ducati is best known for high performance motorcycles


characterized by large capacity four-stroke, 90 V-twin
engines,[12] with a desmodromic valve design.[13] Ducati
refers to this conguration as L-twin because one cylinder is vertical while the other is horizontal, making it look
like a letter L. Modern Ducatis remain among the dominant performance motorcycles available today partly because of the desmodromic valve design, which is nearing
its 50th year of use. Desmodromic valves are closed with
a separate, dedicated cam lobe and lifter instead of the
conventional valve springs used in most internal combustion engines in consumer vehicles. This allows the cams
to have a more radical prole, thus opening and closing
the valves more quickly without the risk of valve-oat,
which causes a loss of power that is likely when using a
passive closing mechanism under the same conditions.

3.2 1960s
Main article: Ducati Singles
See also: Ducati Apollo

3.3 1970s
Main article: Ducati V-twin motorcycles
In 1973, Ducati commemorated its 1972 win at the Imola
200 with the production model green frame Ducati 750
SuperSport.

Ducati also targeted the oroad market with the twostroke Regolarit 125, building 3,486 models from 1975
[16]
While most other manufacturers use wet clutches (with to 1979, but the bike was not successful.
the spinning parts bathed in oil)[14] Ducati previously In 1975, the company introduced the 860 GT, designed
used multiplate dry clutches in many of their motorcycles. by noted car stylist Giorgio Giugiaro. Its angular lines

were unique, but raised handlebars made for an uncom- 3.7


fortable seating position at high speeds and also caused
steering issues.[17]

3.4

Current lineup

1980s

Main article: Ducati Desmoquattro motorcycles


Ducatis liquid-cooled multi-valve V-twins made from
1985 on are known as Desmoquattro ("desmodromic
valve four "). These include the 851, 916 and 996, 999
and a few predecessors and derivatives.

3.5

1990s

In 1993, Miguel Angel Galuzzi introduced the Ducati


Monster,[18] a naked bike with exposed trellis and engine.
Today the Monster accounts for almost half of the companys worldwide sales. The Monster has undergone the
most changes of any motorcycle that Ducati has ever produced.

Ducati Hypermotard

In 1993, Pierre Terblanche, Massimo Bordi and Claudio Domenicali designed the Ducati Supermono. A 550
cc single-cylinder lightweight Catalog Racer. Only 67
were built between 1993 and 1997.
In 1994, the company introduced the Ducati 916 model
designed by Massimo Tamburini,[19] a water-cooled version that allowed for higher output levels and a striking new bodywork that had aggressive lines, an underseat exhaust, and a single-sided swingarm. Ducati has
since ceased production of the 916, supplanting it (and Ducati Desmosedici RR
its progeny, the 748, 996 and 998) with the 749 and 999.

3.6

2000s

In 2006, the retro-styled Ducati PaulSmart 1000 LE was


released, which shares styling cues with the 1973 750 SuperSport (itself a production replica of Paul Smart's 1972
race winning 750 Imola Desmo), as one of a SportClassic
series representing the 750 GT, 750 Sport, and 750 SuperSport Ducati motorcycles.
Monster: 620, 695, 750, 900, S2R, S4R[20]
ST2, ST3, ST4[20]
Paul Smart 1000LE and SportClassic variants[20]
SuperSport 750, 900, 1000[20]

Ducati 1098 S Tricolore

Monster[21][22][23]

748, 749, 848[20]

696

996, 998, 999, 1098, 1098S, 1098R,[20] 1198

796

Desmosedici RR[20]

821

PRODUCT HISTORY

3.9

Past engines

1200
1200 S
Multistrada[22][23][24]
1200
1200 S
1200 S Pikes Peak
Diavel[25]
Diavel, Cromo, Carbon, and Strada
Superbike[22][23][26]
899 Panigale
1199 Panigale
1199 Panigale S
1199 Panigale R
Hypermotard[22][23][27]

3.9 Past engines


Desmodue Evoluzione: Desmo two-valve, aircooled (Hypermotard 1100 Evo, Monster 1100
Evo)
Desmodue DS: Desmo two-valve, air-cooled, 56
included valve angle, dual ignition (Hypermotard
1100, Multistrada 1100, Monster 1100, Monster
S2R 1000, SportClassic GT 1000, SuperSport
1000)
Desmodue LC: Desmo two-valve, liquid-cooled
(ST2)
Desmotre DS: Desmo three-valve, liquid-cooled,
40 included valve angle, dual ignition (ST3)
Desmoquattro: Desmo four-valve, liquid-cooled,
40 included valve angle, (851, 888, 916, 996, 748,
Monster S4, Monster S4R)
Testastretta: Desmo four-valve, liquid-cooled, 25
included valve angle, (996R, 998, 999, 749, Monster S4R Testastretta)
Testastretta Evoluzione:
Desmo four-valve,
liquid-cooled, 24.3 included valve angle, 41 valve
overlap angle (848, 1098/1198, Streetghter 1098)

4 Motorcycle design history

Hypermotard
Hypermotard SP
Hyperstrada
Streetghter[22][23][28]
848

3.8

Current engines

Desmodue: Desmodromic two-valve, air-cooled,


60 included valve angle (Monster 696/796)
2007 Ducati Monster S4Rs Testastretta
Testastretta 11: Desmo four-valve, liquid-cooled, Ducati (in its various incarnations) has produced several
11 valve overlap angle (Streetghter 848, Hyper- styles of motorcycle engines, including varying the number of cylinders, type of valve actuation and fuel delivery.
motard/Hyperstrada, Monster 821)
Ducati is best known for its V-twin engine, called a L Testastretta 11 DS: Desmo four-valve, liquid- twin by the company, which is the powerplant in the macooled, 11 valve overlap angle, dual ignition (Mul- jority of Ducati-marqued motorcycles. Ducati has also
manufactured engines with one, two, three or four cylintistrada 1200 DS, Monster 1200, Diavel MY'15)
ders; operated by pull rod valves and push rod valves;
Superquadro: Desmo four-valve, liquid cooled single, double and triple overhead camshafts; two-stroke
(1199 Panigale, 899 Panigale)
and even at one stage manufactured small diesel engines,

6 DUCATI PRODUCTS OTHER THAN MOTORCYCLES

many of which were used to power boats, generators, garden machinery and emergency pumps (for example, for
re ghting). The engines were the IS series from 7 to
22 hp (5.2 to 16.4 kW) air-cooled and the larger twin
DM series water- and air-cooled. The engines have been
found in all parts of the globe. Wisconsin Diesel even assembled and badge engineered the engines in the USA.
They have also produced outboard motors for marine use.
Currently, Ducati makes no other engines except for its
motorcycles.
On current Ducati motors, except for the Desmosedici
and 1199 Panigale, the valves are actuated by a standard
valve cam shaft which is rotated by a timing belt driven
by the motor directly. The teeth on the belt keep the
camshaft drive pulleys indexed. On older Ducati motors,
prior to 1986, drive was by solid shaft that transferred
to the camshaft through bevel-cut gears. This method of
valve actuation was used on many of Ducatis older singlecylinder motorcycles the shaft tube is visible on the
outside of the cylinder.
Ducati is also famous for using the desmodromic valve
system championed by engineer and designer Fabio
Taglioni, though the rm has also used engines that use
valve springs to close their valves. In the early days,
Ducati reserved the desmodromic valve heads for its
higher performance bikes and its race bikes. These valves
do not suer from valve oat at high engine speeds, thus a
desmodromic engine is capable of far higher revolutions
than a similarly congured engine with traditional springvalve heads.

bevel actuated, desmo valved (parallel twin):


125 cc,
chain actuated, spring valved (parallel twin):
350 cc, 500 cc (GTL)
chain actuated, desmo valved (parallel twin):
500 cc (500SD)
belt actuated, desmo valved (V-twin): Almost
all motors since 1986.
Four-cylinder,
gear actuated,
(Desmosedici)

desmo

valved

(V4):

pushrod actuated, spring valved (V4): Prototype Apollo, only two made.

5 Enthusiasts groups
A key part of Ducatis marketing strategy since the 1990s
has been fostering a distinct community identity in connection with branding eorts including online communities and local, regional and national Ducati enthusiast
clubs. There are more than 400 Ducati clubs worldwide and 20,000 registered users of the Ducati Owners
Club web site and 17,000 subscribers to the racing web
site.[29] Enthusiasts and riders are informally referred to
in the motorcycling community as Ducatista (singular) or
Ducatisti (plural).

In North America there are several Ducati enthusiasts


organizations with varying degrees of factory sponsorship. DESMO, the Ducati Enthusiast Sport Motorcycle
Organization, is a North American group aliated with
the factory Desmo Owners Club.[30] Some groups are foDucati has produced the following motorcycle engine cused on vintage Ducatis[31] while several are based pritypes:
marily or entirely on email discussion lists or web forums
such as Ducati.net.[32][33]
Single-cylinder,
In the 1960s and 1970s, Ducati produced a wide range
of small two-stroke bikes, mainly sub-100 cc capacities.
Large quantities of some models were exported to the
United States.

pullrod actuated, 48 cc and 65 cc (Cucciolo)


pushrod actuated, 98 and 125 cc
two-stroke, 50, 80, 90, 100, 125 cc

6 Ducati products other than motorcycles

bevel actuated, spring valved: 98 cc, 100 cc,


125 cc, 160 cc, 175 cc, 200 cc, 239 cc, 250 Ducati Meccanica (as the company was previously
known) has its marque on non-motorcycle products as
cc, 350 cc, 450 cc
well. In the 1930s and 1940s, Ducati manufactured ra bevel actuated, desmodromic valved : 125 cc,
dios, cameras, and electrical products such as a razor.
239 cc, 250 cc, 350 cc and 450 cc
Ducati made a marine binocular called the BIMAR for
belt actuated, desmodromic valved : 549/572 the Kriegsmarine during World War II, some of which
cc Supermono, only 65 made.
were sold on the civilian market after the war.[34] The
Ducati Sogno was a half-frame Leica-like camera which
Two-cylinder,
is now a collectors item. Ducati and Bianchi have devel[35]
bevel actuated, spring valved (V-twin): 750 cc, oped and launched a new line of racing bicycles.
860 cc
Currently, there are four Ducati companies: Ducati Mo bevel actuated, desmo valved (V-twin): 750
cc, 860 cc, 900 cc, 973 cc (Mille)

tor Holding (the subject of this article), Ducati Corse


(which runs the Ducati racing program and is wholly

8.1

MotoGP World Championship

7
to found a road racing program with the 100 Gran
Sport.[37] As of 2009, Ducati was still pursuing the win
on Sunday, sell on Monday business model and spending 10% of company revenues, 40 million, on its racing
business.[38][39]

8.1 MotoGP World Championship


Ducati rejoined Grand Prix motorcycle racing in 2003,
after a 30-year absence.[40] On September 23, 2007,
Casey Stoner clinched his and Ducatis rst Grand Prix
World Championship.
1942 Ducati radio

owned by Ducati Motor Holding), Ducati Energia, a designer and manufacturer of electrical and electronic components and systems and Ducati Sistemi, a subsidiary of
Ducati Energia. All are located in Borgo Panigale in
Bologna, Italy.

When Ducati re-joined MotoGP in 2003, MotoGP had


changed its rules to allow four-stroke 990 cc engines to
race. At the time Ducati was the fastest bike. In 2007,
MotoGP reduced the engine size to 800 cc (49 cu in),
and Ducati continued to be the fastest with a bike that
was markedly quicker than its rivals as was displayed by
Casey Stoner on tracks with long straights.

For 2009, Ducati Marlboro Team campaigned their


Ducati Motor Holding often uses electrical components Desmosedici GP9 with former World Champions Casey
and subsystems from Ducati Energia.
Stoner and Nicky Hayden.[41] Ducati also supplies
customer bikes to the Alice Team, with Mika Kallio and
Niccol Canepa riding for the team in 2009.[42]

Merchandising

Ducati has announced that for the 2011 season, ninetime world champion Valentino Rossi will ride for Ducati
Ducati has a wide range of accessories, lifestyle products Corse.[43][44] This relationship ended at the end of the
and co-branded merchandise bearing their logos and de- 2012 season with Rossi returning to the Yamaha team
signs. The company has a licensing agreement with Tumi for the 2013/14 seasons.[45]
Inc., launching a collection of eight co-branded luggage
pieces in 2006 sold through both of the brands retail
outlets.[36]
8.2 Superbike
World
Championship

(SBK)

Racing history

For 2009, Ducati will race a homologated version of the


1198. The FIM, the sanctioning body for the Superbike
World Championship, has raised the displacement limit
Main article: Ducati Corse
[46]
In 2007, Ducati
Ducatis history with motorsport began with speed for two-cylinder engines to 1200 cc.
raced their 999F07 which is a homologated racing version
of the 999R because maximum displacement for twocylinder engines was limited to 1000 cc.

2008 Ducati Desmosedici GP8 (motoGP)

The company has won 13 riders world championships


since the championships inception in 1988. It has been
argued that Ducati has amassed more wins than any other
manufacturer because the rules are deliberately set to
favour their bikes through manufacturer lobbying; this, of
course, is a matter of dispute.[47] In 2006, Troy Bayliss
championship winning 999R was quoted to have 10 to 15
hp (7.5 to 11.2 kW) less than the Japanese four-cylinder
rivals, despite the fact that the Ducati V-twin had fewer
limitations imposed for tuning its engine, due to the twocylinder conguration.

Noriyuki Haga nished the 2009 World Superbike season


records on Cucciolo motorized bicycle factory racers in aboard the factory-backed 1098R second overall behind
1951, followed in 1954 with bringing in Fabio Taglioni Ben Spies, with 8 wins, and 19 podiums.[48]

10 NOTES

Ducati has also won 16 SBK manufacturer world championships for years 19911996, 19982004, 2006, 2008
2009 and 2011.

rights in the motorcycle manufacturer Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A., Bologna (Italy) via Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A., Sant'Agata Bolognese (Italy), a subsidiary of
AUDI AG for a purchase price of EUR 747 million.

8.3

Supersport World Championship

[2] Lodi, Livio (2009). History of the Ducati Logo: The


1920s. Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A.

8.4

FIM Superstock 1000 Championship

[3] Mach 1. ducati.com. Retrieved 2007-01-25.

8.5

British Superbike Championship

The British Superbike Championship has been won by


Ducati riders on eight occasions and entered since 1988:

8.6

AMA Superbike Championship

In the AMA Superbike Championship, Ducati has had


its share of success, with Doug Polen winning the title in 1993 and Troy Corser the following year in 1994.
Ducati has entered a bike in every AMA Superbike season since 1986, but withdrew from the series after the
2006 season.[49][50][51]
Ducati had an important place in early Superbike racing
history in the United States and vice versa: In 1977, Cycle
magazine editors Cook Neilson and Phil Schilling took
a Ducati 750SS to rst place at Daytona in the secondever season of AMA Superbike racing. Neilson retired
from racing at the end of the year, but the bike he and
Schilling built nicknamed Old Blue for its blue livery became a legend, says Richard Backus from Motorcycle Classics: How big a legend? Big enough for
Ducati to team with Italian specialty builder NCR to craft
a limited-edition update, New Blue, based on the 2007
Sport 1000S, and big enough to inspire the crew at the
Barber Vintage Motorsports Museum (see Barber Motorsports Park), arguably one of the most important motorcycle museums in the world, to commission Ducati specialist Rich Lambrechts to craft a bolt-by-bolt replica for
its collection. The nished bikes name? Deja Blue.[52]

8.7

Australian Superbike Championship

See also
List of Italian companies
List of motorcycle manufacturers

10

Notes

[1] Audi Interim Financial Report 2012. AUDI AG.


2012-07-23. Archived from the original on 2012-0802. Retrieved 2012-08-02. Eective July 19, 2012,
the Audi Group acquired 100 percent of the voting

[4] DUCATI MOTOR HOLDING SPA Annual and Transition Report (foreign private issuer) (20-F) Item 4. Information on the Company. edgar-online.com. 2004-0630. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
[5] History of the Motorcycle. mecossemi.com. Retrieved
2007-01-25.
[6] Cremer, Andreas; Hetzner, Christiaan (April 17, 2012).
UPDATE 2-Audi to pay about 860 mln euros for
Ducati. Thomson Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved April 17,
2012.
[7] Schultz, Jonathan (April 18, 2012), Volkswagen Group
to Add Ducati to Product Portfolio, The New York Times,
retrieved April 18, 2012
[8] Ian Falloon (2006-08-10). The Ducati Bible. Veloce Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84584-012-9. Retrieved 2010-1015.
[9] The Ducati Bible: 860, 900 & Mille, Ian Falloon. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
[10] chili sv (2008-08-08). Ducati to be sold to Performance
Motorcycles SpA, taken private Hell For Leather. Hellforleathermagazine.com. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
[11] Lodi, Livio (2009). History of the Ducati Logo: The
1990s and beyond. Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A.
[12] History of the Two-Valve Twin. Ducati.com. Retrieved
2008-01-25.
[13] Desmo for Dummies. Ducati.com. Retrieved 2008-0125.
[14] What is in an oil. yamaha-motor.ca. Retrieved 200801-25.
[15] Fabio Taglioni: a Legend. ducati.com. Retrieved 200801-25.
[16] Alan Cathcart (JanuaryFebruary 2011). Ducati Regolarit 125. Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved 2011-12-15.
[17] Roland Brown (JulyAugust 2011).
1975 Ducati
860GT. Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
[18] Desmo 2 Valve History. monsta.at. Archived from the
original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
[19] Ducati Ocial History (The 916)". Ducati Motor Holdings. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
[20] Previous Model Years. Ducati Motor Holding SpA.
2009.
[21] Monster. Ducati Motor Holding SpA. 2010.

[22] 2010 Ducati Motorcycles. Total Motorcycle Website.


2010.
[23] Ducati North America BIKES. Ducati Motor Holding
SpA. 2010.
[24] Multistrada. Ducati Motor Holding SpA. 2010.
[25] The name is Diavel. Ducati. 2009-12-17. Retrieved
2010-10-15.
[26] Superbike. Ducati Motor Holding SpA. 2010.
[27] BIKES Hypermotard.
2010.

Ducati Motor Holding SpA.

[28] Streetghter. Ducati Motor Holding SpA. 2010.


[29] Jelassi, Tawk; Leenen, Stefanie (June 2729, 2001).
EMBARKING ON E-BUSINESS AT DUCATI MOTORCYCLES (ITALY) [CASE STUDY]" (PDF). Bled,
Slovenia: Global Co-Operation in the New Millennium
The 9th European Conference on Information Systems.
[30] Desmo Owners Club. Ducati Motor Holding. 2009.
[31] Ducati Vintage Club Homepage.
[32] Ducati.net.
[33] Duglin Kennedy, Shirley (2005). The Savvy Guide to Motorcycles. Indy Tech Publishing. ISBN 9780790613161.
[34] Giuseppe Finizio, Anna Vacani, ed., BIMAR: The little
known history of the Ducati 20 inclined 10x80 binoculars,
Anna and Terry Vacanis Binocular & Cine Collection, retrieved 2013-03-19
[35] Bianchi::Ducati Corse. Bianchiducati.com. Retrieved
2010-10-15.
[36] Tumi Time: Tumi+Ducati Collection. Business Week.
2007-01-24. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
[37] Thompson, Jon F.; Bonnello, Joe (1998), Ducati, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, p. 12, ISBN 0-76030389-4
[38] Boland, Vincent (August 12, 2009), Ducati cuts production and salaries (General OneFile), Financial Times: 12
[39] Radosta, John S. (April 5, 1970), Auto Manufacturers
Keep One Eye on the Track and the Other on Consumer,
The New York Times (ProQuest): 414, Theres an old saying in the auto world: Win on Sunday, sell on Monday
[40] 2003 Ducati MotoGP Team. ducati.com. Retrieved
2008-01-25.
[41] Hayden to join Stoner at Ducati - Yahoo! Eurosport
UK. Uk.eurosport.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
[42] Pramac Racing October 19, 2008 press release http:
//www.aliceteam.com/en/news/47_list_news_details/
news_detail205.php?id=205&sez=News&id_img=955
[43] Ducati (15 August 2010). Rossi to ride for Ducati in
2011 (press release)". MotoGP.com Ocial Website.
Retrieved 2010-08-18.

[44] Fiat Yamaha (15 August 2010). Yamaha and Valentino


Rossi to part company at end of 2010 (press release)".
MotoGP.com Ocial Website. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
[45] Ducati And Rossi To Part Ways At End Of 201, Motorbike
News, August 10, 2012
[46] Changes to the Technical Rules for 2008.
worldsbk.com. Archived from the original on 2007-1218. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
[47] KTMs RC8 superbike targets Ducatis 1098S.
mag.com. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
[48] 41 Noriyuki Haga.
retrieved
Worldsbk.com. Retrieved 2010-10-15.

giz-

12-21-2009.

[49] Minoli, Federico (2006-08-22). AMA Next Year.


ducati.com. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
[50] Williams, Evan (2007-03-08). Ducati AMA Superbike
Streak Ends. superbikeplanet.com. Retrieved 2008-0125.
[51] Adams, Dean (2006-08-22). Bombshell: Ducati Pulls
Out Of AMA Superbike. Superbikeplanet.net. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
[52] January/February 2009 By Richard Backus . One famous Ducati 750SS. Motorcycleclassics.com. Retrieved
2009-07-27.

11 External links
ducati.com Ocial website
Ducati Motorcycles at DMOZ
Ducati Organizations and Clubs at DMOZ
Ducati Businesses at DMOZ

10

12

12
12.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Ducati Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducati?oldid=650959753 Contributors: Bryan Derksen, Stephen Gilbert, Charleschuck, Css,
Andre Engels, Gianfranco, Ixfd64, Rlandmann, Jschwa1, Hashar, WhisperToMe, Ed g2s, Robbot, Akersmc, DocWatson42, Andreasp,
Jrdioko, Quadell, Oneiros, D3v4st4t0r, Kegill, Bk0, Sfoskett, Speedeep, Sam Hocevar, Discospinster, Brianhe, Rich Farmbrough, Clawed,
Kross, Hooperbloob, Jumbuck, Spanky-, Wadems, Dennis Bratland, Dismas, Smokeala, Biso, Urindar, Mangojuice, SCEhardt, GraemeLeggett, Deansfa, BD2412, Jclemens, Rjwilmsi, Rogerd, Rschen7754, Brighterorange, Tommy Kronkvist, Born2cycle, KFP, Tedder,
DVdm, YurikBot, Trainthh, Hede2000, Bhny, Hydrargyrum, CambridgeBayWeather, Anetode, AlfaManDan, Modify, Sean b, Btrujill, NFG, Caponer, DocendoDiscimus, Attilios, SmackBot, Marc Lacoste, Deon Steyn, Od Mishehu, Swerdnaneb, Cs-wolves, Chris
the speller, Bluebot, Kurykh, Jprg1966, Deli nk, Emiliobole, Ww2censor, Indira Varma, Savidan, Harryboyles, Roguegeek, 16@r,
Makyen, Iconic944ss, Mikehelms, Bkusler, Izaakb, DEddy, Kozaru, FairuseBot, ChrisCork, CmdrObot, Orsoni, Rapter49, Cydebot,
Gogo Dodo, Matthew of Hamburg, Trident13, Saabguru, Omicronpersei8, Nickgomez, Pontus Lindengren, Thijs!bot, Ambanmba, Escarbot, Mg55, Deslyy, Gansos, Seasalt, THEunique, MECU, Wimstead, Magioladitis, Capojim, SharShar, Chris Ssk, Battleaxe1973,
Davidwiz, Felisopus, LeMarsu, Ducatideanna, MartinBot, STBot, CommonsDelinker, Redsoxunixgeek, Yonidebot, Bumper12, Aervanath, STBotD, DH85868993, Lmbstl, Vagr7, Amvolia, Useight, Bricology, Technopat, Zurishaddai, Don4of4, Urbanrenewal, Synthebot, Typ932, Pessottino, Loyaltothecorn, Michael Frind, Finnrind, Icsunonove, SieBot, Tiddly Tom, Editore99, Xrateddan, Steven
Zhang, Jmrtn13, Pinkadelica, Hoplon, ImageRemovalBot, Martarius, ClueBot, Niceguyedc, ElSaxo, 718 Bot, Wickedtang, Djamie, Malcolmarsenal, Isthisthingworking, Versus22, Jpg1954, DumZiBoT, Kewelter, XLinkBot, Roxy the dog, Ytak171, Galliano7, TFOWR, ZooFari, Fieldday-sunday, LaaknorBot, LemmeyBOT, Tassedethe, Lightbot, Jimbokeeno, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Kvennamekaniske,
Slimguy, Mathiscool, Jim1138, Garyvines, Quebec99, Xqbot, Gummil, Egausmcdon, Jlgipc, Locobot, Falco.pellegrino, LimeHat, Shadowjams, Hornymanatee, Oldironnut, Erik9bot, Dudawei, FrescoBot, Akuvar, D'ohBot, Citation bot 1, Hb7777, Biker Biker, RedBot,
Allyn.Fleming, Tim1357, Mjs1991, Vengaconmigo, NuvieK, John of Reading, FAEP, Bengt Nyman, Lindsaywinn, Rayukk, Ducati88M5,
ZroBot, Susfele, Scott DNA, Dolovis, Eyadhamid, Ebrambot, H3llBot, Jmiller2610, Guido Benedini, Ebehn, FAM1885, Smdub, ClueBot
NG, Ridwan97, Tallthinbloke, Frietjes, Ducatidiesel, Bimotacycle, Helpful Pixie Bot, Kalin Nache, AvocatoBot, Rawwwwwrrr, Artofbrands, BattyBot, Duck851, YFdyh-bot, Khazar2, Stmauritz, Doctor 2012, Chrsclmn, Cmaccaferri, Scottyhouse, CsDix, Tom Prangnell,
JaconaFrere, Skr15081997, Mark.f.reyes, Germany go rst, Vfrav8r, Tejasrao33 and Anonymous: 241

12.2

Images

File:1920s_Ducati_logo.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/eb/1920s_Ducati_logo.jpg License: Fair use Contributors:


http://www.ducati.com/heritage/news/storialogo.jhtml Original artist: ?
File:2007Ducati1098-001.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/2007Ducati1098-001.jpg License: CC BY
2.5 Contributors: http://www.projectrich.com/gallery Original artist: Rich Niewiroski Jr.
File:2007DucatiDesmosediciRR-001.jpg
Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/eb/
2007DucatiDesmosediciRR-001.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: http://www.projectrich.com/gallery Original artist: Rich
Niewiroski Jr.
File:2007DucatiHyperMotard-001.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/2007DucatiHyperMotard-001.
jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: http://www.projectrich.com/gallery Original artist: Rich Niewiroski Jr.
File:2007DucatiSR4-001.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/2007DucatiSR4-001.jpg License: CC BY
2.5 Contributors: http://www.projectrich.com/gallery Original artist: Rich Niewiroski Jr.
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Ducati_Desmosedici_GP8.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Ducati_Desmosedici_GP8.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/24587511@N07/
2328072481/'>Stoner Ducatis</a> Original artist: Cecep Gorbachev
File:Ducati_Vilar_Cucciolo_1950.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/Ducati_Vilar_Cucciolo_1950.
jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Originally from nl.wikipedia; description page is/was here. Original artist: Original uploader
was Piero at nl.wikipedia
File:Ducati_Werk.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Ducati_Werk.JPG License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Ducati_mach1_800.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7a/Ducati_mach1_800.jpg License: Fair use Contributors:
http://www.ducati.com/heritage/anni60/mach1/mach1.jhtml Original artist: ?
File:Ducati_radio_receiver.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Ducati_radio_receiver.jpg License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Iron Bishop
File:Ducatilogol.png Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/3a/Ducatilogol.png License: Fair use Contributors:
The logo may be obtained from Ducati.
Original artist: ?
File:Factory_1b.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Factory_1b.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: PNG version on the English Wikipedia Original artist: Dtbohrer, updated to SVG by Tomtheman5
File:Flag_of_Australia.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

12.3

Content license

11

File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg


License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_England.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/be/Flag_of_England.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_France.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c3/Flag_of_France.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Italy.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Scotland.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Flag_of_Scotland.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: http://kbolino.freeshell.org/svg/scotland.svg Original artist: none known
File:Flag_of_Spain.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9a/Flag_of_Spain.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/ae/Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License:
PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-bysa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:PaulSmartLE1000.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/PaulSmartLE1000.jpg License: CC-BYSA-3.0 Contributors: Extract from en.wikipedia.org, description page is here Original artist: Livnay Associates
File:Scooters.Assisi026.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Scooters.Assisi026.jpg License: GFDL Contributors: private scootermuseum in Assisi Original artist: Georges Jansoone (JoJan)
File:Volkswagen_Group.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Volkswagen_Group.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Christian Giersing using CommonsHelper. Original
artist: Original uploader was Gr1st at en.wikipedia
File:Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Wiki_letter_w_cropped.svg License:
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Wiki_letter_w.svg Original artist: Wiki_letter_w.svg: Jarkko Piiroinen

12.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0