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Unit 1 Summary

BY YONAS TESFALDET

1.1- The Human Body Systems

Nervous system- The nervous system consists of


the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the
organs connected with the body.

Muscular system- It give movement to the human


body. The muscular system also gives us balance
and manages the blood in our system.

Digestive system- The digestive system breaks


down the food we eat in our body. This leads us to
have the energy we need to keep ourselves active.

1.1- The Human Body System

Cardiovascular System- The organ system that allows blood to


circulate and transport nutrients. These nutrients are amino acids
and electrolytes.

Skeletal system- Gives the body structure, strength, and


movement.

Immune system- A system of structures that processes to fight


against disease.

1.1 The Human Body System

Endocrine System- Glands that produce hormones that regulate


metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual
function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Respiratory system- The organs in your body that help you


breathe.

Lymphatic system- A network of tissues and organs that


primarily consists of lymph, vessels, and lymph nodes.

1.1 The Human Body System

Urinary system- Contains two kidneys which are the bladder and
ureters. They both contain nephrons.

Integumentary System- The organ system that protects the body


from severe damages.

Reproductive system- The system of sex organs that work


together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.

1.1 Directional Terms

Distal- Situated away from the center of the body or from the
point of attachment.

Proximal- Situated nearer to the center of the body or the point of


attachment.

Lateral- Of, at, toward, or from the sides.

Medal- Lying or extended in the middle.

Anterior- Situated toward the front of the body.

Superior- Situated toward the head.

Posterior- Situated toward the hind part of the body.

Deep- Away from the body surface.

Dorsal- Located on the back of the posterior.

Superficial- Located near the surface.

1.1 Regional Terms

Nasal: Nose area

Orbital: Eye area

Oral: Mouth

Buccal: Cheek

Cervical: Throat

Acronomial: Point of the shoulder.

Sternum: Breastbone

Axillary: Armpit

Thoracic: Chest

Brachial: Area

Antecubital: In the fold inside of the arm.

Epigastric region: Superior of the umbilical region.

Abdominal: Stomach

1.1 Regional Terms

Umbilical: Belly button

Scapular: Upper scapula area

Coxal: Hip

Inguinal: Groin

Fibular: Lateral part of the thigh

Sacral: Posterior landmark area between the hips.

Left iliac region: Lateral left hand side of the hypogastric region.

Vertebral: spine

Femoral: Thigh

Deltoid: Back of the shoulder.

Sural: Posterior surgace of the lower leg.

Plantar: Sole of the foot area.

Popliteal: Posterior knee area

1.1 Regional Terms

Olecranal: Posterior knee area.

Gluteal: Buttlock

Calcaneal: Heal of the foot

Spinal Cavity: Extends from cranial cavity and surrounds the spinal cord and vertebra.

Hypograstic region: Inferior to the umbilical region.

1.2 Tissues

Tissues are the building blocks of an organism.

Organisms are filled with tissues.

They are made up of individual cells.

Each could have the same structure and function.

Connective Tissues

Provides structure for the body.

There are 2 types of connective tissues. They are loose


connective tissues and fibrious connective tissue.

Epithelial Tissue

The Epithelial tissues job is to protect your body from the


moisture loss, bacteria, and severe injury.

The epithelial tissue has covering and lining glandulars.

Nervous Tissue

The function of the nervous tissue is to support functions such as


for the neurons and insulation for the blood vessels.

The neurons are the structures for the nervous tissue.

Muscular Tissue

The muscular tissue cause movement for the body. The 3 types
of muscles are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal.

1.2- Keyterms and Names

Adipose tissue- Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which


has cells distended.

Apendicular Skeleton- Bones of the limbs and limb girdles that


are attached to the axial skeleton.

Axial skeleton- The skeleton of the trunk and head.

Tibia- Larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the
knees in the vertebrae.

Tissue- A cellular organizational level intermediate between cells


and a complete organ.

1.2.2 Skeleton Scavenger Hunt

Axial skeleton parts :Skull, Mandible, Sternum Rib cage and


Vertebral Column

Appendicular skeleton parts : Pectoral girdles, arms, and


forearms

Parts of the Vertebral column :Cervical vertebrae, Thoracic


vertebrae, Lumbar vertebrae, Sacrum region, and Coccyx region

Sternum parts:Mandibrum, Sternal body, and Xiphoid process

Bones that are different in males than females:Generally the


pelvis shows difference between males and females.

Major Bones

Skull Ax Metatarsals Ap Mandible Ax Patella


Ap Sternum Ax Clavicle Ax Radius Ap
Humerus Ap Phalanges Ap Ulna Ap Rib cage
Ax Vertebral Column (cervical)Tibula Ap Coccyx
Ap Scapula Ax Carpals Ax Metacarpals Ap
Pelvic Girdle Ax Femur Ap Tarsals AVerterbral column.

1.2.3 Forensic Anthropology

To determine gender :Usage of the pelvis,


skull, and femur. To determine Height:Usage
of Femur.To determine Ethnicity:Usage of the
skull, and femur.To determine age:Usage of
pelvis and femur.

1.3 Identity DNA

DNA is a self replicating material that is present in almost all


organisms.

DNA differs by individuals by the sequence of the nucleotides.

Restriction Enzymes- Cut DNA molecules at a particular place.

RFLPs- Method used by molecular biologists.

They follow patterns of DNA.

DNA Fingerprints- To test genetic information.

Gel electrophoresis- A method of separation and analysis of


macromlolecules based on their size and shape.

1.3.3 Biometrics

Biometric systems record basic information about people and


then codes it on a graph. This system is meant to test if you are
really a specific person.

Sources