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Lab Report

Acid Base Lab Determination of CaCO3 in Toothpaste


Chawalnrath Wongdeshanan(Kat) 11-1
Pitchaya Areekarnlert (Petch) 11-1
Karnsinee Yotsakulsate(Jenny) 11-1
Pukjira Ittarut(Pim) 11-1
Date: 27 February 2015
Introduction
Titration is a method to analyze the precise end-point of a reaction and the precise
quantity of reactant in the titration flask. A buret is used to dispense the second reactant to the
titration flask. A pH meter is used to detect the endpoint of the reaction.1
There are four types of titration. Acid-base titration determines the content of a particular
acid or base.2 Oxidation-reduction(redox) titration which depends upon the gain or loss of
electron. Precipitation titration determines the concentration of chloride ion in a specific
solution.3 Complexometric titration is similar to the precipitation titration but it is superior. Since
it makes no error owing to co-precipitations.4
The titration of a strong acid with a strong base is the most common type because it
involves a strong acid and strong base which completely dissociate in water, it resulting in a
strong acid-strong base neutralization reaction.5
In this experiment, its not easy to determine the amount of CaCO

using acid to dilute and calculate the exact amount of CaCO

reacted with acid.

Instead, the back titration method is the proper method to calculate how much of CaCO in the solution by adding excess amount of acid then diluted the acid with

water to certain volume and lastly titrate it with the known concentration of base.

Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to find out the unknown concentration of CaCO 3 in the
toothpaste by using acid-base titration.
Hypothesis
As see in this reaction,
2HCl (aq) + CaCO3(s) ----> Ca2+ (aq) + CO2(g) + H2O + 2Cl-(aq)
2 mole of hydrochloric acid will react against 1 mole of calcium carbonate and then form CaCl 2,
water and carbon dioxide. The prediction will be that the amount of calcium carbonate in the
toothpaste will be half of the amount of the hydrochloric acid reacted in the solution.

Materials
3 x 125 mL Erlenmeyer Flasks (Conical Flask)
1 x spatula
1 x stand w/ double buret holder
1 x buret
1 x stir bar
1 x pH meter
1 x graduated cylinder
Methods
1. Put 125 mL Erlenmeyer on zero scale.
2. Weigh out about 0.5 g of toothpaste into Erlenmeyer flask.
3. Add 10 mL of water into Erlenmeyer flask by using graduated cylinder.
4. Add exactly 10.00 mL HCl into the solution by using volumetric pipette.
5. Heat and stir for 5 mins at the temperature 95 - 105 c and let it cool.
6. Add a Phenolphthalein indicator.
7. Slowly add 0.10 M NaOH in buret. Then record volume and initial pH with pH
meter.
8. Add the titrant slower when the solution starts to turn pink but not return to
transparent. Then record the final pH and final volume.
9. Continue adding an additional 4 mL of titrant and record pH and volume each
time.
10. Continue doing the experiment for 2 more times and you will get a total 3
separate titrations.
Data/Results
Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

Weight toothpaste (g)

0.52 g

0.49 g

0.52 g

Initial Vol. (mL)

25.21 mL

3.29 mL

40.21 mL

Initial pH

1.94

1.37

1.46

Final Vol. (mL)

31.29 mL

40.21 mL

46.19 mL

Final pH

8.07

10.99

8.38

Total vol. (mL)

6.08

8.92

5.98

Vol HCl reacted with


toothpaste

3.92

1.08

4.02

Moles HCl reacted

3.92*10^-4 mol

1.08*10^-4 mol

4.02*10^-4 mol HCl

Moles CaCO3

9.8*10^-5

5.4*10^-5

2.01*10^-4 mol
CaCO3

Amount CaCO3(mg)

9.36 mg.

5.157*10^-3

0.02 mg

Amount CaCO3
(mg/g)

18 mg/g

5.16 mg/g

20 mg/g

Average CaCO3
(mg/g)

14.39

14.39

14.39

*milligram of CaCo3 per gram of toothpaste.


Standard deviation = 8.05286
Relative standard deviation = 55.97%

Discussion
1. What was the purpose of heating the solution?
The purpose of heating the solution is to eliminate the carbon dioxide in the solution
because carbon dioxide will evaporate from the solution as it is heating up.
2. Why was the acid added in excess?
The acid was added in excess because at last the excess will be subtracted out by the
remainder acid to determine amount of acid that reacted with CaCO 3 during the experiment and
calculate how much CaCO3 in the toothpaste.
3. What is an end point? What is an equivalence point?
An end point is the point where the indicator or phenolphthalein changes its colour. An
equivalent point is the point where the mol or quantity of acid and base is equal.
4. Why did the solutions turn pink around a pH of 8-9?
The solution turned pink around a pH of 8-9 because phenolphthalein will change color
from colorless to pink when the pH changes 8.3 to 10. The pink color appears from
phenolphthalein loses its electron then it allows electron to move freely within the molecule
causing color changes in the solution.
5. Why were 3 replicates performed?
3 replicates were performed to rule out any mistakes that can happen during these 3
experiments because we can see the trend of each experiment and then compare it together to
check if there are any mistakes happened.

References
(1)
ChemLab - Titration. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chemlab/techniques/titration.html
[ Sunday 08-Mar-2015 22:28:50 EST ]
(2)
Types of titration. http://classroom.synonym.com/types-titration-14630.html [Sunday
08-Mar-2015 22:30:10 EST]
(3)
Introductory
University
Chemistry
I
precipitation
titration.
http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C14/C14Links/www.chem.ualberta.ca/courses/plambeck/p1
01/p01194.htm [Sunday 08-Mar-2015 22:32:40 EST ]
(4) Types of titrations. https://shailendrakrchemistry.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/types-oftitration.pdf. [Sunday 08-Mar-2015 22:34:01 EST ]
(5)
Chemwiki - Titration of a strong acid with a strong base.
http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Analytical_Chemistry/Quantitative_Analysis/Titration/Titration
_Of_A_Strong_Acid_With_A_Strong_Base [ Sunday 08-Mar-2015 22:36:55 EST ]
(6) Toothpaste :Sparkle White Fresh. Kuron Co.,Ltd. 193,195,197 Krungthep Kreetha Rd.,
Sapansoong, district Bkk 10250

Conclusion
After careful considerations of all the results and all the possible of concentration, it is
concluded that the average concentration of NaOH was and average concentration of CaCO3
was 14.39 mg/g
There were some mistakes that occurred because our error. The first mistake was that we
opened the valve of the buret which contained sodium hydroxide(NaOH), too loose, then the
NaOH flowed into the flask too much. Resulting in the solution in the flask turned dark-pink
very quickly. The second mistake was, at the first time we didnt wash the pH meter before put it
into the flask to measure the pH, then we realized that we must wash before using it. To improve,
we will be more careful when we open the valve of buret and think carefully before using any
equipments.