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ElectricalMotors

(Mix,Marty,Boss,Prim,Nutt111)

BackgroundInformation:
Solenoidisatermtodefinewhenametalcoreiswrappedaroundbyawirethatcan
conductelectricityinahelixstructure.Oncecurrentflowthroughthewire,magneticfieldinside
thewrappedmetalcorewillbecreatedinauniformdirectionthatthecurrentflows,ontheother
hand,themagneticfieldoutsidethewirewillflowinacurveddirectionfromtheterminalofthe
solenoidwherethestructureendedtotheinsertionpointofthecurrentwhereitenteredthe
solenoidstructure.Thisthensuggestthatwherethecurrentstartedtoentersolenoidcanserveas
thesouthsideofthemagneticfield,andthepointwherethecurrentexitthesolenoidstructure
canserveasthenorthsideofthemagnetasthemagneticfieldflowfromnorthtosouth.
Furthermore,thepowerofthemagneticfieldinasolenoidstructurecanbedeterminethrough
theamountofcurrentthatflowsthroughit,thecoresconductivity,thewires,conductivity,and
theamountoftimesthewireiswrapped
(NOTE:nevertheless,toomanytheamountoftimes
awireiswrappedmayresultedinincreaseintheresistance)
.Theamountofthemagnetic
fieldthatflowsthroughthecentralaxisofthewirecanbecalculatdwiththeformulabelow.

Theknowledgeofsolenoidcanbeappliedtomanythingsandoneofthemostprominentoneis
motorwhichwewillbeexperimentingontoday.
.
PreliminaryQuestions:
a. Aaolenoidis15.0cm.longandhas250turns.Whatisthemagneticfieldstrngthinside
thesolenoidifthecurrentinthecoilsis3.8A.?
10
2
7
Ans.
B=[(1.2566x10
N/A
)(250turns/0.15m)(3.8A)]=7.958x10
T
b. Asolenoidistobewoundonacupboardfrom30.0cmlong.Howmanyturnsofwireare
neededtoproduceamagneticfieldof6.28x103Twhenthecurrentisat5.0A.?
10
2
3
Ans.
[(1.2566x10
N/A
)(N/0.3m)(5A)]=6.28x10
T
N=299856.563turns
c. Asolenoid40cm.longhasamagneticfieldof5.0x1015onanelectrontravelling2.0x
107m/s?
10
2
3
Ans.
N=[(1.2566x10
N/A
)(Nturns/0.4m)(10A)]=5.0x10
T
N=1591596.371turns
d. Whatmagneticfieldisneededtoexertaforceof1.0x1015Nonanelectrontravelling
7
2.0x10
m/s?
15
19
7
Ans.
1x10
N=(1.6x10
C)(2.7x10
m/s)(B)
4
B=3.125x10T

Materials:
1)Copperwire
2)Twoneedles
3)Onefoamsupport
4)Universalstand&clamps
5)VernierMagneticFieldSensor
6)LabQuest
7)Smallpermanentmagnet
8)Sandpaper

Procedure:
1) Makeasolenoidbyusingcopperwireasabasematerialthen,usethepermanentmagnet
asatemplateandwrapthewirearoundit
five
times.
2) Takethewireoutandusethewiresonbothextremeendstowraparoundthesolenoidfor
twoorthreetimestoholditinplace.

3) Cutthewireatbothendsandleavethemaround2cm.lengthwise.
4) Sticktwoneedlesinthefoamwhilemakingitparalleltooneanotherwiththespacethat
thesolenoidcanbesupportedbythem.
5) Rubbothextremeendsofthesolenoidtomakesureitcanconductelectricitywell.
6) Stickeachendsofthesolenoidsintothebothholesoftheneedlesandleavethem
suspended.
7) ConnectthepoweramplifierwiththepoweroutputandtheLabQuestinterface.
8) Connectthepoweramplifier,thecurrentprobe,andtheneedlesshowninpicturebelow.
9) Turnonthepoweramplifierthenzerothecurrentprobewhenthevoltageinthepower
amplifierissetto0V.
10) Usenomorethan3V.tocheckthattheresacurrentflowing.
11) Recordthecurrentinthetable.

12) EstimatethelengthofthecoilusingL=#ofturnsxthicknessofthewireassumingthat
thewirethicknessis200
m.
13) UsetheestimatedLtocalculatethesolenoidmagneticfield.
14) ConnectthemagneticfieldsensortotheLabQuest
(NOTE:movethepermanent
magnetawayasitcaninterupttheresult.)
15) Holdthesensorusingtheuniversalstandthenzerothesensorwhenitisawayfromthe
coil.
16) Bringthesensorclosetothesolenoidbythematterofmillimetersandrecordthevalue
ofthemagneticfield
(NOTE:Makesurethatthecircularcrosssectionofthesensor
isparalleltothecircularpartofthesolenoid.)
.
17)
Disconnectthecurrentprobethendirectlyconnectthepoweramplifiertothetwo
needles.
18) Apply48V.ofvoltage.
19) Bringthepermanentclosetothesolenoidthenobservewhathappens.
20) Recordtheoptimalpositionofthepermanentmagnetforthesolenoidtospinusinga
recorder.

Results:
Current(A)

MagneticField(Calculated) MagneticField(Measured)
(T)
(T)

0.267
A

0.00168
T

0.027
T

Videorecord(Spinningsolenoid):
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9C1ZJ3YA51w&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=9C1ZJ3YA51w&feature=youtu.be

Analysis
1.Isthemagneticfieldmeasuredinagreementwiththecalculatedmagneticfield?

Thenumberthatwecalculateddidnotmatchthatoftheonemeasured.Thisisbecause
wemadeamistakeinsettingupourequipment.Thepartwheretheinstructioninstructed
ustosetthemagneticfieldsensortozeroawayfromthecoil,instead,wesetitnearthe
coilwhichledustogetthewrongvalue.Furthermore,someothererrorsthatarenot
withinourexpectationsmightoccuredforinstance,writingdownthewrongvalueor
errorincalculationcouldalsoexplainthewrongnumberthatweaqquired.

2.Explainstepbystepwhythesolenoidkeepsturning.Usedisgramsinyourexplanation,
incluingtheforces&conceptsthatareinvolved.

Solenoidisacoilofwirewhichcanconvertelectricalenergyintomechanicalenergy.
Whenthecurrentflowsthroughtheconductor,thesolenoidwillgenerateamagneticfield.
Therefore,theairgaponthesolenoidsurfaceswllbecomenorthandsouthpole,whichmakes
thecoilbecomeselectromagnetic.
Therefore,theairgapbetweenthecoilwillallowelectrontomovefreely,andreducethe
resistancewhenthemagneticfluxflows.So,whentheanothermagnetisneartothesolenoid,it
canbePushorPullthesolenoid,dependsonthedirection.

Forexampleasinthepicture,whenthepermanantmagnetgetsclosertothesolenoid,it
willrepulseandcreateangularmomentum.Accordingtotheequation M C = F (aCos) ,it
meansthatmomentumwillbecreatedwhentheforceisapplied.Forcethatitgetsisfromthe
repulsion(orattraction)betweenthesolenoidandthepermanantmagnet.


Thereasonthatthesolenoidcontinuetoturn,isbecauseifthesolenoidgetsonlyan
individualforce,itwillnotstopduetothelawofmomentum.Forinstace,whenthesolenoid
hitstheneedlebesidesit,itstoppedmoving.Thisisbecauseanotherforceinterferewiththe
system.Inaddition,evenifthesolenoidisatemporarymagnet,butiftheelectricalcurrentstill
flows,itcanstillgeneratesmagneticfieldandcontinueturning.

3.Investigateandexplainanothertypeofelectricalmotor.Usediagramsandmentionthe
forcesandconceptsinvolved.

Thereare2maintypesoftheelectricalmotorwhichareDCmotor(Directcurrentmotor)
andACmotor(Alternatingcurrentmotor).However,webuilttheDCmotorinthelab
already.SothereisanotheronewhichistheACmotor.IntheACmotor,thereare2
basicparts:astater,andarotor(showninfigure8).Also,ACmotorcanbedividedinto2
typeswhicharethesynchronousmotor,andtheinductionmotor.Forthesynchronous
motoritrunsatthesynchronousspeed.Inaddition,therotorofthesynchronousmotoris
anelectromagnetwhichmakesitabletolockwiththestaterandrotateswithit.Onthe
otherhand,inductionmotorrunsatthelowerspeedcomparestothesynchronousmotor.
Moreover,therotatingtorque,andthespeedoftheinductionmotorarecontrolledbythe
differencebetweenthespeedofthestaterandthespeedoftherotor.

4.ThemagneticfieldsensorworksduetotheHallEffect?Investigate&explainwhatthe
HallEffectis.

Halleffectisaphenomenonthatallowustodeterminewhetherthechargesthatflowina
conductorispositiveornegative.Thiscanbedoneaswhenwedirectedthemagnetic
fieldinaperpendicularpositiontotheconductor,thechargeswillmoveacrossthe
conductorwhichwillresulltedineitherpositiveotnegativechargeendedontheedgeof
theconductor.Ifweassumethatthecurrentflowfromlefttoright,whichistheflowof
positivecharges,thesechargeswilllbedirectedupwordandendedupontheupperedge
oftheconductor.Ontheotherhand,ifwechargesthatflowthroughtheconductoris
negative,thechargeswillbemovedtothelowerendoftheconductor.Ifweretoexecute
thisprocessusingmetalasaconductor,wewillrealizethatthechargesthatflowsinthe
conductorarenegativeasitistheelectronthatreallymovewithinthecurrent.
Nevertheless,somechargesinsemiconductorcanbepositiveandwecallthesecharges
Holes.

Conclusion:

Inall,wevelearnedfromthislabthatelectricityandmagnetarerelatedandhowthey
canbeusetoturnintomechanicalenergy,inourcase,welearnedthatitcanpowerthe
motor.Fromourexperiment,wevefoundthataftertheelectriccurrentthatflowthrough
thesolenoidgivesthestructureitspolarity,meaningthatonesideispositiveandoneside
isnegativeThisthenmakethesolenoidturnwhenwemoveapermanentmagnettoit.At
theveryend,theseturnsfromthesolenoidwhichpoweredbyelectricitycanbe
connectedtoamechanismwhichdomechanicalworks.Furthermore,howstrongthe
magneticfieldemittedfromthesolenoiddependsonmanyfactorsforinstance,the
numberoftimeswewrapthewireorhowstrongthecurrentis.Ourresultarewhatwe
expectittobe,nevertheless,thecalculationsofthemagneticfieldforceswerenotthe
sameasoneonethatwemeasured.Thisshowedthatwedidsomethingwronginthe
experimentandwedecidedthatthishappenedthishappenedwhenwesetupthe
equipmentinawrongway.Theothermistakeweencounteredisthatthesolenoidends
arenotparalleltothefloor,asaresult,itcannotspinwell.Ifthisexperimentaretobe
repeated,wewillreadtheinstructionmorecarefullyandmakesureofthesetupagain
beforeprocedingwiththeexperiment.Wewouldalsowanttomaketheextremeendsof
bothsidesonthesolenoidasparallelaspossiblesothatitcanspinmorefreelyandgive
usamoredesirableresult.