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Dec. 2011


H E I S H I N P U M P W O R K S C O . , LT D





Construction of the HFM-model 15ppm Bilge Separator


Recommended bilge pump




Suspension of operation


Special note during operation




Trouble Shooting



Important note for maintenance



Other factor for separation efficiency



Heishin 15ppm Bilge Separators, model HFM, are approved under the terms of IMO
Resolution MEPC 107(49) for 15 ppm criteria, by various Governments and have been
issued with Type-approval Certificates. HFM separators have 4 stages that are connected
with a water passage pipe and an oil discharge pipe.


1st stage
Rough separation of oil form bilge water in the 1st stage is dependent upon the specific
gravity (relative density) of the oil being separated. The separation is achieved by using
multiple parallel plates which are housed in the separating compartment in two layers.
Therefore, they are capable of dealing with bilge water mixed with high density fuel oils
and particles of oil which are larger then 60 microns in size.


2nd stage
The 2nd stage is filled with hard type of emulsion breaker. Not only the emulsion is broken
but also foreign matter in the bilge is filtered by the breaker and coalescers in 3rd and 4th
stages is protected from clogging by the foreign matter.


3rd stage
The 3rd stage contains a coalescer which allows small particles of oil to coagulate and
become bigger in size and thereby float to the surface.
Heishins coalescers are made of 18-8 stainless steel and heat/corrosion resistant glass
fiber and are capable of separating oil of 15-20 microns particles. If maintained properly, it
is not necessary to replace these coalescers as often as compared with other types of
15ppm Bilge Separator which use fine filter elements. Moreover, if contaminated, they can
be easily restored by washing with steam or hot water.


4th stage
The 4th stage contains a coalescer which coagulates small particles of oil that can not be
separated in the 3rd stage and become bigger in size and thereby float to the surface.


Pipe between the 1st and the 2nd stage

The connecting pipe between the 1st and the 2nd stage all15ppm Bilge Separator the
passage of bilge water from the 1st stage to the 2nd stage. A T-shaped strainer and a
non-return valve is fitted to this pipe.
(1) T-shaped strainer
The T-shape strainer of a self-cleaning type is provided to arrest any sludge and
foreign matters which escape separation in the 1st stage in order to protect the
coalescer element. The element inside of the strain is made of stainless steel with 100
(2) Non-return valve
The non-return valve is provided to prevent any back flow of water into the 1st stage,
when separated oil form the 1st stage is discharged via the automatic oil discharge
valve which causes a drop in pressure in the 1st stage.


Oil discharge pipe

Each oil discharge pipe from the 1st stage to the 4th stage is fitted with valves
(a motor-driven valve for the 1st stage and ball valves for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages.).
These pipes join together to form a single oil outlet.


Automatic oil discharge device

An automatic oil discharge device is fitted for oil discharge from the 1st stage.
The automatic oil discharge device is composed of an oil level probe and a motor-driven
valve. This probe generates a signal to stop the bilge pump in the case of power failure
and the probe breakdown. (Note: This is used for monitoring oil-water interface level and
not for stopping a bilge pump when the oil content exceeded 15 ppm.)
(1) Situation between probe, motor-driven valve and oil/water interface
Surrounding condition of probe
Condition of oil storage area

Operation indicating LED

Motor-driven valve

Air or oil








Flicker (1 sec.)On

Open after 1 sec.

Flicker (pre-set time)Off

Close after pre-set time

Oil/water interface is lowering

and probe is in water.
Oil/water interface is lowering
and probe is in oil.
Oil/water interface is rising.

(2) Operating Principal

The level detecting probe acts as the positive (+) pole of a capacitor whilst the
peripheral wall of the stage acts as a negative (-) pole. The capacitance between the
positive and negative pole depends upon the fluid. The probe is fitted with a time
adjusting switch which has max. set time of 30 seconds.
When the probe detects oil, the capacitance between positive pole and negative pole
changes that causes the motor-driven valve to open. When the set time (max. 30
seconds) has passed, the motor-driven valve closes automatically.
(3) Electric conductivity
The electric conductivity (specific inductive capacity) is a physical coefficient of the
substance determined when a vacuum is 1: accordingly, air is about 1, water 80.7,
petroleum 2.1, mineral oils 2.0 2.5, paraffin oil 4.6 4.8.
However, the above values for the substances varies greatly if they are mixed in the
bilge due to a change of characteristics by chemicals including detergent, metal dust,
metal ion and water content in the oil. Among other things, the sludge of fuel oil and
lubricant oil has very similar characteristics to water in terms of minute particles of
water eventually making the water content as high as 70 80 % depending upon the
Our oil detecting probe is designed to cover a wide range of conductivity so that it is
possible to use it for different types of oil by on board adjustment.

SW3: Test switch

SW2:Time adjust. switch

SW3: Sensitivity adjust. switch

R: Operation indicate LED


CL: Sensitivity indicate LED

C: Detect. Value indicate LED









TD: Set time indicate LED

F1: Probe protect
F2: Output protect fuse

Layout drawing of OIL LEVEL PROBE



Bilge pump
The 15ppm Bilge Separator bilge pump has a very important function, and has a strong
influence on the separators performance.
Reciprocating and screw pumps are normally used for 15ppm Bilge Separators, because
of their excellent self priming ability and pumping capacities without agitation. The water
passes through these pumps at a very low speed thereby reducing the possibility of
If properly maintained, the reciprocating pump gives stable operation for a long period of
service without affecting the performance of the 15ppm Bilge Separator.
The eccentric screw pump (a single screw type of pump) is suitable for the 15ppm Bilge
Separator as if can transfer bilge water containing high viscosity oil without agitation. It is
necessary to take care not to run the eccentric screw pump in a dry condition where the
rubber made starter will be easily damaged.




Preparation for operation

Prior to operating the 15ppm Bilge Separator after installation, it is necessary to ensure
the following:



Piping for the 15ppm Bilge Separator is laid down in accordance with the
manufactures piping arrangement, and the specification of ship owner/shipyard if
The electric wiring of power supply and alarm signal for 15ppm Bilge Separator is
correctly made.
For cleaning inside the pipe from the suction line to the inlet of 15ppm Bilge Separator,
flush with seawater by running bilge pump. (In this step, seawater is not to be supplied
to 15ppm Bilge Separator)
After elimination of sludge, mud and dirt in the pipe, confirm that there is no leakage
from the pipe and the system.
15ppm Bilge Separator is filled up with seawater by bilge pump
No leakage should be observed from the pipe before the 15ppm Bilge Separator.

Procedures for daily service of 15ppm Bilge Separator:

Turn on the power supply to the automatic oil discharge device.


Open all the valves fitted to the bilge discharge pipe line and start the bilge pump.
Where the 15ppm Bilge Separator has been unused for more than one week, flush
the 15ppm Bilge Separator with seawater using bilge pump for 15 - 20 minutes prior to
handling the bilge. This is because oil, suspended solids (SS), sediment and bacteria
staying in the 15ppm Bilge Separator may have changed into containments by
biochemical reaction and affect the 15ppm Bilge Separators performance.


During the operation of the 15ppm Bilge Separator, oil is separated from bilge water
and accumulates at the upper part of each stage, and eventually this separated oil
should be discharged into the waste oil tank.
The separated oil in the 1st stage is discharged automatically by an automatic oil
discharge device. Oil in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages, however, must be discharged
manually at any time when considered necessary upon checking by the test cock
fitted to the stage. The recommended time for oil discharge is 2 - 3 minutes.

In finishing the operation,

Flush the 15ppm Bilge Separator with seawater for about 15 minutes.
Stop the bilge pump, and switch off the electric power supply.
Ensure that the 15ppm Bilge Separator is kept full of water and should not be emptied
whilst it is unused.




Cleaning of T-shape strainer

Since the bilge water contains sludge and solids and solids which often choke up the
coalescer element, it is important to clean the strainer from time to time.
The strainer can be easily cleaned by rotating the handle provided at the top, during
operation. The foreign matter removed form the strainer element should be discharged out
of the strainer by opening the ball valve fitted on the bottom of the strainer for 5 10
Although the frequency of cleaning service depends upon the ships condition, for safety
sake cleaning should be better done at every operation.
See 6 - 1 (1) for maintenance.

In order to keep the performance and function of the 15ppm Bilge Separator in good
condition, proper maintenance is always required considering the bilge water contains a
variety of contaminants including waste oil, sludge, suspended solids (SS), chemical
substance, bacteria, etc. all in different forms.


Routine check

For the bilge pump


Clean up the strainer fitted to the suction side.

Check the vibration, noise and pressure.
In case the bilge pump is driven by V-belt, check the tension is correct.
Check the temperature of the bearing. When the temperature rises too high to touch
the bearing case by hand, check the bearing itself and bearing housing.
(5) Tighten the gland packing if there is a leakage.

For the 15ppm Bilge Separator

(1) Check the pressure difference between the 1st and 3rd stage. When the pressure
difference is more than 0.07 0.1 MPa;
(a) Clean up the T-shape strainer.
(b) For cleaning, turn the handle by hand 4 - 5 times and drain the sludge form the
bottom of the strainer using the ball valve during the operation.
(c) If the pressure difference does not decrease, wash the coalescer of the 3rd stage
in accordance with 6 - 2.
(2) Check if there is no leakage from the separator body.
(3) Check the function of the automatic oil discharge device.



HFM-model 15ppm Bilge Separator is provided with a washing port fitted on the front
cover of the 1st stage and at the inlet pipe of the 3rd stage. The 15ppm Bilge Separator
should be washed with steam (or hot water) periodically once a month or whenever
considered necessary. Washing can done for both stages either at one time or one stage
at a time.
Washing process:

Ensure that the separator is filled up with either bilge or seawater.

Connect the steam line to the washing port.
Open the motor-driven valve of the 1st stage manually in accordance with 7 - 4 and
also open the oil discharge valves of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages.
Important Note !!
Keep these two valves open until the washing out process finishes.




Run the bilge pump for a short time to discharge separated oil from one by one stage.
Supply live steam (or hot water) in order to heat up water in the 15ppm Bilge Separator
up to 70 - 80. When the temperature rises, stop the supply of steam and keep the
15ppm Bilge Separator in this condition for 2 hours.
Run the bilge pump for 2 - 3 minutes to discharge the remaining oil.
Drain the water of only the 1st stage to the bilge well from the bottom of the stage.
When draining the water out of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stages, ensure that separated oil
has been completely discharged out of the stage.
Close all valves but open the valves on the pipe for bilge treatment if closed.
Start the operation of the 15ppm Bilge Separator for bilge.
The 15ppm Bilge Separator should be filled with seawater prior to the switch over to
bilge. Washing is completed when seawater is fed into the system.
Important note !!
1. When the 15ppm Bilge Separator is first used, the pressure loss in the coalescer in
the 3rd stage is about 0.01 MPa.
2. When the pressure difference becomes more than 0.07 0.1 MPa, washing should
be carried out. There should be no problem if the pressure loss in the coalescer is
over 0.01 MPa even after washing unless it is more than 0.05 MPa.
3. Direct and thorough cleaning by complete dismantle and overhauling of the
coalescer should be done provided the pressure loss is over 0.05 MPa after steam
or hot water washing.
4. It is necessary to replace the existing coalescer in the 3rd stage with a new one if;
(1) the pressure loss still remains over 0.05 MPa after cleaning by overhaul, or
(2) any damage to the coalescer is observed.



2nd stage
The 2nd stage contains hard type of emulsion breaker. Filled quantity is checked once per
6 months and the breaker is supplemented with the following procedure if necessary.
(1) Open the oil discharge valve on the 2nd stage and run the bilge pump for a short time
to discharge separated oil from 2nd stage.
(2) Remove the top cover and discharge the inside water from drain port of the 2nd stage.
(3) When the emulsion breaker is seen, stop the discharge from the drain port.
(4) Supplement the emulsion breaker up to *0 high when filling height of the breaker is *1
high as shown below.

Amount of spare emulsion breaker is considered by the average of consumption rates for 1 year to 2 years.
Consumption rates depends on operating condition.
Sales unit of the emulsion breaker is 15kg / 1unit.



Overhaul and inspection

Prior to overhauling, it is recommended that washing by steam is carried out and
separated oil in all stages is discharged.

1st stage

Disconnect the influence inlet pipe fitted to the body of the stages.
Unbolt the right body to remove it from the main body.
Unbolt the inner cover for the parallel plates section and remove it.
After removing the front cover, pull out all the parallel.
At the centre of each parallel plates, there is a hole with which the plate can be
pulled out.

(5) Zinc anodes fitted inside the front cover should have an visual inspection at least
once every 6 months.
Please replace with new ones if heavily corroded.

2nd stage
(1) Unbolt the manhole cover and emulsion breaker can be pull out.
(2) Remove the top cover in order to check inside condition of the stage.


3rd stage
(1) Unbolt flange on the body flange of right side to pull out the coalescer complete.
(2) Zinc anodes fitted inside the front cover should have an visual inspection at least
once every 6 months.
Please replace with new ones if heavily corroded.


4th stage
Remove the top cover to pull out the coalescer element.


Clean each component and inside the wall of the stage by wiping off or washing with
light oil if necessary. Special attention should be given to check if corrosion has


If any damage is found, repair it properly.

(a) When replacing a gasket with a new one, the flange face should be cleaned up.
(b) When replacing the internal coating, first clean the damaged or peeled off parts
thoroughly and repaint with epoxy tar on the oil-and rust-free surface. Dry the
coating completely prior to re-assembly.


Re-assemble the 15ppm Bilge Separator exactly in the reveres order to the


Carry out a leakage check test after re-assembly.



Adjustment of oil level probe

The automatic oil discharge device has already been adjusted at our workshop before
shipment, and generally no further adjustment is necessary before 15ppm Bilge Separator
is put into operation. Should further adjustment be required for some reasons the following
re-adjustment can be feasible only when the 15ppm Bilge Separator is full of seawater:

External wiring

Output for stopping a pump

1A)probe breakdown)
(fuse: Max. 250V / 1A)

5 (NC) close command

4 (NO) open command

Motor-driven valve

3 (N) common
2 (N)
Power source (AC 100 - 230V)
1 (P)



Sensitivity adjustment
(1) Sensitivity level is adjusted with dip1 to 4 of SW1 according to table shown below.
(2) Sensitivity level has been set to 7 at our workshop.
(3) If water content in the separated oil is very high, i.e., eclectic conductivity is as
high as that of water, the level is adjusted to more high number, i.e., level 8
Note: More than level 4: motor-driven valve is opened if the probe detects heavy or
light oil.
More than level 12: motor-driven valve is opened if the probe detects sea or
fresh water.
Sensitivity level











Note: 1: ON, 0: OFF

- 10 -


Time adjustment
(1) Time is adjusted with dip1 to 4 of SW2 according to table shown below.
(2) Time has been set to 2 seconds at our workshop.
Time (sec.)
















Note: 1: ON, 0: OFF


Confirmation of operation
A: Detecting function of oil
(1) Check that the wiring is correct.
(2) Check that 1st stage is filled up with seawater.
(3) Turn off all switches of SW1 and SW2. Operation indicate LED (R) goes off and
motor-driven valve is closed.
(4) Turn on all switches of SW1. (sensitivity level: 15)
Operation indicate LED flickers for 1 second and motor-driven valve is opened
after 1 second.
(5) Return to pre-set value of SW1 and SW2 after above check.
Sensitivity adjusting switch : level 7
Time adjusting switch
: 2 seconds
Note: Motor-driven valve is opened when test switch is set to TEST.
At normal operation, the test switch should be set to RUN.
- 11 -

B: Stopping function of pump

(1) After supplying power to the bilge separator, run the bilge pump.
(2) During the bilge pump is running, remove either one fuse of F1 (Power supply line)
or F2 (Output line) by pulling out its cover of the fuse. (The fuse is set on this
(3) Confirm the bilge pump has now stopped.
(4) Cut off the power supply to the bilge separator, and then reset the fuse that was
removed in the step (2).


Manual oil discharge by solenoid valve

When is necessary to discharge the separated oil out of the 1st stage forcibly for some
reason, the motor-driven valve should be opened manually during operation of the 15ppm
Bilge Separator with test switch.

- 12 -


If any troubles occur to 15ppm Bilge Separator, find the cause immediately for a proper
countermeasure in accordance with the following table.
Poor performance
of 15ppm Bilge
Separator (high oil
content in the



Bad quality of bilge water caused by

emulsion of more than 3,000 ppm from
the following substances
- Detergent for cleansing
- Compressor drain
- Boiler washing agents with low Ph

Find the main cause of

substances, and prevent them
from entering the bilge

Particles of oil become minute in size in

the bilge pump due to inner leakage.

Overhaul the bilge pump and

repair damaged components
such as pump valve & seat,
bucket ring, etc. if the bilge pump
is piston pump.

If possible, install a separate tank

exclusively for collecting waste
water contaminated by such
chemical substances.

15ppm Bilge Separator is internally

contaminate by oil
- Automatic oil discharge device is not
working in a good condition, and the
separated oil is not discharged
properly eventually letting the oil to
flow out to the 2nd and 3rd stage.

- Separated oil in the 3rd or 4th stage is

not discharged and the oil is mixed in
the effluent.

- Discharge the oil out of the


- The coalescer in the 3rd stage is not

functioning properly due to sludge &
solid substances.

- Wash the coalescer to restore

it to its original condition.

The coalescer in the 4th stage is not

functioning properly due to sludge &
solid substances.

A short pass in the low passage in 15ppm

Bilge Separator occurs caused by;
- Corrosion in the inner compartment
walls of the all stages.

- Adjust the oil level probe.

Short pass in the coalescer unit occurs

by clogging in the coalescer element or
poor fitting of the unit.

- 13 -

Replace the coalescer with

new one

- Check and repair it.

For closer check, hydrostatic
pressure test is recommended.
- Wash the coalescer in the 3rd
stage if badly contaminated, or
correct the fitting of the unit.
- Replace the coalescer in the
4th stage if badly
contaminated, or correct the
fitting of the unit.




15ppm Bilge Separator is operated with

water lowered for the following
- 15ppm Bilge Separator has hot been
filled up with seawater at the beginning
of the operation.

Before the operation, fill up

15ppm Bilge Separator with sea
water and check it is full with
bilge water during operation.
See pressure reading is positive.

- Leakage occurs in 15ppm Bilge

Separator or in the pipe before 15ppm
Bilge Separator, and water level
- For the 15ppm Bilge Separator
provided with the pressure adjusting
valve, the set pressure is not proper, or
valve and valve seat are stuck
- The siphon breaker of the effluent pipe
is cogged.
If an oil content meter is fitted, it is not in
good operation (wrong indication of oil
content in ppm.)
- The sampling pipe is internally
contaminated by oil, sludge or filth.

Check and repair it.

- Check it, and repair or adjust it.

- Check and repair it.

- Check and repair it.

- Check the sampling pipe and

clean it.
- Adjust the pressure according
to makers manual.

- The pressure of sample is beyond a

specified range.
Reduction of
effluent flow
discharged from
15ppm Bilge

Function of the bilge pump is not in good

condition. (Volumetric efficiency becomes
<For piston pump>
- Valve, valve seat or seat ring of the
pump is damaged.
- Bucket ring is worn or damaged.
- Cylinder liner is worn or scratched.
<For eccentric screw pump>
- Rubber-made stator is worn out.
<For piston and eccentric screw pump>
- The number of rotation of the pump
reduced due to the belt being loose.

- 14 -

- Smooth the valve and valve

- Replace the bucket ring.
- Replace the liner or repair it by
- Replace the stator.

- Stretch the belt or replace it.




Air enters form the bilge pump.

Check the gland packing in the

stuffing box and all the
connecting flanges fitted to the
bilge pump.
For closer check, hydrostatic
pressure test is recommended.

Suction pipe of the bilge pump is blocked.

Check the pipe and remove any

obstacles if any.

- Strainer of the bilge pump is clogged.

- Clean the strainer.

- Valve(s) of the suction pipe is closed or

not sufficiently opened.

- Open the valve(s) thoroughly.

Leakage occurs from the relief valve of

the 15ppm Bilge Separator and/or bilge

Check the valve and valve seat

of the relief valve.

Leakage occurs from the test cock.

Repair or replace with new one.

Leakage occurs from the oil discharge


Check the valve of the 2nd, 3rd

and 4th stage to repair.
Check the motor-driven valve
and oil level probe fitted to the
1st stage. If any detect or
damage is found, contact us for
repair or replacement.

Pressure of
15ppm Bilge
Separator rises
too much.

Discharge line is closed.

- The pressure adjusting valve is
incorrectly set.

- Valves including overboard valve are

closed or not sufficiently opened.

- Adjust the pressure adjusting

valve to a proper level for
15ppm Bilge Separator.
- Open these valves fully.

Coalescer is clogged.

 Wash the coalescer in the 3rd

 Replace the coalescer in the
4th stage.

T-shape strainer between the 1st and2nd stage is clogged.

 Clean the strainer. If

overhaul and clean the

Water passage within 15ppm Bilge

Separator is clogged by sludge, solid or
other obstacles, or corrosion.

Check the inside of 15ppm Bilge

Separator, clean and repair if

Pressure gauge is out of order.

Check the pressure gauge and

replace it with new one.

- 15 -




Too much water

contains in the
separated oil

Malfunction of an automatic oil discharge

device of the 1st stage
- Sensitivity of the oil detecting probe is
not properly set.

- Check the probe rand repair or

replace it with a new one if
defect is found.

- Leakage occurs form the motor-driven


- Repair it.

Leakage occurs from the oil discharge

valve of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th stage.

Close the valve fully if open.

Replace with a new one.

valve is kept open
too long or
valve opens and
shuts too often.

Great amount of oil contains in bilge.

Oil is very viscous.

Heat up the oil.

Bilge pump
cannot run.

The fuse in oil level probe is blown away.

Check if supplied power (voltage)

to the motor valve and the oil
level probe is correct.


Nowadays when environmental protection is the main world issue, it is very important for a
ships crew who directly handle bilge to know the characteristics of the actual bilge prior to
and during the operation of the 15ppm Bilge Separator.
In fact, besides there being many kinds of oil, there are a variety of complicated
characteristics in bilge water for each individual vessel. Even in one particular ship, the
characteristics of bilge water change chemically, physically or biochemically every time
bilge water is generated. In many cases, these factors give a negative influence to the
performance of the 15ppm Bilge Separator.
Our 15ppm Bilge Separators have passed type-approval tests and have been approved
under the terms of IMO MEPC 107(49). However, satisfactory performance can not be
kept up unless proper maintenance work is carried out. In order to keep the oil content in
the effluent from the 15ppm Bilge Separator within the criteria of IMO regulations, it is
necessary to carefully note and carry out the following procedures.

- 16 -


Periodical inspection

Periodical checks if bilge water is contaminated by detergent and cleaning by system
(or hot water) from time to time is one of the most important maintenance duties for
ships crew.


Discharge of sludge
Bilge water entering the 15ppm Bilge Separator contains oily sludge including sand,
mud, iron rust, carbon, etc. This oily sludge settles and accumulates in the 15ppm
Bilge Separator and causes clogging resulting in deterioration of separation efficiency.
In particular, F.O. and L.O. sludge create strong corrosion making holes through the
wall of the 15ppm Bilge Separator.
Therefore, it is necessary to remove sludge periodically by either steam washing or
overhaul cleaning and touch up the coating whenever the inner coating is damaged.


Maintenance of bilge pump

As the bilge pump is used to handle bilge water which contains a lot of solids and
trash, it has a greater chance of being damaged than any other pumps in the engine
room. It should be carefully noted that inner leakage between suction and discharge,
damage created by solid substances, may easily cause particles of oil to become very
small and minute, in other word, forming a physically emulsion.
Our 15ppm Bilge Separator design is based on the gravitational difference between oil
and water and is not capable of separating emulsion and oil particles of less than 20
microns is size. Therefore, the separation efficiency will definitely decrease if such
small particles of oil continuously enters the 15ppm Bilge Separator.
It is necessary to check the pump bucket, pump valve and valve seat where if
damaged inner leakage will often occur, and these parts must be kept keep in good


Bilge characteristics
As stated before, bilge water has complex characteristics, and one of the main reasons is
presumably due to chemical and biochemical reaction between oils, water, detergent,
chemical agent and bacteria.
Different chemical agents are added to not only lubricating oil but also to fuel oil, and these
chemicals and detergents are certainly the main cause of emulsified oil in bilge water.

Simply for cleaning purposes detergent is made to dissolve oil and oily substances as
a form of emulsion by chemical reaction. To emulsify oil efficiently, different surface
active agents are added to petroleum or plant and animal oil, and therefore the
detergent is in most cases regarded as an oil itself if chemically analysed.
In general the following group of detergents are in current use on board ships
depending upon the purpose of the detergent. Type are:
) those which dissolve in water but not in oil,
) those which dissolve in oil but not in water, and
) those which dissolve in both water and oil.
- 17 -

Without exception, all detergents in the market react against oil to make it chemically
emulsified when mixed with water. The size of an oil particle in a chemical emulsion is
far less than 1 micron and will not float at all. For the above reason, in general
detergent has a substantial influence on the 15ppm Bilge Separator.
Physical separation method based on the gravitational difference between oil and
water is not capable of separating particles of oil of less than 20 microns in size for
light oil and 10 microns for heavy oil. Chemically emulsified oil makes maintenance
term of coalescer in the 3rd and 4th stage shorten due to burden enlargement of the
coalescers for emulsion separation.
Therefore, it is very important to avoid mixing any detergent into bilge as less
as possible.

Anti-corrosive oil for engine cooling water

Some brands of anticorrosive agent (soluble oil type) have exactly the same
characteristics and ingredients as the above detergent, which is chemically emulsified
when it is dissolved in water.
Therefore, it is recommended not to mix this soluble oil type of anticorrosive oil into
the bilge.


Compressor drain
Although drain fluid discharged from air compressors is very small in quantity, this
drain fluid is in most cases emulsified which may cause a negative effect on the
15ppm Bilge Separator.
Attention should be paid to the quantity of compressor drain fluid and proper
countermeasures are necessary if the quantity increases for any reason.


Sludge is equally as bad a factor on 15ppm Bilge Separator performance as detergent
when it enters the 15ppm Bilge Separator in any great amount. In any case, it is
strongly recommended that mixing sludge into bilge water should be minimised.

- 18 -



Condition of bilge water

In general, bilge water in the bilge tank forms into the following group of layers.
1. Top layer (0n the surface) : floating oil
2. Middle layer : small and minute particle of oil including emulsion
3. Bottom layer : settled solids and sludge
The separation performance of the 15ppm Bilge Separator is adversely influenced by the
oil staying in the middle layer. Due to the ships pitching and rolling, rather big particles of
oil can adhere to and combine with suspended solids (SS) forming oily solids whilst
dissolved detergent makes a small oil droplet even smaller, or emulsified, due to frequent
contact created by motion of ship, and maintenance term of coalescers in 3rd and 4th
stage become shorter and shorter accordingly.
Therefore the 15ppm Bilge Separator should not be operated in such rough weather
conditions which may help to mix up oil, water and sludge layers.


Kind of oil
Regardless of the conditions, a 15ppm Bilge Separator must separate oil from bilge water
to a level of where the oil content becomes less than 15 ppm in the effluent. Therefore,
15ppm Bilge Separator should play an important role to reduce oil pollution. Our 15ppm
Bilge Separator has been designed and constructed to handle bilge water without any
problems based on our long experience.
In general the separation performance varies depending upon the type of oil in the bilge
water. The lighter the oil becomes, the more difficult becomes the separation of oil from
In other words, oil of a small relative density and low viscosity is difficult for the 15ppm
Bilge Separator to handle. Also the higher the pressure of the bilge pump becomes, the
greater the quantity of smaller oil particles resulting in poor separation efficiency.

* *

- 19 -

Under the condition where an oily water separator is used for a long time, a coalescer installed in the 3rd
chamber (stage) is gradually getting dirty to make separation performance less by clogging the coalescer.
The clog of the coalescer mainly happens when the separator is supplied the bilge containing much sludge
and/or suspended solid, and big amount of oil floating the surface of the bilge. In case that the coalescer is
clogged, differential pressure between 2nd and 3rd chambers (stages) becomes bigger and bigger.
In general, it is recommended to clean the coalescer with steam or hot water when the differential pressure
goes up to 0.07-0.1 MPa except the differential pressure comes from clog of a T-shape strainer fitted on the
connection pipe between 2nd and 3rd chambers (stages). If the strainer is clogged, the strainer is cleaned by
handle fitted on top of the strainer. In either case, cleaning work is carried on in accordance with operation
In condition where the coalescer is heavily clogged (the differential pressure goes up to about 0.1 MPa.), it is
requested to take out the coalscer from the separator in the following manner for cleaning purpose.

The coalescer is taken out from the separator, and immerses the coalscer element into light oil for a half
day to dissolve sludge therein.


The coalescer element is taken out from the light oil, and the wire for forming is cut. Then, spread the
element sheets on an iron plate or equivalent plate.

3. The element is washed by sea or fresh water which pressure should be less than 0.1 MPa.

To avoid damage of glass fiber of the coalescer element, attention shall be taken;
a) not to spray fresh or sea water to the element with pressure of more than 0.1 MPa.
b) not to spray the fresh or sea water to the element in condition where the element sheets are not
spread on the flat plate.
c) not to shake the element sheets in water very hard.

2. It is not necessary to remove color of iron rust on the element. If the element is strongly washed to
remove the color, glass fiber of the element is damaged.

Cleaning detergent is not allowed for washing the element. If the detergent is remained in the element
after cleaning work, separation performance is adversely affected as oil is emulsified in the coalescer
Caution of the cleaning


(Pressure: less than 0.1 MPa)

Wire for


Coalescer complete

Fresh or sea water to be used.

Coalescer element to be spread on
the bigger flat plate than the

Coalescer element


Coalescer element

Flat plate

The element to be taken off one by

one and cleaned.

4. Wire for forming to be of stainless


Heishin Pump Works Co., Ltd.

3rd Stage Coalescer

4th Stage Fine Coalescer

When the pressure difference

between 2nd and 3rd stages
becomes more than 0.07
MPa, wash inside with steam
or hot water.
Overhaul and wash
periodically every 6 months.
Check the zinc anode every 6

When the pressure difference

between 3rd and 4th stages
becomes more than 0.1 MPa,
blow the surface with air.
Replace the fine coalescer with
spare unless the pressure
difference drops to less than

More than 90% of de-emulsified oil is separated in this stage

Fine coalescer is used

Life of the coalescer is longer than a membrane or fine filter
Separation principle is the same as the 3rd stage

Clean Water Outlet

Oil Outlet

Oil particles adhere to the coalescer element

and combine with each other to form large drops

1st Stage

Between 1st and 2nd stages

T-shape Strainer
When the pressure difference
between 1st and 2nd stages
becomes more than 0.04 MPa,
clean the strainer inside by
rotating the handle, during
operation. The foreign matter is
discharged out of the drain valve.

Multiple Parallel Plates

Overhaul this stage
when 3rd stage is
Check the zinc anode
every 6 months

No clogging in the parallel plates

Separation of sludge and foreign matter due to very low flow speed

2nd Stage
Emulsion Breaker
Filled quantity is to be checked
once per 6 months and supplement
the breaker if necessary. No need
to replace.
Emulsion breaking: Oil is de-emulsified as preparation
for oil/water separation by the 3rd stage coalescer
Patented Material
Slow consumption rate
No clogging
Easy Maintenance

Head OfficeFactory



1-5-30, Furuta, Harima-cho, Kako-gun,


Hyogo Pref, Japan 675-0146

Tel. 079-436-3018

Tel. +81-79-436-3018

Fax. 079-436-4501

Fax. +81-79-436-4501

Sales Agent

All information in this manual is subject to change without prior notice.

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