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# RUNNING HEAD: WRITE UPS

Samantha Pedri
SW 4810
December 3rd, 2014
Wayne State University

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1. Sample: Chi-Square
A. The two variables used in the Chi-Square analysis are measured at the nominal
level.
B. Descriptive statistics for the Chi-Square analysis can be seen in Table 1.
Table 1: Chi-Square
n (%)
Happiness in Marriage
Very Happy
1033 (59.9%)
Pretty Happy
646 (37.2%)
Not Too Happy
57 (3.3%)
More Children
Yes
No

1033 (44.6%)
1284 (55.4%)

C. The total sample for the Chi-Square analysis is N=3559. Of this sample, the
majority of people (59.9%) are very happy in their marriage, with a small sample
(3.3%) of people who are not too happy in their marriage. The remaining people
(37.2%) are pretty happy with their marriage. There was a close split between
whether or not married couples wanted more children; yes, they wanted more
children (44.6%) and no they did not want more children (55.4%)
D. Our sample could be representative of English and Spanish speaking adults 18
and over living in households in the United States.
E. This sample is also not generalizable to those who do not have a phone, were not
available after 3 p.m., or residents of institutions and group quarters as they were
not surveyed.
This sample is also not generalizable to households outside the U.S. because
only those outside the US were not surveyed, however this survey is
administered in 57 nations and could be used to make cross-national
comparisons.
However, those with mental and/or physical disability who live in the surveyed
households are included so the sample could be generalizable to this particular
population.

3
2. Bivariate Analysis: Chi-Square
A. The research question for this analysis is: Is there a relationship between happiness in
a marriage and being married and not wanting more children?
The null hypothesis is: There is not a relationship between happiness in a marriage and
being married and not wanting more children?
The alternative hypothesis is: There is a relationship between happiness in a marriage and
being married and not wanting more children?
B. In order to answer the research question, a crosstabs was run to determine the chisquare statistic.
C. A chi-square was performed to assess the relationship between happiness in a marriage
and being married and not wanting more children. There was not a relationship between
the two variables, x (2,N=1122)=3.032, p<.001. Therefore, we will accept the null
hypothesis because there is not a significance between happiness in a marriage and not
wanting more children.
D. The study determines that whether or not you are happy in your current marriage that
it does not relate to wanting more children. So if you are happy in your marriage, if you
are neutral in your marriage, or if you are not happy in your marriage, it does not matter.
It does not have anything to do wanting more children.
3. Implications
These findings are relevant because the relationship between happiness in a marriage and
being married and not wanting more children is not related. It is confirmed that the
amount of happiness there is in a marriage does not relate to wanting more children.
These findings indicate that whether you are happy, neutral, or not very happy, it does not
affect the desire for more children.
These findings could result in more research based on whether or not the amount of
children a marriage does or does not have is related to the happiness in their marriage.
The status of the relationship does not affect wanting more children, but the amount of
children could affect the status of the relationship.
This analysis confirms that there is no relationship between these two variables, but there
could be further research done on happiness and the amount of children in a marriage,
and whether or not those are related in any way.

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1. Sample: T-Test
A. The two variables used in the T-Test analysis are measured as Dichotomous.
B. Descriptive statistics for the T-Test analysis can be seen in Table 2 and Table 3.
Table 2:
Frequencies: T-Test
n (%)
Agree or Disagree On Birth Control
Agree
Disagree

886 (54.8%)
731 (45.2%)

Table 3:
Descriptive: T-Test

Number Of
Children

(n)

Mean

SD

3555

1.95

1.701

C. The total sample for the T-Test analysis is N= 3559. Of this sample, a little more
than half of the people (54.8%) agreed in taking birth control as a teen from ages
14-16 and the other percentage (45.2%) disagreed in giving teens ages 14-16 birth
control. There was 3559 respondents to whether or not they agreed or disagreed
to taking birth control at the age 14-16, but only 3555 respondents to how many
children they had, so there was 4 unknown.
D. Our sample could be representative of English and Spanish speaking adults 18
and over living in households in the United States.
E. This sample is also not generalizable to those who do not have a phone, were not
available after 3 p.m., or residents of institutions and group quarters as they were
not surveyed.
This sample is also not generalizable to households outside the U.S. because
only those outside the US were not surveyed, however this survey is
administered in 57 nations and could be used to make cross-national
comparisons.
However, those with mental and/or physical disability who live in the surveyed
households are included so the sample could be generalizable to this particular
population.
2. Bivariate Analysis: T-Test

A. The research question for this analysis is: Is there a relationship between giving birth
control to a teenager ages 14-16 and the number of children they end up having?
The null hypothesis is: There is not a relationship between giving birth control to an teen
and the number of children they end up having.
The alternative hypothesis is: There is a relationship between giving birth control to an
teen and the number of children they end up having.
B. In order to answer the research question, a descriptive and frequency was run to
determine the T-Test Statistics.
C. A T-Test was performed to assess the relationship between giving birth control to
teenagers ages 14-16 and the number of children they end up having. There was a
significant difference in the scores for whether you agree (IV Group 1) (M= 1.86, SD=
1.674) and disagree (IV Group 2) (M= 2.15, SD 1.719); t(1614)= -3.439, p= .001.
Therefore, because there was a significant difference between those who agree and
disagree, we will reject the null hypothesis. These results confirm that whether you agree
with using birth control from the ages 14-16, it relates to the amount of children you
have.
D. If you agree to taking birth control as a teen ages 14-16 or giving birth control to a
teen ages 14-16, it does relate to the amount of children you have. By taking birth control
at these ages, it affects the amount of children you have.
3. Implications
These findings are relevant because the relationships between taking birth control at the
age of 14-16 and the amount of children you have is related. It is confirmed that the
amount of those who agree in taking or giving birth control to teens ages 14-16 relates to
the amount of kids you have.
Further research could be to specify whether or not if the adult is agreeing that it is okay
to give birth control to teens and that it has something to do with the amount of kids they
personally have or the amount of kids that the teen has with taking birth control. A little
This analysis confirms that there is a relationship between the two variables, but there
could be further research done on this to determine if the two variables could be
perceived in a different way.

## 1. Sample: Pearson R- Correlation

A. The two variables used in the Pearson R (Correlation) analysis are measured at
the Interval and Ratio level.
B. Descriptive statistics for the Correlation analysis can be seen in Table 4.
Table 4:
Descriptive: Correlation
(n)

Mean

SD

Number Of
Children

3555

1.95

1.701

Number of
Siblings

3555

3.64

3.185

C. The total sample for the Correlation analysis is N=3555. Of this sample, there
were 9 groups based on how many children you have and there were 27 groups
based on how many siblings you have. Majority of people have either no children
at all (25.3%) or have 2 children (26.5%). The rest of people either have 1 child,
or 3-7 children, or 8 or more. Then the amount of siblings these people have
varies from no siblings to 55 siblings. The majority of these people have 2
siblings (20.3%) or they have 1 sibling (19.9%). The remaining people have about
3-8 siblings, and then there are very few that have more than 10 siblings.
D. Our sample could be representative of English and Spanish speaking adults 18
and over living in households in the United States.
E. This sample is also not generalizable to those who do not have a phone, were not
available after 3 p.m., or residents of institutions and group quarters as they were
not surveyed.
This sample is also not generalizable to households outside the U.S. because
only those outside the US were not surveyed, however this survey is
administered in 57 nations and could be used to make cross-national
comparisons.
However, those with mental and/or physical disability who live in the surveyed
households are included so the sample could be generalizable to this particular
population.

## 2. Bivariate Analysis: Pearson R

A. The research question for this analysis is: Is there a relationship between the number
of siblings you have and the number of children you have?
The null hypothesis is: There is not a relationship between the number of siblings you
have and the number of children you have.
The alternative hypothesis is: There is a relationship between the number of siblings you
have and the number of children you have.
B. In order to answer the research question, a descriptive was run to determine the
correlation statistic.
C. A Correlation was performed to assess the relationship between the number of siblings
you have and the number of children you have. There was a correlation between the two
variables, r= .217, n= 3555, p= .000. Therefore because there was a significant
relationship, we will reject the null hypothesis. Overall, there is a correlation between the
amount of siblings you have and the amount of children you have.
D. This study determines that the amount of brothers and sisters you have, does affect the
amount of children you have. The more siblings you have, the more kids you may have,
and the fewer amounts of siblings you have the less kids you may have. It may also be
viewed that the more siblings you have the fewer kids you have or the fewer siblings you
have the more children you have.
3. Implications
These findings are relevant because the relationship between the amounts of siblings you
have and the amount of children you have is related. It is confirmed that the amount of
siblings you have could effect having more or less children than that amount. These
findings indicate that if you have more siblings you may have more kids or less kids and
the fewer siblings you have the more or less kids you end up having.
These findings could result in further research because it is unknown if the person who
has a lot of siblings, is the one who has a lot of children. The person may have a lot of
siblings and want their children to have more siblings like they did, or they may not want
a big family so they have less children than what their parents had. It is unaware which
people have more kids and more siblings. If a person has more siblings, it could easily be
assumed that they are the ones who have more children, when it could be the opposite
way.
This analysis confirms that there is a relationship between these two variables, but with
this being proven, there could be further research done on the amount of siblings and
children and if they are shown to be higher that the amounts are similar to each other or if
they are opposites from each other.