Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 157












“I declare that this Final Project is the result of my own research and that all sources are
acknowledged in the references”

Student’s Signature : …………………………………..


Date : 26 SEPTEMBER 2008


The construction industry is one of the important sectors in the Malaysian economic and

the most complicated situation to be managed. The sector was really complex in their

program and involved so many stockholders to execute the project. One of the fields

identified that is able to manage projects is through communication. Communication

could be a huge scope to be discovered but one of the aspects that we could be looking

for is in organisational communication.

In order to deal with their nature of communication, process or important term in

organisational communication, this dissertation takes Universiti Tekonologi MARA as a

guideline to start our knowledge in this field as reference because Universiti Teknologi

MARA is one of the biggest institutions in Malaysia that provides educational services to

the student and staffs.

The aim of this project is to investigate the implementation of Organisational

Communication in UiTM Shah Alam which is useful to become role model to other

sector in their communication management especially for construction industry.

Construction project will suffer if there is lack of good organisational communication, so

this dissertation probably will generate information to improve that aspect to become

better and to avoid more problems in construction project.

In addition, the opinions of the staffs in UiTM were gathered through interview and

adoption information of survey also included in this dissertation as conclusion and


Along the final project completion, the author could have never seen successful without

the support and encouragement from some parties. Because of that, I wish to express

my thankful to the persons and all parties who involved in this research and offered a

valuable cooperation in carrying out this final project.

First of all, I would give my acknowledgement to my supervisor Cik Fadzida Bt Ismail

because of her guidance, support and giving the ideas in preparing of this dissertation.

Special thanks also for her because sincerely supervise, encouragement, thoughtful

criticisms in this dissertation and some creative suggestions for giving a good tracks

while preparing this dissertation. My appreciation also goes to my understanding family

while doing this dissertation especially to my beloved parents, A Rahman Bin Said and

Meriam Binti Mamat whom have given a lot of support in financial, sources, guidance

and permission for searching the information and sources from outside.

I am also thankful to interviewees and all my friends especially my classmates for their

helpfulness and encouragement while preparing this dissertation. For someone out

there who means a lot to me, you know who you are. Thanks for the support and for

being there when I need you. Thank you for all participants whom have given a lot of

uproot that I really need in completing the dissertation.

Thank you.











1.2 AIM 2










2.1.1 Communication 9

2.1.2 Communication Process 10

2.1.3 Function of Communication 12

2.1.4 Barriers to Effective Communication 14


2.2.1 Internal Communications 17

2.2.2 External Communications 17

2.2.3 Function of Internal and External Communications 17

2.2.4 Formal and Informal Communications 18

2.2.5 Upward and Downward Communication 19

2.2.6 Lateral Communication 20

2.2.7 Diagonal Communication 20



2.4.1 Concept 22

2.4.2 Features of Organisation 23

2.4.3 Organisation Structure 23


DESCRIPTION PAGES Span of Control 25

2.4.4 Principal of Organisational Structure 28

2.4.5 Types of Organisational Structure 31 Different Structures 30 Centralised and Decentralised Organisation 36 Advantages and Disadvantages 38

2.4.6 Organisation Function 41 Factors of Production 41 Finance Production 43 Human Resources Function 43 Sales and Marketing Function 44 Administrative Function 44 Research and Development Function 45


2.5.1 General 46

2.5.2 Organisational Communication 47

2.5.3 Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication 50






3.1 HISTORY 57




3.4.1 Formal Communication 63 Downward Communication 63 Upward Communication 65 Horizontal Communication 67

3.4.2 Effectiveness of Formal Communication 69

3.4.3 Informal Communication 74 Grapevine 75

3.4.4 Communication Structure as a Network 77

3.4.5 External and Internal Networks 79

3.4.6 Formal and Informal Networks 79


3.5.1 Organisational Form 84

3.5.2 The Divisional Form Structure 85











4.1.1 Communication Channels 95

4.1.2 Information during Communication 95

4.1.3 Communication Policy 97

4.1.4 Program 98

4.1.5 Delegated Authority 98

4.1.6 Superior/Supervisor 99

4.1.7 Human Resources 100

4.1.8 Employers-Employees Relations 100

4.2 FINDINGS 101

4.2.1 Develop Communication Program 101

4.2.2 Communication Program 102

4.2.3 Involving Employees 105

4.2.4 Human Resources Communication 107

4.2.5 Key Element of a Benefits Communication Plan 110

4.2.6 Encouraging Feedback 114

4.2.7 Evaluating Communication Programs 114

4.2.8 Communication Research and Change 116









5.2.1 Changing Communication Needs 119

5.2.2 The Changing Work Force 121

5.2.3 Good Organisational Communication: A Big Reward 123

5.2.4 The New Professional Communicator 125





1.1 Research Methodology 5


2.1 Communication Process 10

2.2 Function of Communication 12

2.3 Types of Noise in Communication 15

2.4 External and Internal Communication 18

2.5 An Explicit and Obvious Organisational Structure 25

2.6 Organisation Hierarchy 26

2.7 Adding Party to an Organisational Hierarchy 26

2.8 A Hierarchy on Party 27

2.9 Using Accountabilities in Organisation Structures 28

2.10 Organisations Structure 31

2.11 Tall Structure 32

2.12 Flat Structure 33

2.13 Hierarchical Organisation 35

2.14 Functions of Organisation 45




3.1 Fayol’s Concept 67

3.2 Type of Communication 73

3.3 A Grapevine Communication 75

3.4 A Communication Network 78

3.5 Type of Grapevine Chains 81

3.6 Example of Division Form Structure 85

3.7 E.g of Communication Process 87

3.8 Communication Channel in UiTM Shah Alam 88


4.1 Communication Channels 95

4.2 Information used during Communication 97

4.3 7-steps Communication Program 102


5.1 Example of Technologies adopted then and now 123

5.2 Communication Variables 124

5.3 Recommendations 127




2.1 Example of Telecommunications 21 Advantages and Disadvantages 35


4.1 Example of form to measure the performance 106

4.2 Benefits Communication tools 112


5.1 Changing of work Force 121

5.2 Changing of Workplace 122

5.3 Changing of Actions 126





Communication is an important process for every organisation such as educational

institution which accommodates more than one individual either to transfer the data, to

give the instruction or to give announcement. In term of educational places like

Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam as the centre of all the UiTM campus in each

state in Shah Alam. So, largest University in Shah Alam needs the system for

organisational communication either inside or outside the boundary of UiTM Shah Alam

as medium to fulfil the University’s mission as provide higher educational service.

Toward enhancing the quality of management in each works among the staff or other

related person with UiTM there are medium that need to use as connection between

them. The suitable organisational communication system may resolve all the difficulties

among all parties in UiTM Shah Alam to give or get the information, announcements,

reminders or other transactions and also for relationship among the UiTM Shah Alam’s

staff that need communication system in all progress.

UiTM is one of the organisations that need communication as item relate to each other

only through some form of communication in organisational communication there types

of communication flow such as formal communication, informal communication,

downward and upward communication and etc. As a educational organisation UiTM

need best types of communication to archive the goal in many aspect especially in

organisation that involved staff (superior and subordinates). For each building in UiTM
Shah Alam the communication among the staff or related person might be via channel

as medium of communication. These channels also one of the factor in organisational

communication and important to all parties. In this study the communication is varies

and circumstances of organisational communication of population in UiTM Shah Alam

will be concentrate.

1.2 AIM

The study created to study about the organisational communication system in Universiti

Teknologi MARA Shah Alam as a guideline for future use as reference to improve their

knowledge about the organisational communication system such as education

institution, construction organisation etc.


I. To identify the information of organisational communication system.

II. To study about the organisational communication system that implemented in UiTM

Shah Alam.

III. To identify the scenario and planning of organisational communication in UiTM

Shah Alam.

IV. To propose the strategic organisational communication plan for UiTM Shah Alam.


UiTM is educational institution that provides the knowledge services and

communication system that suitable for achieve the goal to create the environment of

better communication as tool to avoid the failure of communication. Based on this study
there is a need to identify the organisational communication in UiTM. Tools that

incorporate the system also need to discover either in term of ability to perform the

better result for communication or worst. Each organisation in UiTM Shah Alam has

their communication but is there the best communication as a bridge to achieve the

goal. Organisational communication something that related to superior and

subordinates, via this study could be the relation between them may be increase and

help for communication in UiTM by producing the advantages to avoid the obstacles, by

this study also may create understanding for employee about the communication and in

their daily work in organisation which is can be come from varies sector such as

construction sector but UiTM Shah Alam become the subject matter for other

organisation in any sectors. Thought these issues organisational communication in

UiTM will be guide to become more suitable.


This study create to become guidelines for any sectors in Malaysia regarding

organisational communication that implemented in UiTM as educational institution

especially for construction sector that very fragmented in their activities and

management. In addition, interview with related person that clearly understand what is

organisational communication. This study focused on UiTM Shah Alam.


1.6.1 Literature Review

In this section, those are discussed briefly. Information is obtained from various sources

such as related reference books, articles from internet and magazines. The purpose of

this is to get a general overview of the topic in organisational communication.

1.6.2 Survey and interviews

To let perceptively respondents give their opinion and point of view regarding the

research. Forms filled with survey will be distributed to staff (superiors and

subordinates). The survey is distributing randomly around UiTM Shah Alam (focal point)

only. The survey is based on the researches issues, articles and others. Interview will

be held to the UiTM’s staff (superiors). This method will allow better to gather the

information about scenario of organisational communication that implemented either

written or just a virtual but useful.





Interview Survey Document


and Conclusion

Figure 1.1: Research methodology flow chart


1.7.1 Chapter 1- Introduction

The first chapter consists of general introduction to study, a highlighted issue of

the topic, main objectives to be covered, methodology, scope and limitation of

the study, and finally the overview of chapter arrangement in this study.

1.7.2 Chapter 2- Literature Review

This chapter shows the literature review on organisational communication

system commonly in general view regarding organisation. Inclusive information

about organisational communication, definition and items that involved in

organisational communication system, the process and related issue are

discussed in detail.

1.7.3 Chapter 3- Case Study

As mention in the scope of study above, UiTM Shah Alam will be the case study

in this dissertation. The application of organisational communication in an

institution as UiTM Shah Alam, the scenario of organisational communication

will be highlighted. The offices consists with unit, division, department and etc in

UiTM Shah Alam will be main source of data collection. The data and

information gathered will be precisely discussed in this part of dissertation.

1.7.4 Chapter 4- Findings and Analysis

As a sequence to the study made on the institutions, analysis and finding takes

part in the preparation of this dissertation. This is an important item to be

discussed to gather information of organisational communication implemented in

selected organisation in UiTM Shah Alam and some relevant details that stated

in the literature review provided.

1.7.5 Chapter 5- Recommendations and Conclusion

Further to the study on the overall process of data collection in the literature

review and on the study sites, the conclusion will be made based on the current

condition of study scope and objectives to ascertain the compliance of the main

objective stated before on the real site. Some extent of recommendation can be

progress based on the findings and analysis above. The recommendation can

be progressed on the findings and analysis above. The recommendation will be

made in accordance to the requirements and method on enhancing the

organisational communication system.





This chapter will introduce about the communication system regarding organisation as

general and explain the related information for the system that suitable and widely used

in many organisations. The word communication represented the process of

transferring information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which

the communicated information is understood by both sender and receiver. By requires

that all parties understand a common language that is exchanged in many ways that

commonly used such as speaking, singing and sometimes tone of voice, body

language, sign language, eye contact or the use of writing. Trough these commonly

ways communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey meaning

in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of

skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking,

questioning, analyzing and evaluating.

Use of these processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life such as at

home, school, community and also for work which is related to organisation.

Collaboration and cooperation occur through the communication and articulation of

sending a message through different media whether it be verbal or nonverbal, so long

as a being transmit a thought provoking idea, gesture, action, etc. each company have

their own organisation and this organisation will help the company or institution such as

Universiti Teknologi MARA to archive their goals as educational service provider to all

the students.
2.1.1 Communication

When we are discussed about communication in organisation there are basic issues

about communication need to be clear such as “Why communications fail?” ,

“communication methods”, “functions of communication”, “process of communication”,

“channel of communication” and “effective of communication”. All these issues need to

be clear because when these issues are totally completed of their information there are

ways for every organisation to develop very best communication system.

To create the communication in an organisation need to discover their suitable types of

communication. Types and method in communication are two different things which is

type in communication represent for what are the communication and how it is works

and for the example of type of communication are either formal or informal, upward or

downward and horizontal communication. But for method in communication explain

about how communication could be use as step to fulfil the function of communication

and for example are, via the spoken word, written report, telephone, video conferences,

meeting, newsletter, employees report, email, handbooks, loudspeaker, notices,

briefing groups even grapevine as long as the communication could be transfer to

2.1.2 Communication Process




Figure 2.1: Communication Process

Based on previous page figure 2.1 shown the diagram of communication process which

is involves with seven elements and have the barrier that might be fail to complete the

process. This is a simple model of the elements in the communication process. This is a

way to summarise the major elements in the presentation. Every communication has a

beginning, middle and an end. At the start, it is important to encourage communication

and to acknowledge, and really listen to, what senders have to say. This helps establish

connection. The core of communication is a process of formulating (encoding) and

sending a message via suitable media that is heard (received) and interpreted

(decode). This highlights that there are many points at which the communication

process can go wrong. When ending a communication, decisions need to clarify and to

check from other party. It is good to ensure everyone knows who is going to do what, by

when in next meeting.

Finally, be sure to summaries what has happened and assess the communication and

meeting process. Barriers such as noise may damage the information that transfer and

maybe the communication fail to achieve the goal and some precautions need to take

action as procedure to save the information from fail to operate.

Organisations can not operate without communication. Communication can take

various forms but all forms involve the transfer of information from one party to the

other. In order for the transfer of information to qualify as communication, the recipient

must understand the meaning of the information transferred to them. If the recipient

does not understand the meaning of the information conveyed to them, communication

has not taken place.

Communication is the life source of organisations because organisations involve

people. People cannot interact with each other without communication. In the absence

of communication, everything would grind to a halt. For example;

The workers in an organisation would not know the organisation’s objectives so they

would not strive to achieve the organisation’s objectives.

• The workers in an organisation would not know what their roles and

responsibilities were, so they would not be able to carry out their daily tasks and


• The managers would not be able to train their workers reports so the workers

would not possess the skills they needed to carry out their jobs.

• The managers would not be able to inform workers of changes

• The organisation would not be aware of their competitors activities

2.1.3 Function of communication

Communication functioned as a tool for every goal and some of them are very useful for

each organisation. For example in construction company the director ask his project

manager monitor the site to avoid any accident during construction works and the goal

to avoid the accident be achieve if the project manager take duty of care by remind the

workers via notices or briefing and instructed the safety officer to make sure all the

workers followed the rules and the goal are success. Below diagram shown the

examples for the functions of communication in any situation:




Figure 2.2: Functions of communication

o Information

Communication is a medium for sender to transfer the information to the

receiver and receiver understand the message and the message act as

information receiver. For example in construction’s project the architect advice

the client to choose suitable material roof construction based on some important

reason. The advice was encoded as a safety reason and client have the

knowledge on suitable material for roof and the advice act as an information in

decision makes or action that need to taken in any situation. That the function of


o Expression

Communication also functioned to express the feeling, the condition or mood of

every single person. It’s not exactly in say something by words but might be via

face’s reaction or body language. This how we know the condition of every

person such as he or she in sad, mad, happy or something that keep the secret

without use voice. By this function the respond from the receiver may be

negative or positive.

o Attitude Change

Communication could be expressing the change of individual’s attitude. It could

as positive and negative. The receiver will detected the change and may be

understand what going on to the sender.

o Instrumental function

Communication also function to influent the receiver to understand or do

something once instruction given by manual, report etc.

o Role related

The function also called as habits or role of somebody to explain something

about his skill to receiver.

o Social related

This function more too contractual related and communication needed for

example relation between contractor and client.

2.1.4 Barriers to Effective Communication

Based on figure 2.1 at each stage in the process encoding, transference, and decoding

there is the possibility of interference which may hinder the communication process.

This interference is known as noise. Often a comparison is made between

communication and a leaky bucket. If we use a leaky bucket to carry water, water will

be lost at various points in our journey from the water tap to our destination. It is not

possible to stop losing water because the bucket contains holes. The amount of water

we will lose will be determined by the number of holes in the bucket, the size of the

holes, the route we take to our final destination and length of time it takes us to get to

our destination. There may also be other events that occur during our journey which

increase the amount of water lost. Similarly when information is transferred from the

transmitter to the receiver not all of the information may be received by the receiver
because of holes called noise. Each of the noise may be affect the amount of

information transferred. Just as in a leaky bucket, more holes decrease the amount of

water, more noise decreases the amount of correct information received. Noise can

take a variety of forms including items in diagram below:

Languages issues
and Cultures

Transmissions Environment
Journey issues


attitude and Channel
behavior Issues

Figure 2.3: Types of noise in communication

o Language issues and Cultural Differences: the receiver(s) may not (fully)

understand the language used by the transmitter. This may occur if the

transmitter’s language is foreign to the receiver. There may also be language

problems (that the communication process) if the message contains technical

information and the receiver’s is not familiar with the technical terms used.

Cultural differences created by an individual’s background and experience affect

their perception of the world. Such cultural differences may affect the

interpretation (decoding) of the message sent.

o Environmental issues: If the environment that the transmitter or receiver are in,

is noisy and full of sound, the sounds may prevent the message being fully

understood. Background noise is often created by colleagues or machinery.

o Channel issues: If the channel used to transfer the information is poor it may

prevent all or some of the information being transferred. Examples include a

faulty fax machine, a crackling phone, handwriting that cannot be read or in the

case of oral messages incorrect facial gestures.

o Receivers attitude and behaviour: If the receiver(s) is not interested in the

message (or unable to give their full attention to decoding) this may reduce the

amount of information received or the accuracy of the information transmitted to

them. Similarly the receiver(s) may misinterpret the message by "jumping to

conclusions" or reading the message in a manner that suits their own

interests/objectives and distort the true meaning of the message.

o Transmission journey: i.e. steps in the message, If the message is

complicated or there are lots of steps taken to transfer the message it may affect

the accuracy or interpretation. Comparing with the leaky bucket if the leaky

bucket has to carry water over a longer distance more water will probably lost

than if the journey was shown.


2.2.1 Internal Communication

This is communication that takes place within (or across) an organisation. In addition to

the usual face to face, telephone, fax or mail; modern organisations may use

technology to communicate internally. Technology may be used for e-mails or a linked

internal communication system such as the intranet which is an internet system

designed solely for use by those working for the organisation.

2.2.2 External communications

On the other hand external communication is communication between the organisation

and those outside the organisation. Modern organisations may design technological

systems so that they can communicate with customers and undertake e-Commerce.

Alternatively they communicate with other businesses through the internet or similar

systems and undertake e-Business.

2.2.3 Functions of Internal and External Communications

Technology has rapidly expanded the types of internal and external communication

available to organisations. The diagram illustrates the vast array of internal and external

communication available.
Combined together internal and external types of communications allow various sectors

of the local, national and international community to interact, liaise and conduct


o Letters Internal
o Fax Communication
o Team briefings
o Direct Mail
o Notices
o Internet
o Reports
o Video
o Memos
o Telephone
o Face to face
o Advertising
o Email
o Websites

Figure 2.4: External and Internal Communication

2.2.4 Formal and Informal Communications

Formal communication is defined as communication which occurs through the official

organisational channels or is undertaken by an employee to do their job. For example

official meetings, letters and a manager asking an employee to carry out a particular

task. Conversely informal communication is that which occurs outside the recognised

communication networks such as talking in the lunchroom or hallways between

employees. Informal communication can be productive or negative. It has the potential

to build teams, improve working relationships and generate ideas as employees are in a

relaxed environment.

2.2.5 Upward and Downward Communications

Downward communication is communication created by directors and managers and

passed down the hierarchy of workers in the organisation. In traditional organisations

this is the preferred method of communication i.e. Managers decide what the systems,

rules and procedures will be and then they pass these down to employees they manage

and supervise. Downward Communication can increase efficiency by synchronising

organisational procedures and can ensure that everybody is working towards the same

overall aims and objectives. Types of downward communication include job

descriptions, appraisals/evaluations, organisational policy, and organisational systems.

Although there are advantages to downward communication organisations have began

to encourage upward communication. This is communication which originates at the

lower level of the employment hierarchy and is then communicated up through the line.

Organisations encouraging upward communication believe that everybody is capable of

generating thoughts and ideas which may help the organisation to progress, particularly

when they are working closely in the area that the idea applies to. Upward

communication may increase motivation and make employees feel valued and

respected whilst enabling managers to understand how employees are feeling.

Furthermore if problems occur at they are more likely to be identified earlier by those

working closely in the area that they occur. Types of upward communications include

suggestion schemes, feedback forums/surveys, grievance procedures and employee-

manager discussions.

2.2.6 Lateral Communication

This is communication that occurs between employees on the same level in the

organisation. As this can involve decision making it can create efficiency as employees

do not have to wait for managerial approval. On the other hand, if the manager is not

kept informed or if the manager fails to set boundaries there is potential for conflict.

2.2.7 Diagonal Communication

This occurs when communication occurs between workers in a different section of the

organisation and where one of the workers involved is on a higher level in the

organisation. For example in a bank diagonal communication will occur when a

department manager in head office converses with a cashier in a branch of the bank

based on the high street.


Term Definition

Communication between parties based in different

Telecommunication locations by using a cable, telephone, broadcast or a

Linking to or more computers together so that information

and facilities can be shared. Computers in the same room
may be linked together or the organisation may decide to
link, computers in different parts of the world together.

Local Area Network Computers linked by a network without the use of

telecommunications. Often the computers linked are based
in the same location, group of buildings or site.

Wide Area Network

(WAN) Computers linked by a network using telecommunications.

Often the computers linked are based in different locations.

Teleconferencing Through the use of telecommunication devices such as

video link participants based in different locations
communicating is known as teleconferencing.

Electronic Data
Computer networks used to exchange standard business
Interchange (EDI) transaction documents between organisations.

Table 2.1: Example of Telecommunications


Organisation could be varies and depend on the company or institutions, this word

represent for a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which control its own

performance and which has a boundary separating it from its environments. There are

types of organisation such as in social and management as tools to archive the goals.

In organisation included structures and leadership which is play their roles to fulfil

organisations goals. Organisation also aware to optimizing the organisation structure

and included in management science.

2.4.1 Concept

The word organisations could be varies and two difference definitions given by previous

philosophers are:

"...organisation is a particular pattern of structure, people, tasks and techniques.. "

Source: Leavitt, H.J. 1962. Applied organisation and readings. Changes in industry:

structural, technical and human approach. in: Cooper, W.W., et al. New Perspectives in

Organisation Research. New York, NY: Wiley.

"... a system which is composed of a set of subsystems..." Source: Katz, D., and Kahn,

R.L. 1978. The Social Psychology of Organisations. New York, NY: Wiley. An

organisation is derived from Greek word which mean tool and the term is used in both

daily and scientific English in multiple ways.

2.4.2 Features of organisation

o Composed of individuals and groups of individuals

o Oriented towards achievement of common goals

o Differential functions

o Intended rational coordination

o Continuity through time

2.4.3 Organisation structure

An organisation included the structure in providing guidelines on hierarchy, authority of

structure and relationships, linkage between different functions and coordination with

environment. Structure is composed of three components: complexity, formalization and

centralization. Complexity is the degree to which activities within the organisation are

differentiated. Such differentiations may be horizontal, vertical or spatial. The definition

of organisation structure is "...institutional arrangements and mechanisms for mobilising

human, physical, financial and information resources at all levels of the system..." and

the utility in organisation structure are Division of work into activities, Linkage between

different functions, Hierarchy, Authority structure ,Authority relationships ,Coordination

with the environment .

Source: Sachdeva, P.S. 1990. Analytical framework for the organisation and structure

of NARS. in: Organisation and Structure of NARS: Selected Papers. The Hague:

It seems that remarkably early in our lives we become familiar with organisational

structures. The classic management hierarchy appears on an organisation chart early in

our career, but even by then we’ve already come across the notion in plenty of places.

So in a way it should not be surprising that organisation structures crop up frequently

enough in business software too. I recognized many organisational patterns several

years ago and ever since they keep turning up again. A good way to start thinking about

modeling organisation structures is to think of the obvious way. Imagine a company

where people work in departments, which are organized into divisions.

Organisations are structured in a variety of ways, dependant on their objectives and

culture. The structure of an organisation will determine the manner in which it operates

and it’s performance. Structure allows the responsibilities for different functions and

processes to be clearly allocated to different departments and employees.

The wrong organisation structure will hinder the success of the business.

Organisational structures should aim to maximize the efficiency and success of the

Organisation. An effective organisational structure will facilitate working relationships

between various sections of the organisation. It will retain order and command whilst

promoting flexibility and creativity.

Internal factors such as size, product and skills of the workforce influence the

organisational structure. As a business expands the chain of command will lengthen

and the spans of control will widen. The higher the level of skill each employee has the

more the business will make use of the matrix structure to maximize these skills across

the organisation. Span of Control

This term is used to describe the number of employees that each manager/supervisor is

responsible for. The span of control is said to be wide if a superior is in charge of many

employees and narrow if the superior is in charge of a few employees.

Division Department Person

Figure 2.5: An explicit and obvious organisational structure.

Figure 2.5 shows an explicit model for this where each part of the structure is a

separate class.

Explicit structures have two main disadvantages. They do not work well if there is much

common behaviour between the kinds of organisation. They also embed the current

organisational categories into the design. Should some bright spark decide to add

regions between divisions and departments, we have some modifications to do.

Figure 2.6: Organisation Hierarchy

Faced with these problems, the obvious move is to create a super type for the

organisation, which leads us to Organisation Hierarchy in Figure 2.6. The organisation

hierarchy works best when we do not have much different behaviour between the

organisation structures. It also allows us to stay very flexible if new kinds of

organisations appear. If we do have some varied behavior we can use subtypes to pull

this down.

Figure 2.7: Adding Party to an organisation hierarchy

Making a super type for the organisation is a pretty obvious move, another common, if

less obvious; super type is Party: a super type between the organisation and person,
leading to Figure 2.7. Often we find that there is not much difference between the

hierarchic association between organisations and the association between person and

organisation so we can pull these associations up to the super type (Figure 2.8)

Figure 2.8: A Hierarchy on party

A hierarchy like this is a good choice for many organisations; it certainly captures the

usual org charts pretty well. But as organisations get larger then we tend to see a

number of different kinds of links between the parties. This might be matrix style

organisational structures where people are organized by job function and geographic

location at the same time. Obviously one way to do this is to create a second party

hierarchy, but this only goes so far. We do not want our party decorated with

hierarchies where we make the interparty relationship an object in its own right, typed

according to the kind of link we need to have (Figure 2.8).

Accountabilities represent the most powerful, and also the most complex way of dealing

with organisational structures. So like most of these power tools, we do not get them

out unless we really need them. But when we do accountabilities give us a very flexible
way of handling all sorts of relationships. When we have accountabilities there are often

rules that say what kinds of parties can be connected together.

Figure 2.9: Using Accountabilities in Organisation Structures

2.4.4 Principle of organisation structure

In organisation the basic principles are specialisation, coordination, de-centralization

and centralization, and line and staff relationships. Specialization is division of work into

components or units in which people specialize. It can be vertical (kinds of work at

different levels in the organisation) or horizontal (division into departments).

Specialisation facilitates application of special knowledge for achievement of goals. This

increases the efficiency of the organisation. Disadvantages of specialization would

include adverse effects on fundamental work attitudes, relationships and

Coordination is integration of activities of specialised units towards the common

objective. This involves placement of different units in the organisation together or

separately and deciding on patterns of relationship and communication. Coordination is

achieved through hierarchy of authority. This involves important principles of

organisation. Unity of command is being responsible to and receiving orders from only

one superior.

The scalar principle ensures a chain of command in a straight line from top to bottom.

Since this is not always desirable or possible, employees could also relate with each

other on a 'gang plank.' The responsibility and authority principle establishes the need

for authority along with responsibility for accomplishing tasks. Span of control refers to

the number of specialized units of persons less than one management. Discuss the

situational factors which affect the span of control. Departmentalization is the process of

grouping different types of functions and activities of the organisation.

Departmentalization may be functional, by product, or by users, territory, process,

equipment, etc.

Another important principle of organisational structuring is whether decision making is

delegated to lower levels (de-centralized) or concentrated at the top (centralized).

Observe that organisations have different blends of centralization and de-centralization.

Line authority refers to the superior-subordinate relationship through the hierarchy of

authority. Line employees are directly responsible for achieving organisational goals.

Staff employees’ aid and support line employees in their work. Thus, they have different

functions and goals, which could lead to conflicts, but they should be avoidable. Ask

participants about conflict between line and staff in their organisations. Issues in conflict

resolution will be discussed in another module.

Ask participants whether the structure of an organisation should remain stable

throughout or change in response to environmental changes. Obviously, the

organisation has to respond to changes in the environment as they affect its working.

One of the principles of management discussed during the previous session was

'departmentalization'. This principle is concerned with sectioning an institute into

administrative units to enhance the probability of the institute achieving its goals by

implementing its plans within the limits of its capabilities. There are two rationales used

for assembling, or sectioning, institutional units. These are concerned with the grouping

of the institute's staff into administrative units, and the flow of authority and

responsibility within an institute

2.4.5 Types of organisational structure

1. Classic organisational structure

o Simple centralised design

o Bureaucratic organisation

o Divisional organisation

2. Modern organisational design structure

o Project organisation

o Matrix organisation

3. Adhocracy or Organic organisational structure

Figure 2.10: Organisations Structures Different Structures

o Tall Structure Organisation

In its simplest form a tall organisation has many levels of management and

supervision. There is a “long chain of command” running from the top of the

organisation e.g. Chief Executive down to the bottom of the organisation e.g.

shop floor worker. The diagram below neatly captures the concept of a tall


Figure 2.11: Tall Structure

However, tall structures rarely exceed 8 levels of management. This is firstly

because the number of layers (i.e. management levels) decreases the span of

control. Secondly the disadvantages of the tall structure begin to outweigh the

advantages of a tall structure.

o Flat Structure Organisation

In contrast to a tall organisation, a flat organisation will have relatively few layers

or just one layer of management. This means that the “Chain of Command” from

top to bottom is short and the “span of control is wide”. Due to the small number

of management layers, flat organisations are often small organisations.

Figure 2.12: Flat Structure

o Hierarchical Organisation

In a hierarchical organisation employees are ranked at various levels within the

organisation, each level is one above the other. At each stage in the chain, one

person has a number of workers directly under them, within their span of control.

A tall hierarchical organisation has many levels and a flat hierarchical

organisation will only have a few. The chain of command (i.e. the way authority

is organized) is a typical pyramid shape.

Figure 2.13: Hierarchical Organisation
A traditional hierarchical structure clearly defines each employee’s role within the

organisation and defines the nature of their relationship with other employees.

Hierarchical organisations are often tall with narrow spans of control, which gets wider

as we move down the structure. They are often centralised with the most important

decisions being taken by senior management.

In the twentieth century as organisations grow bigger, hierarchical organisations were

popular because they could ensure command and control of the organisation. However

with the advent of globalisation and widespread use of technology, in the 1990’s tall

hierarchical organisations began to downsize and reduce their workforce. Technology

was able to carry out many of the functions previously carried out by humans. Centralised and Decentralised Organisation

In a centralised organisation head office (or a few senior managers) will retain the major

responsibilities and powers. Conversely decentralised organisations will spread

responsibility for specific decisions across various outlets and lower level managers,

including branches or units located away from head office/head quarters. An example of

a decentralised structure is Tesco the supermarket chain.

Each store of Tesco has a store manager who can make certain decisions concerning

their store. The store manager is responsible to a regional manager .Organisations may

also decide that a combination of centralisation and decentralisation is more effective.

For example functions such as accounting and purchasing may be centralised to save
costs. Whilst tasks such as recruitment may be decentralised as units away from head

office may have staffing needs specific only to them.

Certain organisations implement vertical decentralisation which means that they have

handed the power to make certain decisions, down the hierarchy of their organisation.

Vertical decentralisation increases the input; people at the bottom of the organisation

chart have in decision making.

Horizontal decentralisation spreads responsibility across the organisation. A good

example of this is the implementation of new technology across the whole business.

This implementation will be the sole responsibility of technology specialists. Advantages and disadvantages


There is a narrow span of control ie each The freedom and responsibility of employees
manager has a small number of employees (subordinates) is restricted
under their control. This means that
employees can be closely supervised. Decision making could be slowed down as
approval may be needed by each of the
There is a clear management structure layers of authority

The function of each layer will be clear and Communication has to take place through
Tall Structure distinct. There will be clear lines of many layers of management
1 Organisation responsibility and control

Clear progression and promotion ladder High management costs because managers
are generally paid more than subordinates.
Each layer will tend to pay it’s managers
more money than the layer below it. Advantages and disadvantages (cont’d)


More/Greater communication between Workers may have more than one
management and workers, manager/boss.

Better team sprit. May limit/hinder the growth of the

Flat Structure
2 Less bureaucracy and easier decision
Organisation making. Structure limited to small organisations such
as partnerships, co-operatives and some
Fewer levels of management which includes private limited companies.
benefits such as lower costs as managers are
generally paid more than worker. Function of each department/person could be
blurred and merge into the job roles of others
Authority and responsibility and clearly The organisation can be bureaucratic and
defined. respond slowly to changing customer needs
and the market within which the organisation
Clearly defined promotion path. operates.

There are specialists managers and the Communication across various sections can
Hierarchical Organisation
3 hierarchical environment encourages the be poor especially horizontal communication.
effective use of specialist managers.
Departments can make decisions which
Employees very loyal to their department benefit them rather than the business as a
within the organisation, whole especially if there is Inter-departmental
rivalry. Advantages and disadvantages (cont’d)


Senior managers enjoy greater control over Senior managers have time to concentrate
the organisation. on the most important decisions (as the other
decisions can be undertaken by other people
The use of standardised procedures can down the organisation structure.
results in cost savings.

Decisions can be made to benefit the Decision making is a form of empowerment.

organisations as a whole. Whereas a Empowerment can increase motivation and
decision made by a department manager therefore mean that staff output increases.
may benefit their department, but
disadvantage other departments. People lower down the chain have a greater
Centralised and understanding of the environment they work
Decentralised The organisation can benefit from the in and the people (customers and
Organisation decision making of experienced senior colleagues) that they interact with. This
4 managers. knowledge skills and experience may enable
them to make more effective decisions than
In uncertain times the organisation will need senior managers.
strong leadership and pull in the same
direction. It is believed that strong leadership
is often best given from above. Empowerment will enable departments and
their employees to respond faster to changes
and new challenges. Whereas it may take
senior managers longer to appreciate that
business needs have changed

Empowerment makes it easier for people to

accept and make a success of more
2.4.6 Organisation Functions

In order to produce and sell their product or service most organisations will need to

undertake for example 6 key functions.

v Design and Production

v Finance

v Human Resources

v Sales and Marketing

v Administration

v Research and Development

Each of the functions will need to work together so that the whole of the organisation

has the same aims and objectives. To achieve this communication across the various

functions is key activity. A starting point for this type of communication is the creation of

a clear set of company objectives which each function is aware of. These objectives

then need to be further broken down into specific objectives for each function. Regular

reviews of firstly how each function is performing against its objectives and secondly

how the company is performing against it’s overall objective should ensure that the

whole company is pulling in the same direction. Factors of Production

To generate a product or service an organisation will need to combine labour, capital,

energy, materials and information.

Labour is the mental and or physical effort of employees and can take a variety of

forms including filing, lifting, data processing, decision making, and line management. In

fact labour is any effort/task an employee needs to undertake in order to produce the

product or service.
Capital is the machines and tools needed to produce the product or service. This

physical capital is purchased through financial capital such as loans, sale of shares in

the organisation and use of profit generated by the organisation.

Energy is provided through the use of gas, electricity, solar power and steam. Energy is

needed to heat/light up the premises, make the machinery work and to ensure that the

organisation is a comfortable place for the employees to work in.

Materials in their raw form are needed to produce the product or service. For example

a restaurant will need ingredients to make the food that they serve to their customers.

Information is the knowledge and expertise needed to produce the end product. For

example a restaurant will need to know what ingredients are necessary for each dish,

what quantity of ingredient to use, how to mix each ingredient and how long (if at all) to

cook each dish.

Factors of production have also been classified into land, labour, capital and enterprise.

In this type of classification natural resources such as water, coal and farm land are

grouped together as land. Despite the fact that enterprise, are all the factors which bring

together land, labour and capital to produce the end product. Finance Function

The financial section of the organisation will keep manual/electronic records of money

received and paid out by the organisation. This information will then be used to produce

various financial statements for tax purposes and to comply with legal requirements.

The information will also be used to produce management accounts to enable senior

managers to plan and review business strategy.

The finance department or unit may also be responsible for administering employee

expenses and salaries. For payment of wages the finance department will need to take

into account statutory deductions such as tax, and employee contributions such as

pension or loan repayments. Human Resources Function

Human resources or Personnel’s main responsibility is the recruitment, selection,

training and development of staff. This will involve developing staff to maximise their

potential in a manner that furthers the organisation’s objectives.

Human resources may also need to comply with legislation applicable to the country in

which they are based. For example in the UK employers will need to maintain accurate

personal records in a manner that is compliant with the UK Data Protection Act 1984.

Human resources often adopt a welfare role which includes looking after employees

whilst they are at work. They may also create policies that balance organisational needs

with those of the employee. They will also interpret employee welfare legislation and

ensure that the organisation is complying with the applicable legislation. Sales and Marketing Function

The marketing department will research customer needs to develop strategy and

product to satisfy that customer need. In its research, the marketing department will

investigate the market they are aiming at; the type of consumer making up the market

(age, background sex etc) and the preferences of the consumer within that market. The

marketing department will then need to marry consumer preferences with producing a

product that is profitable. Once the product has been designed by the production

department marketing will then need to package, advertise, and promote the product.

Sales are responsible for persuading the consumer to purchase the end product,

manufactured through marketing’s research. The Sales Department’s selling strategy

could involve mail shots, travelling sales representatives, telephone sales and devising

the sales interview. Administrative ( or Facilities Management) Function

This involves dealing with all administrative tasks including mail handling, dealing with

enquiries/complaints, catering, and computer services. They will also produce

documents (e.g. forms, stationary, and newsletters) for the organisation and maintain

the organisation’s premises and equipment.

This function although not always recognised is vital, as it is the glue that holds the

organisation together. Without an administrative department, customer complaints

would not be resolved, customer orders may not be processed, and the workforce may

not have the tools they need to complete their tasks. Research and Development Function

The aim of research and development is to improve existing products, create new and

better products, improve production methods, and create effective processes. This will

enable the organisation to reduce costs, increase profitability and remain ahead of the

competition. As not all research will lead to new/improved products/processes

companies will need to allocate a specific portion of their budget to research and

development activities.

Function Human
Factors of Resources
production Function


Sales and
Research and
Function Function
(or Facilities

Figure 2.14: Functions of Organisation


2.5.1 General

People depend on organisations for their living. Thus ours is an organised society. The

lifeblood of organisations is communication. Without communication there can be no

organisation. The importance of communication in organisations is well established by

the researchers taking into consideration the amount of time spent by members in

organisations. According to them, members in organisations spend 50 to 80 per cent of

their time engaged in communicate behaviour.

Communication in organisation is a something that related to people under same

organisation which were working together to achieve or collective goals of their

organisation needed such as in their services, product or something that related to

standard to become success in company goals. The modern field traces its lineage

through business information, business communication, and early mass communication

studies published in the 1930s through the 1950s.

Until then, organisational communication as a discipline consisted of a few professors

within speech departments who had a particular interest in speaking and writing in

business settings. The current field is well established with its own theories and

empirical concerns distinct from other communication subfields and other approaches

to organisations.

Several seminal recognized the importance of communication in the organizing

process, and in using the term "organisational communication". Nobel Laureate Herbert

Simon wrote in 1947 about "organisation communications systems", saying

communication is absolutely essential to organisations". In 1951 Bavelas and Barrett

wrote An Experimental Approach to Organisational Communication in which they stated

that communication "is the essence of organised activity".In 1953 the economist

Kenneth Boulding wrote The Organisational Revolution: A Study in the Ethics of

Economic Organisation. While this work directly addressed the economic issues facing

organisations, in it he questions the ethical and moral issues underlying their power,

and maintains that an "organisation consists of a system of communication in 1954, a

Weng Chris Argyris published Personality and Organisation. This careful and research-

based book attacked many things, but singled out "organisational communication" for

special attention. Argyris made the case that what passed for organisational

communication at the time was based on unstated and indefensible propositions such

as "management knows best" and "workers are inherently stupid and lazy." He accused

the emerging field of relying on untested gimmicks designed to trick employees into

doing management's will.

2.5.2 Organisational communication

How interaction occurs and how communication is directed in groups are important

organisational processes - as important as what is being communicated. The process of

interaction itself affects the quality of communication. Human interaction involves not

just the messages (content) but also involves the meanings - intended or otherwise,

how messages (written , verbal and non-verbal) are received, the speed of delivery,

how messages can become jumbled and lost. We code messages by our selection of

language, how we sequence the things in the message and how we wrap and un-wrap

messages with our expectations, feelings and irritabilities.

As simple elucidation, communication is about share the meaning, process or

communication behaviour, real message or message that sent or received and study
about the process that involved in sent and received the message. Levels of

communication included intrapersonal, interpersonal, communication in minor group,

communication cross the cultural, organisation communication, public communication,

mass communication and international communication. Based on study by Nik Rashid

(1993) stated the second element in definition of leadership is about importance of

communication. Method of communication whether clear, exact or precise will effect to

behaviour and performance of follower.

Despite of that, the manager need to encourage his/her subordinate give opinion and

make suggestion to change. Unfortunately, from the view of leadership theory, two

ways communication not exactly good and suitable to use in all situations and time and

the main key is “situation”. In some situation, two ways communication not smart to be

use because using so much time. Problem in organisation that really structured is

routine, one way communication is more enough if fully controlling executed.

Best leader need to understand the process of communication that involved the things

such as communicator, news, channel, receiver and respond. There are many factors

that disturb the communication process such as receiver perception, noise as

mentioned earlier in previous topic, language and valuation are the simple barriers.

Best leader also need to understand this barriers and need to know the solution.

Communication concept shown the need for a leader remembers how the community

arises. To make sure the functions could be realise, Azahari (1998) said items in

communication involvement are words, meaning, belief and action.

Apart of that , communication is a important activity in organisation. Based on Zaiko and

Dance (1965) managers in big organisations in United State used 85-90 percentages
from their works for working in related to communication. Writers who wrote

organisation books stress about importance of communication in organisation since

Second World War. Barnard (1983) said that main task that needs to execute by

executive in organisation is produce and maintain the best formal communication


That also need to effort on it to create the best communication season in organisation

beside encourage the growth the best un- formal communication system. Skill in oral

communication also use as condition for promotion in organisation. Jennings (1971)

found that peoples appointed to become president in organisation have their best face

to face communication skill.

In other study, Jennings (1978) found if a president in a organisation was dismiss and

reason is they are unable to face to face communicate. Communication is familiar with

moral value or ethics and supposes to realise what the base for moral value that need

to use (Zais 1976).

Figure 2.12: Shannon-Weaver Communication Model

2.5.3 Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

One well-known model (Shannon and Weaver) of the elements of communication

identifies information exchange between a transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx). The

model stems from the world of communications technology: telephone equipment, radio

and satellite transmissions etc. As an explanation of some of the elements, it can assist

in the analysis of person-to-person communications?

People as Tx and Rx operate on the basis of

• their general or enhanced skills as communicators

• the perception each has of a message's content

• and their attitudes towards each other.

Human communication is fraught with problems of (mis)interpretation of intention as

well as the capacity of Tx and Rx to absorb complex messages and manage them. The

diagram points to some elements that enable the exchange: the processes involved

and the media in use.

v Message - Language and Encoding

With a model - even the S & W simplification - we can define the nature of

communication more carefully. You/me (Tx) has an idea/some information to

communicate. This is coded using language – Malay Language /English/Arabic/

dialect/gestures and rules (what to say first, what is rude to say and so must be

excluded etc). The content and structure of the message may be weakened by

Tx's inability to use the language, the language's own limitations for expression.
Certain words in the language may be more important (reserved words) than

others in transmitting essentials.

We sequence words/phrases and link words and phrases into a coherent

package. We may make use of rules/logic to do this in a controlled way. We

may just blurt something out which may be nonsense or which may

embarrass/upset. The outpourings may be encoded further by emotion - evident

via the choice of words. Their sequence may be embellished by non-verbal

trappings: smiles, snappy behaviour, frowns to give emphasis and/or

communicate other messages.

v Filtering

The human Tx as a decision-maker may decide to withhold information, delay its

release, treat it selectively and even add irrelevancies (deliberately or not). The

Tx may suffer because of speech impediment or lack of time to transmit the

whole package of information.

The Tx may have intentions to transmit all or only part of a complex packet of

objective information. It may be delivered shrouded in other subjective

messages that arise from the Tx's hidden or overt agenda. The sequence and

style of delivery may reflect the importance the Tx attaches to the information

and their perception of the receiver (peers equals, subperior-sub-ordinate and

vice versa). These intentions will be interpreted or misinterpreted by the Rx.

v Media or Channel

The Tx chooses a channel or media for communication. The Rx must be

plugged into the channel. It is useless sending an E-Mail message if the

recipient hardly ever uses E-Mail or does not indeed have an E-Mail address.

The media may be simple speech, use of the telephone, a letter, or other

physical action: a pat on the back, wink or a movement of the legs. A poker face

communicates much in the context of the situation. Multi-media may convey the

message visually (text, images - still or moving) and/or verbally. The media may

stimulate the tactile or olifactory senses of the Rx. We only have to see children

playing with blocks or clay or a car sales person asking a customer to sit behind

the wheel to reference the myriad of everyday examples. Even olfactory

messages are delivered by supermarkets which pump fresh bread smells out

into the shopping area.

The media used may be inappropriate to the message being delivered and the

expectations of the Rx to whom the message is directed.

v Spillage, Leakage, Hacking, Message Security and Integrity

The media used may spill over and the message received by someone for

whom the message is no intended. Spillage may be a device used by the

receiver to "leak" information. Information may be confidential - only

communicated on a "need to know basis". Information may be held in two or

more places - it gets up-dated in one place but not the other i.e. there is a loss
of data integrity. A message received from one source may be at odds with the

same message being received from another.



According to Islamic perspective Islam stress about Leadership Communication in

Organisation. Organisation in Islamic is very important in Islam and need to include in

any topic which is discussed about communication. By related to Islam we will got bless

from Allah S.W.T. in Al- Quran and Prophet’s Hades admit that any social activity need

leadership and related to communication in organisation. Leadership communication in

organisation is style, method and communication strategies that use by leader during

execute the role and formal duty in organisation. Formal duties including given

instruction, briefing and explanation, guidelines, advice, conduct the meeting,

supervise, given solution on problem, decision making and etc. According to Dr. Mohd

Yusof Hussain (1995) leadership communication in organisation need to discus in

Islamic perspective and he diagnosis the communication interaction with study the

motive behind the information that received, separated the fact, supervising and

assume the information received and use the suitable criteria to value the information


Stech (1983) suggested to leaders to use the best leadership communication such

below items:

1. Always communicate and enjoy it,

2. Communicate by oral,

3. Give good respond and good listener,

4. Asking and not instruct the workers to do the work and give them praise after

they done the best result,

5. Express the best moral during communicate,

6. Focus while informal communication

Apart from that, Stech (1983) also stated, leader that have career’s mission and

organisational leadership that oriented to instruction need to use the communication via

below items:

1. Less communicate to others because it can be wasting workers time,

2. Chose to write than oral communicate,

3. Like to conquer the conversation,

4. Give instruct and critics,

5. Stress on information and conditions,

6. Focus on using formal language


This chapter is discussing the introduction of communication system in organisation.

This chapter discovered the definition, general information about the communication

and organisation. Communication is process of transferring information from a sender

to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is

understood by both sender and receiver. Meanwhile organisation represent for a social

arrangement which pursues collective goals, which control its own performance and

which has a boundary separating it from its environments.

The basic information for communication was explained in scope of related to

organisation and the topic that explained are communication process, type of

communication, barriers of communication, model related to communication process

and etc. Meanwhile for organisation the concept of organisation is a particular pattern of

structure, people, tasks and techniques and this concept include all the type of

organisations, structure, principle, related model and etc.

This chapter also explained about the communication in organisation and

communication in organisation is a something that related to people under same

organisation which were working together to achieve or collective goals of their

organisation needed such as in their services, product or something that related to

standard to become success in company goals. This topic also explains a model that

related to communication in organisation.

Apart of that as additional information to communication in organisation included

communication in organisation according to Islamic perspective. According to a study

about it stress about leadership in communication in organisation. Leadership

communication in organisation is style, method and communication strategies that use

by leader during execute the role and formal duty in organisation and according to Dr.

Mohd Yusof Hussain (1995) leadership communication in organisation need to discus in

Islamic perspective and he diagnosis the communication interaction with study the

motive behind the information that received, separated the fact, supervising and

assume the information received and use the suitable criteria to value the information


Meanwhile Stech (1983) suggested to leaders to use the best leadership

communication such as always communicate and enjoy it, communicate by oral, give

good respond and good listener, asking and not instruct the workers to do the work and

give them praise after they done the best result, express the best moral during

communicate, focus while informal communication and Stech also stated leader need to

use communication via such items less communicate to others because it can be

wasting workers time, chose to write than oral communicate, like to conquer the

conversation, give instruct and critics, stress on information and conditions, focus on

using formal language.





When discuss about communication system in Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam

firstly we need to discover the history of UiTM. Before UiTM Shah Alam start in this

large area on hilly area of Section 1 Shah Alam there are many communication arise

among the founder or important person before the operated at that time. Universiti

Teknologi MARA or UiTM is closely linked to the development of the independent

Malaysian nation. It began in 1956 as Dewan Latehan RIDA (Rural and Industrial

Development Authority Training Center) in Petaling Jaya, Selangor. The school became

known as Maktab MARA (MARA College) in 1965.

The name change meant that the college no longer operated under RIDA and instead

became the most important unit of the MARA Training Division. MARA stands for Majlis

Amanah Rakyat (Council of Trust for the Indigenous People) under the charismatic and

dynamic leadership of Tan Sri Arshad Ayub. In 1967, the school was renamed as

Institut Teknologi MARA. Its establishment came as a response to a need in Malaysia

for trained professionals, especially among Bumiputeras.ITM's development took three

major stages: From 1967 to 1976, ITM was an autonomous body with its own 300 acre

(1.2 km²) campus in Shah Alam, operating under the Ministry of Rural Development.

From 1976 to 1996, ITM advanced as an institution of higher learning and not only a

professional training institute, operating directly under the Ministry of Education. In

1996, an amendment to the ITM Act of 1976 put ITM on a par with all the universities in

Malaysia, but its historical name was retained until 1999.

Now UiTM Shah Alam consists with 25 faculties, 3 learning centres and more than 200

academic programs and UiTM’s main campus started with the laying of its foundation

stone on 14 October 1967 by Tun Abdul Razak and by mid 70s, the campus was

already in full operation. It acts as the focal point of development and expansion to a

network of 21 other campuses. In the year 2004, Shah Alam campus had approximately

36,000 full-time and 6,500 part-time students. There are 13 residential colleges within

the campus that house no less than 16,800 students. Apart from that, many homes

around the university also open their doors to off – campus students. This campus is

very close to Shah Alam city centre and therefore public facilities and services are

within easy reach. An added advantage is the fact that Shah Alam is the hub for

information technology and multimedia applications. It is also easily accessible via the

major highways that link the city to strategic locations in the country.

Based on history above there are much activities that related to organisational

communication. Communication among unit, division, department, and faculties around

the Shah Alam as focal point for all the campuses all over Malaysia is very large to

explain but each single unit have its own organisation and organisational

communication might the one of the engine to generate all planning or function to

achieve the goal of UiTM Shah Alam as educational provider for all the Bumiputeras

students. UiTM recently reach so many achievements in national level and also

international. So that organisational communication could plays its role to improve and

improve its performance and can roles model for any organisation such as Bumiputeras

Construction Company in Malaysia.


As an institution of higher education used varies aspect of communication is one of

characteristic for UiTM Shah Alam as effort to achieve the excellent mission in

management of administration and academic. During the effort, management division in

UiTM Shah Alam always structuring and planned the execution method that can give

maximum benefit to all persons under the UiTM’s authority. Despite there are still a little

gap between the employees especially for the thing that related to execution of basis of

administration and via this gap there will arise the blurred in overcome some issues by

employees and admin side.

Because of that there are some UiTM Shah Alam employees asking about the policy

that practice by Top Management. From that they try to find an outcome in execution

the responsibility according to what they felt right about the issues and not based on

their understanding about it. Implication from that action occur some opinion and

suggestion to the style or pattern in management that exercise by UiTM’s Administrator.

There are various factors that can be encouraging the work and one of that is

communication process and systematic of information transfer in organization. For

UiTM Shah Alam, problem in using the communication channel to tell the information

not in best position of focus item. Because of that situation, certain information that

informed to employees has misunderstood and occurs several of reactions to received


Another issue that always occurs and makes the communication breakdown is there

are certain individual that want to give their opinion to management side in open
situation and not trough the communication channel as formal. As a result, opinion

receivers or UiTM Shah Alam’s employees adding the opinion far from root meaning of

opinion once they heard or read until deliver the uncertain issue as hearsay without the

fact. Thing like this suppose not to be arise if communication channel in UiTM Shah

Alam could be functioned as good and perfect, so some employees need to practice by

using the channel as provided.


Based on interviews there are varies of understanding about organisational

communication for UiTM Shah Alam’s staffs. From this situation some staffs understand

and some staffs understand but not too much information and a few does not know

anything about the organisational communication. We cannot say that they are right or

wrong but once they are doing their works, the organisational communication already


The meaning or definition of organisational communication could be varies in their

understanding but sometimes they do not realised that every single day in their working

day need communication. For example in doing the assessment for upgrade their

services to get the reward from ISO something that related to standard of work areas

need communication to give the information how to do it, what the best step or how long

to arrange the program all this absolutely organisational communication that occur

either they are realised or not.

The communication is about the information and the information was transfer to the

receiver through the media and the media that familiar with UiTM Shah Alam are

telephone, letter and etc as long as the information safely reach to the right person in

organisation or inter organisation trough out the university. And this called channel and

be the one of the factor successful for communication purpose.

According to a respondent from administration officer in Faculty of Business

Management, communication in UiTM Shah Alam occur once there are instruction

given from upper management parties to the subordinate or to their same level of

position, and the channel that used to give the instruction via their meeting, briefing and

strengthen by official letter.

As a world Class University, UiTM Shah Alam not only used the instruction or opinion

from upper level of position but opinion from lower position also given as priority. That

means there no one way communication but also two-communication by ask or accept

feedback or opinion from subordinates and not only the employees but from their main

client or in other word is students. Via this beneficial attitude can be reduce the border

between upper and lower employees and as added value lower staff will given their

respect to upper positions of staffs and at the same time prevent any unsatisfactory

between them.

Sometimes there are lack of communication happened not only come from facilities

such as internet or some new technologies that helping the communication but also

come from attitude of employees. Employees not always right because there some

employees does not alert with new technology and still suitable with using traditional

method. This is normally happened to senior staffs. Apart of that used new technology,

attitude problems of staff. This situation familiar with theory X and Y that produced by
McGregor there some staff that more toward negative side and positive side. So to

make all the works in their scope of work, staffs which more toward negative attitude

need to practice the theory Y which expenditure of physical and mental effort is natural

as play or rest but imaginative, creative and ingenuity to solve work problem even in

large scope of work.



The concept of communication structure is one of the most important ideas in the study

of organisational communication. It is also most complicated because the way we

understand structure depends very much on the perspective from which we study it.

There are several different ways to think about the structure of organisational

communication, but there are three of them in particular will give you a fairly

representative review of the concept and a good idea of just how complex the concept

of structure can be. First, to define it as a system of pathways through which messages

flow-the so called lines of communication in an organisation (Goldhaber,1993;Koehler,

Anatol, & Applbaum,1981) this is the channels perspective, and it is the traditional

definition of communication structure.

The second approach defines communication structure as the pattern of interaction

among people who comprise the organisation. In this sense, structure depends on who

communicates with whom. We will call this the observables network perspective where

a network “consists of interconnected individuals who are linked by patterned flows can

be observed, the second definition also is consistent with the traditional focus on
objective features of organisational communication property of communication but an

idea that is shared by organisation member (Trujillo, 1985)

For the third idea about structure is really is a good version of the network idea, the

perceived network perspective. Sometimes figure out the network structure from

organisation members’ own report of their linkages with other, that is, with whom they

communicate and how often.

3.4.1 Formal Communication

Formal communication refers to communication through officially designated channels

of message flow between organisational positions. In many organisations such as all

the units, department and faculty in UiTM Shah Alam, the formal system of

communication are specified in policy manuals and organisation chart. In other

organisations, the formal system is implicit; nevertheless organisation members

understand it well. Downward Communication

Downward Communication involves the transmission of message from upper levels to

lowers of the organisation hierarchy ( i.e., from high officer in each unit in UiTM Shah

Alam to employee, superior to subordinate). Smith, Richetto and Zima (1972) claimed

that downward communication has been the most frequently studied aspect of formal

communication. Twenty years ago there is great evidence that the most of the message

flow in formal systems was downward (Tompkins, 1967). So UiTM Shah Alam also
applied downward communication either realised or not. Classical and scientific

approaches to organisations considered communication primarily as a tool for

managerial control and coordination. Consequently, these approaches focused on

downward communication of orders and regulations from superiors to subordinates-

messages concerned with production and maintenance functions.

Classical theorist assumed that subordinates would accept and comply with downward

communication on the basis of superiors’ legitimate authority. As the Hawthorne

Studies illustrated, compliance with managerial authority is not such a simple matter.

The human relations movement stressed the use of downward communication

strategies that would promote morale in the belief that satisfaction would lead to

compliances with authority (Miles, 1965). Much of the research that followed human

relations assumptions has attempted to determine the conditions under which

subordinates comply with messages received from superiors (Smith, Richetto, & Zima,

1972). More recently, contemporary theorist have argued that organisation members

have a “need to know” for their own purposes. Satisfaction of this need is important to

the successful assimilation of members into an organisation. As Koehler and colleagues

argued, “The best integrated employees are those who are told what goals and

objectives are, how their jobs fit into the total picture, and the progress they are making

on the job” (1981), p.10)

Penley’s (1982) work focused on the role of information adequacy in bringing about

members’ involvement in and identification with organisation goals rather that on

downward –communication strategies for producing compliance with authority. Katz and

Kahn (1978) identified five types of message that usually are reflected in downward

1. Job instructions involving the work to be done and direction for doing that


2. Job rationales explaining the purpose of a job or task and its relationship to

other organisational activities or objectives.

3. Procedures and practices information pertaining to organisational policies,

rules and benefits.

4. Feedback providing subordinates with appraisals of their performance.

5. Indoctrination of organisational ideology that attempts to foster member

commitment to the organisation’s values, goals and objectives. Upward Communication

Upward communication involves transmission of messages from lower to higher level of

the organisation namely, communication initiated by subordinates with their superiors.

The role of upward communication in classical theories of organisation was limited

primarily to basic reporting functions concerning task-related matters. The human

relations movement expanded the role of upward communication by emphasizing “two-

way” communication between superiors and subordinates as a means of promoting


Later, human resource development theories emphasized the necessity of upward

communication for integration of organisation members and improved decision-making

processes. Upward communication is a prerequisite for employee involvement in

decision making, problem solving, and development of policies and procedures (Smith,

Richetto, & Zima, 1972). Katz and Kahn (1978) point out that upward communication

can provide superiors with information in the following areas:

1. Performances on the job and job-related problems.

2. Fellow employees and their problems.

3. Subordinates’ perceptions of organisational policies and practices.

4. Task and procedures for accomplishing them.

In addition Planty and Machaver (1952) stated that upward communication can provide

valuable ideas from subordinates and facilitate acceptance of downward messages;

and by providing a better picture of performance, perceptions and possible problems at

all levels of the organisation. Horizontal Communication

Horizontal communication refers to the flow messages across functional areas at a

given level of an organisation. Although classical approaches to organising made little

provision for horizontal communication, Fayol recognized that emergencies and

unforeseen day-to-day contingencies require flexibility in formal emergencies, so some

provision has to be made for horizontal bridges that permit people at the same level to

communicate directly without going through several levels of organisation . Fayol’s

concept (1949) is illustrated in below figure.

Figure 3.1: Fayol’s Concept

Horizontal communication introduces flexibility in organisational structure. It facilitates

problem solving, information sharing across different work groups, and task

coordination between departments in institution likes UiTM Shah Alam or any project

teams. It may also enhance morale and afford a means for resolving conflicts regard

horizontal communication as an essential feature of participative decision making and

organisational adaptive ness (French, Bell & Zawacki, 1983). Reliance on horizontal
communication for decision making and problems solving does not mean that the

process is more efficient that simple downward communication of decisions made at top

levels of the organisation, but horizontal communication may be more effective. The

idea is emphasized in human resource development theory and broadly in modern

country such as in Japanese organisation where decision making and problem solving

usually occur through horizontal communication at lower levels.

The result of this process is transmitted to top management for review and approval.

Ryutard Nomura (1981), chairman of the board of Japan’s Triyo Industries, observed

that a decision making under this system can be lengthy and difficult process, but once

a decision has been made, its implementation is swift and certain. Organisation

members are committed to the decision because difficulties have been resolved and

opposing points of view reconciled through horizontal communication before plans are

presented to top management.

In the conventional western organisation, decisions are the made at the top, and then

orders for compliance and implementation flow downward. According to Nomura,

western-style decision making is fast because it is centralised near the top of

organisation at lower levels, however, is slow to develop. Lack of commitment to

decisions and conflicts over implementation arise at lower levels where members have

been excluded from the decision-making process.

3.4.2 Effectiveness Of Formal Communication

a) Downward Communication

Problems with downward communication include inadequacy of information,

inappropriate means of diffusing information, filtering of information and a

general pervasive climate of dominance and submission. Adequacy of

information obtained from downward messages present a puzzling paradox. On

the one hand, downward-directed messages frequently create overload in

organisations (Davis, 1972). Advances in information technology (the

mechanical and electronic ability not only to manipulate information more

efficiently but also to send more messages to more people) and ironically the

importance attached to the idea of effective organisational communication have

led to floods of memorandums, bulletins, newsletter, technical report and data in

reams of computer printouts.

The method of information diffusion that is used for downward communication

also can create problems. According to Goldhaber (1963), organisation often

rely too heavily on mediated (written, mechanical and electronic) methods of

transmitting messages rather than on personal, face-to-face contact.

Goldhaber, Yates, Porter and Leniak (1978) concluded that organisation

members generally desire more face-to-face interaction. Downward

communication also is subjected to filtering. As messages are relayed from

superior to subordinate through levels of the organisational hierarchy, they may

be changed in various ways. Information may be left out, added combined or

otherwise modified as it passes through a chain of serial reproduction (Pace &

Boren, 1973).
Downward messages also may be filtered deliberately. Information power is

valuable commodity in many organisations. Culbert and Eden (1970) pointed out

that manager often “base their power on withholding, rather than sharing

information because ability to control situations and outcomes may depend on

having knowledge that others do not possess. When managers do choose to

share information, their subordinates may prevent it from being relayed to lower

levels of the organisation. In general, the greater the number of steps or

linkages in a serials reproduction chain and the greater the perceptual

differences among participants in that chain, the more likely it is that some form

of message distortion or filtering will occur. The type of information also has a

bearing even on the extent to which it will be distributed.

b) Upward Communication

When upward communication does occur, it may be to the subject to the same

filtering problems that affect downward communication. While upward

communication can be encouraged through means such as suggestion system,

systematic reporting methods, grievance procedures, attitude surveys and

employee meetings, the presence of such systems may be only a token gesture

in many organisations.

Suggestion system such as suggestion box can be very effective when

managers actively encourage their use and employees take them seriously.

Goldhaber (1993 state most organisation members would rather receive

information than provide information to other. Koehler and Huber (1974) found

that mangers tend to be more receptive to upward communication when the

information is positive (good news rather than bad news), is in line with current
policy (criticism and boat rocking are unwelcome) and has intuitive appeal (fits

the managers’ own biases). Subordinates are likely to become quite dissatisfied

in organisation in which superiors endorse the idea of upward communication

but in practice actually ignore it. When subordinates develop the impression that

superiors only want to hear good news and support for their own ideas, it should

not be surprising that upward communication with those superiors is filtered

extensively. Krivonos (1976) reported that subordinates tend to tell their

superiors what they think the superiors want to hear only what they want their

superiors to hear. Information distorted so that it will please superiors and reflect

positively on subordinates. However the accuracy of upward communication is

greater when subordinates trust their superiors Reid, (1962), Maier, Hoffman,

Read (1963) and O’Reily (1974).

c) Horizontal Communication

Horizontal communication problems occur because of territoriality, rivalry,

specialization and simple lack of motivation. Organizations that traditionally have

functioned under rigid authority structures with fixed lines of communication may

find that the values and expectations that members have acquired under such

systems inhibit attempts at horizontal communication. One inhibiting value is

territoriality. Organisation members who control task-related activity within a

defined and fixed jurisdictional area often regard others involvement in that area

as territorial encroachment. Department value their turf and strive to protect it.

This problem may be compounded through interdepartmental rivalries that arise

from win/lose competition for rewards and resources.

Specialisation also may hamper horizontal communication when having great

difficulty in communicating by same terms in different ways. Horizontal

communication often fails simply because organisation members are unwilling to

expend the additional effort that it requires. When we engage in upward or

downward communication those with whom we communicate are easy to reach

because of proximity or clearly designated channels.

In contrast, horizontal communication may require contract with people in units

that are well removed from our own but the channels and rules of interaction

may be unclear because we not really know these people. The need to

communicate with them makes uneasy or takes too much time.

Legend: Division within organisation

Department or Organisational Unit

Upward communication

Horizontal Communication

Downward Communication

Figure 3.2 Type of communication

3.4.3 Informal Communication

The informal system involves episodes of interaction that do not reflect officially

designated channels of communication. Much of the research on informal

communication is concerned with the study of grapevine communication. The terms

informal system and grapevine often are used interchangeably as if they refer to the

same thing (Davis, 1953);(Hellweg, 1987) the use of the word grapevine as a metaphor

for a communication system began in the 1960s as description for telegraph lines that

were strung through trees in such a way that they looked like grapevines during war.

Nearly a century later, organisational communication research indicated that pattern of

grapevine communication even look something like a cluster of grapes. Consider the

pattern of message flow in figure 3.3. Person A initiates and transmits a message to B

and C. B relay it to D while C relays it to E and F. The clustering continues as the

message is diffused throughout the organisation. Some participants in the grapevine act

only as receivers. They do not relay information to anymore else. Others relay it to

several different people.


Figure 3.3: A grapevine communication cluster Grapevine

Grapevine communication has many other important features. Susan Hellweg (1987)

summarized these features in a list of thirty-three general conclusions that she based

on a review of nineteen research studies which states under five topic areas below.

1. Function And Extent Of Grapevine Communication

The grapevine emerges from the social and personal interest of employees rather

than from formal requirements of the organisation. It is the system in which most

organisational communication actually occurs, emphasizing “people-oriented” and

“news” events.
2. Participants in Grapevine Communication

Secretaries and liaisons play key roles in grapevine communication, although

relatively few people are grapevine liaisons, and many people who receive

grapevine information do not transmit it to others. Use of the grapevine is just as

prevalent among managers as it is among other groups of employees.

3. Pattern and Media of Grapevine Communication

Grapevine communication usually is oral and generally occurs in cluster

transmission patterns. It may begin, flow and end anywhere in an organisation.

4. Volume, Speed and Reliability of Information

Although grapevine communication usually is incomplete, information in the

grapevine tends to be more accurate than inaccurate and diffusion of information

through the grapevine is fast.

5. Role in Rumour Transmission

Three types of rumours are diffused (spread) through the grapevine: anxiety

rumours, wish-fulfilment rumours and wedge-driving rumours. Rumours are

distorted through sharpening, levelling and assimilation. Once a rumour is

assigned credibility, other events in the organisation are altered to fit in with and

support the rumour.

In this system communication is fast and more often accurate than inaccurate,

through much of the information is incomplete and concerned with people-oriented

social information, although other forms of information are diffused through the


3.4.4 Communication Structure As A Network

While the problems in the traditional concept of formal and informal communication

have not been resolved, they can be avoided or at least reframed to some extent by

focusing on the patterns of interaction that occur among organisation members, or the

communication network. Figure 3.3 shows a diagram of a communication network.

According to Noel (1981), such networks can be understood by examining four

properties: member roles, characteristic of links, structural characteristic and content.

Beginning with roles, consider the circles in figure 3.4 as people in UiTM Shah Alam.

The lines connecting the circles are links that show communicates with whom. The link

is the fundamental unit of any network (Stohl, 1995).

This particular diagram shows several distinct network roles that, members of this

organisation assume. Assuming that the diagram represents a small organisation, the

communication network is comprised of three groups. Basically, a group is defined by

members who interact more frequently with one another that than with members of

other groups. Most of the people in this network are group members. Person A is a

liaison. A liaison link different groups but is not a member of any of the groups in that

link. Individuals B and C from a bridge link between two groups and unlike liaisons,

people in a bridge link are group members. Person D is an isolate who is not linked to

anyone else in the network but does not mean D never communicates with anyone else

in the organisation. It does mean that D has relatively little contact with others. For
example the amount of interaction that D with others is negligible in comparison with the

amount that occurs among other organisation members.

Figure 3.4: A Communication Network

3.4.5 External And Internal Networks

Scenarios of communication in UiTM Shah Alam not only carry information inside the

organisation but also to outside the organisation in each unit or division but also outside

the boundary of UiTM Shah Alam. Typically, external networks carry advertising

messages, messages related to public relations and messages relaying information

about consumer complaint (normally students and academic staffs), concerns and

recommendations (i.e. suggestion box).

External networks do not function independently. In order to communicate to external

audiences, internal agents must be connected to other internal populations. As is the

case with most organisation interaction, there is an interdependent relationship between

the external and internal communication networks. Any channels within the organisation

that carry information are called internal networks. This can refer to intradepartmental

routes and interdepartmental routes in UiTM Shah Alam. Often the internal channels

exist, but they are crudely constructed and there impede traffic and have traditionally

spent little time engineering the internal network and ineffective internal communication

is an inevitable result.

3.4.6 Formal And Informal Network

a) Formal Network

Formal network are those that are prescribed by the organisation in UiTM Shah

Alam. These are the official, appropriate channels for people to follow when relaying

information. Most often these official channels have not been described as

“communication network”. They have come to be the appropriate channels because

they conform to the corporate organisational chart. These charts indicate who is to

report to whom and what the appropriate chain of command is in an organisation.

The fact that a network is a formal network does not guarantee that communication

“traffic” can utilize the particular channel.

b) Informal Networks

Meanwhile informal networks are those channels that carry information on routes

that are not prescribed by the organisation. Typically, these informal routes referred

to grapevine as mentioned earlier in point number and for a number of

reasons the grapevine is an important network. Keith Davis (1953) identifies several

types of grapevine pattern below;

o Single Strand: one person tells another who then informs a third in a single

linear format.

o Gossip. One person tells a host of others.

o Probability. Individuals random inform others.

o Cluster. (See figure 3.3) of those individual informed, one tells other. Of those

others informed, one tells others and so on.

All these type of grapevine are occur in UiTM Shah Alam either people realised or

not but via observation there are grapevine in organisation and mostly involved

subordinates on that.




a) Single strand b) Gossip




c) Probability

Figure 3.4: Types of Grapevine Chains


Organisation design in UiTM Shah Alam was really various and different between each

unit, departments, faculties and etc organisation. But there certain type of organisation

design that related to UiTM Shah Alam that implemented such as flat and tall

organisation design as mentioned in chapter 2. The example of organisation chart that

given by Register Officer from Faculty of Business Management are attached in

appendices sheet which contained elements that combination of two different field work

but the same goal to provide the services for the student.

While context suggests how an organisation is shaped by its organisation,

organisational design describes how the organisation actively shapes its structure.

Three different theoretical perspectives on organisational design have been identified:

strategies choice, member control and institutional isomorphism. Each perspective has

important ramifications for organisational communication.

The strategic choice perspective argues that the internal politics of an organisation

determine the structural form of the organisation as same as UiTM Shah Alam, affect

the way the organisation relates to environmental constituencies and influence the

choice of relevant performance standard (Child, 1972) but Simon (1957) argued that the

choices made by the organisation are based on the concept of “bounded rationality”.

This means that the organisation, faced with a multitude of environmental pressure,

must necessarily choose a direction from among many possible choices toward one or

many possible objectives.

Therefore, strategic choices are not always optimal ones; rather, they are those chosen

from among a range of possible options through political processes within the

organisation. The strategic perspective relates the concept of power to organisational

structure. Those who have power in an organisation decide what are and are not

organisational issues. Those in power, the “dominant coalition,” make the strategic

choices with regard to the organisation and its structure. Based upon their perceptions

of the environment, they select strategies for dealing with it, technologies for

implementing those strategies and additional strategies for arranging roles and

relationships to control and coordinate the technologies being employed.

From this perspective, organisational communication is critical to organisational design.

Organisational communication incorporates negotiation, struggle, power, values, shared

meaning, politics and decisions all of which comprise the wide array of messages that

document the strategic choice process. In fact, this perspective suggests that it is the

organisational communication process that yields the structural form and influences the

choices of relevant performance standards.

In contrast, the member control perspective is dramatically less dynamic that strategic

choice view. It argues that structure result simply from management’s desire to control

workers. Division of labour is caused by the desire for organisational control and the

need to apply advancing technology continually to production. This perspective, issued

by Taylor’s (1911) principles of “scientific management” views control and structuring as

strictly rational process.

From the vantage point, organisational communication comprises simply the formal and

structured messages that document necessary coordination and control activities.

However, organisations can also be viewed as largely irrational, driven by historical and

institutional forces surrounding the organisation and influencing its form and fate, thus

predetermining the nature of organisational communication.

3.5.1 Organisational Form

In this topic, there are six of the most prominent:

1. traditional, centralized structure

2. the centralised form with decentralized management

3. the divisional form

4. the decentralized (holding company) structure

5. the matrix structure; and

6. the “type-D” organisation.

3.5.2 The Divisional Form Structure



Vice Dean Vice Dean

(Sources&student (Quality&Research)

Exc.Office Exc.Office Exc.Office Exc.Office

r r r r

Figure 3.6: Example of Division Form Structure in an

organisation in Faculty of Business Management UiTM Shah

Most of the organisation in UiTM Shah Alam used divisional form structure. The

divisional structure represents a major shift in organisational form. In this structure the

“M-Form.”, there is a central coordinating organisational entity, but there are also

divisions with their own management structure that have direct responsibility for their

organisation’ operation and performance.

This is an extension of a hierarchical structure it consist of a general office and several

product-based or regional divisions, each of which contains functionally differentiated

department. These departmental units are also subdivided into work units that are
distributed on a geographical basis. The divisional structures have localized authority

and control structures and operate with considerable autonomy from centralized


The rationale for this approach is that each division needs flexibility to meet the

specialized needs of its market(s). Most communication between division and the

central coordinating entity contains messages related to policies, procedures and

detailed transaction or summary report. However, organisational communication may

vary across divisions because each division may provide differing products and

services, serve clienteles, be situated in separate operating environments and have

distinct organisational cultures.


Each organisation in UiTM Shah Alam (focal point) has their different type of how the

communication in organisation delegate through until reach to the end of feedback from

authorised individual. Based on interview the communication about the instruction

started after received formal communication from superior or corporate individual to do

something. But before that the communication come informally as brief if there are in

same organisation but if the instruction or information come from very higher superior it

might be come in letter (Surat Pekeliling).

After the organisation received any instruction they will discuss in meeting which is one

type of communication channel to make some explanation and study about the

instruction and find any method to perform the task or make it simply as can but
achieve the goal after the pro and contra about it discussed. After that the instruction

execute and along the process of performing the task there are still need to monitor to

avoid any leakages during the process and settle the barrier related until the final user

of this communication received the information. The process summarized into below


Barriers /
Ideas/Instruction/ Mission achieve/
information etc Information

Perform/send the Monitor/

Understand the ideas/ information/ Control/
Instruction/ Execute the ideas Supervise/
information etc Guide

Meeting/Briefing to
Find the best method
and pro or contra

Figure 3.6: Example of communication Process in a unit in UiTM Shah


Telephone PA

Internet box

Transportation talkie

Interactive Radio
screen (UFM)

Advertising/ network

communication Informal

Figure 3.7: Communication Channel in UiTM Shah Alam

Refer to figure above stated the communication channels that normally and currently

used in focal point UiTM Shah Alam. The communication channel not only used by

student but also for all staff (superior and subordinates). Some of the communications

channels really work for apply in organisation. These channels helping the

communication process reach their right and correct person and achieve its goal.


We have seen that technology provides new channels for communication that

fundamentally affect how work is done, how decisions are made and how organisations

are designed. Organisations use technology to improve communication and to

coordinate people, resources and work so that the institution likes UiTM Shah Alam is

more efficient and effective and better able to survive in a rapidly changing

environment. Hotch (1993) argued “the next generation of technology will make current

telecommunication look as awkward as the crank telephone of 1910. They will come by

fits and starts, but they will transform the way business is done as surely as the

telephone has”. He noted that until this point in time, the kind of information transmitted

was typically wed to a particular kind of technology hardware. For example, voice

messages use telephone wires and phones, telephone, television and radio signals are

broadcast via air waves or cable to television sets and radios.

However, computer technology allows voice, text, images, sound and video to be

digitized into pattern of 1s and 0s that computers can receive, understand, process,

copy, store and transmit. Any information in this format can be delivered to any device

that is capable of receiving, processing and displaying it. Hence, Hocth argued,

televisions equipped with digital technology can support computer text, a radio can

receive a phone call and computer equipped with multimedia capabilities can handle it

all. Computers and networks allow many forms of communication to mesh on a single

video display terminal. In this final subtopic in this chapter will examine current
technological innovations and preview some that are on the way which is capable for

UiTM to use it as a higher education institution in Malaysia.

3.8.1 Current New Technologies in UiTM Shah Alam

o Local Area Network

Wireless technology has helped to simplify networking by enabling multiple

computer staff UiTM Shah Alam to simultaneously share resources in an

organisation scope of work without additional or intrusive wiring. These

resources might include a broadband Internet connection, network printers, data

files, and even streaming audio and video. This kind of resource sharing has

become more prevalent as computer users have changed their habits from

using single, stand-alone computers to working on networks with multiple

computers in each room of unit, each with potentially different operating systems

and varying peripheral hardware.

Wireless networking enables the same capabilities and comparable speeds of a

wired 10BASE-T network without the difficulties associated with laying wire,

drilling into walls, or stringing Ethernet cables throughout an office building.

Laptop users have the freedom to roam anywhere in the office building without

having to hunt down a connector cable or available jack.

Every room in a wireless office can be “connected” to the network, so adding

more users and growing a network can be as simple as installing a new wireless
network adapter. Reasons to choose wireless networking over traditional wired

networks include:

v Running additional wires or drilling new holes in office could be prohibited

(because of rental regulations), impractical (infrastructure limitations), or too


v Flexibility of location and data ports is required

v Roaming capability is desired; e.g., maintaining connectivity from almost

anywhere inside UiTM

v Network access is desired outdoors; e.g., outside office building

o Wireless LANs

Wireless communication is one of the faster growing technologies in world

implemented in all over institution included UiTM Shah Alam for information

purpose especially for student to gather the information for their assignment.

This technology use electromagnetic waves (radio or infrared) to communicate

information from one point to another without relying on any physical

connection. The data being transmitted is superimposed on the radio carrier

frequency, so that it can be accurately extracted on at the received end. This

generally referred to as modulation of the carrier by the information being

transmitted. Wireless LANs provide mobility for with user usually a much lower

data rate.

In a typical WLAN configuration, a transmitter / receiver (transceiver) device,

called an access point, connect to the wired network from the fixed location

using standard Ethernet cable. At a minimum, the access point receives buffers

and transmitted data between wireless LAN and the wired network
infrastructure. A single access point can support a small group of users and can

be function within the range of up to several hundred feet. The access point (or

the antenna attached to the access point) is usually mounted high, but it may be

mounted essentially anywhere that is practical as along as the desired radio

coverage obtained.

End users (staff, students) access the wireless LAN through adapters, which are

pc cards in notebook computers, PCI cards in desktops computers, or fully

integrated devices within handheld computers. The adapters provided an

interface between the network operating system (NOS) and the airwaves (via an


This chapter discussed about the organisational communication that related to the case

study (UiTM Shah Alam). There is overview of organisational communication in UiTM,

the related organisational communication in some of the organisations in UiTM. The

structure of UiTM consist with formal and informal which formal represent for

downward, horizontal and upward communication and each types have their own

potential to achieve the goal of organisation and worth it for UiTM Shah Alam

implemented it. In this chapter also discover the informal communication such as

grapevine. Grapevine is one of the situation normally create by subordinates and

sometimes grapevine help the organisation to improve the performance. Currently there

are many channels that implemented in UiTM Shah Alam either realised or not but each

channel used based on suitability of organisation. Finally, to follow the modernisation

UiTM Shah Alam not excluded in follow the new technology. New technology helping

organisations in UiTM Shah Alam improve their services and to become standard

University equal to other high class university.





The analysis done by interpreted data from survey which executed to gather the

information about the scenario of organisational communication in UiTM Shah Alam.

The survey done by selected persons in selected unit, faculties, division and centres.

Places that selected in this survey are, Unit Zakat, Perpustakaan Tun Abdul Razak 1

(PTAR 1), Centre of Islamic and Thinking Understanding (CITU), Faculties of

Architecture, Planning and Surveying (FSPU), Faculty of Mass Communication, Faculty

of Office and Management Technology (FORMAT), Faculty of Business Management

(FBM) and Human Resources Department of UiTM Shah Alam.

The survey conducted to gather information related to how communication has been

carry out during work among the staff, the program that related to organisation, roles of

superior, roles of human resources , information about the staff (subordinates) and also

relation among superior and staff (superior). All these information was very useful to

discover the scenario of organisational communication from the opinion or what

respondents (UiTM Shah Alam’s staff) felt about the organisational communication in

UiTM Shah Alam. Through these information helped this study to find the reality of

organisational communication in UiTM Shah Alam and problems that occurred. If there

are positive it is means UiTM Shah Alam was really good in organisational

communication and could role model for other organisation in other sectors.


16% Interpersonal
18% Meeting
14% Others

Figure 4.1: Communication Channels

Based on pie chart above there are percentages of communication channels usually

used in UiTM Shah Alam. There are few of channels for communication such as

interpersonal, telephone, letters, meeting, email, briefing and others (walkie-talkie, radio

UFM, suggestion box, websites and etc). Uses of these communication channel used

based on situation and facilities that provide in organisation which is the communicator

located. From the survey stated the highest communication channel that used are

telephone and email (18%). Telephone is the main method that we can use and the

transaction between sender and receiver happened in live or the respond happened

during that time and also fast. So that, if both parties (sender and receiver) achieve their

goal during communication the communication is suitable and reduce any lack of

information when use mediator to send the information. By this advantage, telephone is

become most useful for organisations in UiTM Shah Alam. This situation also goes to
new technology started around 90s. This channel is very fast method to send the letter

and attach the document, because of this it is become popular used in organisation.

The second higher are interpersonal and meeting which is share the percentage of 16%

of communication uses. These channels have its same method which used human to

communicate. Sometimes its can be in discussion or conversation which is done face to

face and normally popular for employees that located in the same organisation. These

two channels sometimes did not realized by them but these channels are suitable when

superiors need to communicate in personal in the office as privacy and for all their


Third channel is by letters (14%) and this channel familiar with traditional method but it

is still useful especially for the information that need to signature or authorised by

superiors or corporate persons in UiTM and this cannot be done by using email. But

uses of paper and take time made this method not really popular but is useful. Followed

the letter is briefing with 12%. This channel not really popular because it is not formal

and UiTM Shah Alam always supervise by ISO and need to be follow the protocol but

via briefing help UiTM’s staff to understand the view of communication purpose and


Lastly, there are still other channels that contribute to organisation communication as

channel such as websites, radio UFM which is monitor by Faculty of Mass

Communication; walkie-talkie useful for security units and suggestion boxes useful for

customer normally student and etc. These ancillaries’ channels reached 6% from the

4.1.2 Information during Communication


19% HEP
Employee information
16% Development
13% Others

Figure 4.2: Information used during Communication

From the survey information that usually used in organisation based on its roles in their

own department such as HEA (academic affair) 19%, HEP (student affair) 16%,

employee information 23%, development of work or physical of UiTM 13%, instruction

of works 19% and the rest is 10%. Based on percentages the information focus on

employee and instruction of work, that mean UiTM Shah Alam really concern about

employees because as a university employees need to serve their works very smart,

dedication and allow accountability. This will produce the best services and high quality

as educational institution. Organisational communication also good in their and

become bridge to reach the mission, vision and goal of UiTM.

4.1.3 Communication Policy

Communication policy is about the policy that provided in each organisation about the

communication. Sometimes the policy exists in virtual and not officially stated in written.

The understanding about the communication policy for staffs are varies but from the

survey of selected UiTM Sham staff, almost 63% of staffs agreed that written

communication policy is exist and provide two ways communication so there instruction

and feedback are exist. This policy creates to support the management and helped to

raise the quality and standard of work and claims for staff honesty or integrity regarding

their work. But the objective of the communication survey is not highly stated in the

policy and this make an individual not highly responsible for administering the policy.

4.1.4 Program

If 63% from the survey agreed that communication policy in their organisation are exist

is there any program that organised to implement the policy and from the survey said

that there 63% also agreed that written procedures are exist to implement the policy.

They are also agreed about 88% that communication activities and media conform to

the policy and both are coordinated to achieve the goal. The program also regularly

reviewed for effectiveness and compatibility and top management take an active part in

the program.
4.1.5 Delegated Authority

Respondents agreed that there communication channels in their organisation chart.

They realized or not in their communication channels exist in their organisation chart, it

can horizontal or vertical. The accountability in communication is defined and the

superior/ supervisors knew their accountabilities for relaying information up and down

the line.

4.1.6 Superiors/ Supervisor

From the survey, superior/ supervisor given advance information about the

organisation’s plans and progress and all the matters transmitted directly through them

to employees, so that they can discuss the subject intelligently and answer any

questions that may arise. The specific method for keeping superior/ supervisor regularly

informed about employee thinking and rumours are average, because some

organisation agreed there are exist and some organisation not.

Staffs in UiTM Shah Alam agree that superior/supervisor meet them regularly for

discussion either informal or formal. Superiors / Supervisors also encourage their

subordinates to seek information from them and supervisor/ superiors also trained to

transmit information to subordinates. Superiors / supervisor also placed the

bulletins/letter/ instruction etc on bulletin boards so that communication are transfers to

their subordinates. Some of the superior provide their manual for subordinates as

reference on all important problem and some superior are not. Finally, manual of

policies and procedures which is up-to-date might be exist and available for them.
4.1.7 Human Resources

Human resources also important in organisational communication because they

persons that manage all the staff affairs. Based on survey from staff about human

resource in UiTM Shah Alam, the Human Resource considered in determining what

information to present to organisation about the employee’s basic want and interest to

serve in UiTM Shah Alam such as security, recognition, fair wages and opportunities to

advance. Human resource gives information to the staff about the salary and benefits,

opportunities for advancement and also training opportunity. All these information was

really important for employees, so that they can serve to the organisation without any

negative behaviour as persons that explained in theory Y which is illustrated by

McGregor in his research.

4.9 Employers-Employee Relations

The survey about the relation between employer and employees is really important to

see the communication behaviour between them either positive or negative. The

organisational communication was success if there are positive. The organisations in

UiTM Shah Alam “sell” itself to the staffs which mean that, organisation try to attract

peoples who are qualified to fill the position in their organisation. This procedure could

be in advertising in websites, newspaper or by informal communication such grapevine

The top position of staff in each organisation in UiTM Shah Alam based on survey

practiced talk with employees in a group either in meeting or any informal discussion.

This effort had shown the good organisational communication. They also meet the

subordinates in social program either inside or outside the organisation. Finally there

also visit their subordinates at their work station to supervise the condition of

employees. These roles were really important to make relation between superiors and

subordinates really good and avoid any unsatisfied condition but to create very

conducive relation.


The findings in this study are about planning the best organisational communication.

This finding could be really helpful for UiTM Shah Alam to improve their organisational

communication in next suitable level as the world Class University.

4.2.1 Develop Communication Program

Every work need program to start and end the task or event and same with how to plan

the communication program and to create the program the simple need could be use

which is involved three activities with employee or UiTM Shah Alam staff and the

activities goes to below bulleted:

v organisation’s meeting about the objectives of UiTM Shah Alam( 7 steps of


v basic information of organisations told to UiTM’s Shah Alam staff

v enhance human resource communication

4.2.2 Communication Program

Step 1: recruit a Step 7: evaluate

navigation and revise

Step 2: establish a Step 6: set up a

communication budget

Step 3: identify Step 5: develop

activities and assign targeted programs

Step 4: benchmark

Figure 4.3: 7-Steps Communication Program

§ Step 1. Recruit a navigation committee

The program need to start with top management of UiTM Shah Alam staff, which

should put together a committee or task force and the group, include top

management, human resources managers, communication employees and line

management. Via this step some assumptions could be predict such as UiTM Shah

Alam staff will support the goals and objectives of organisation once they understand

both items and top manager will do better job of communicating after train them.
§ Step 2. Establish a communication policy

Once the policy was establish UiTM Shah Alam staff will understand the UiTM’s goals

and improve the effort to achieve it. Via this policy all action regarding communication

will inform to all UiTM’s staff about the information and responsible on it. For the top

management they give their commitment toward the communicating with


§ Step 3. Identify activities and assign responsibilities

Before this mentioned about three jobs in staff communication are strategy,

toolmaking and delivery. Via these jobs could help to decide what must be

communicated to whom and how, after decide it the activity will be out as writing or

other type of media and helping to dictate the budget. Finally the jobs will be finish

with deliver the information by media or top manager or both.

§ Step 4. Benchmark

Benchmarking always familiar with total quality management (TQM) in fix the

performance at specific point in time to create a standards measure for future actions

and to determine whether there has been any change or not. For example to reduce

any information lacking and via benchmarking staff will aware from happen by

consider as serious problem if the lack arise. In this step those three jobs (strategy,

toolmaking and deliver) also need to implement.

§ Step 5. Develop targeted programs

To develop might be take time and need to try one approach and see the impact and

try another if there are no better result. During this step ask us to evaluate for the
feedback and the effort will be successful and this no different for others sector such

as construction sector. The long-range goal will be to achieve higher profitability and

short-range objective might be to cut grievance and lost time to accidents or to reduce


§ Step 6. Set up a budget

Cost will vary, but normally investments in employee communication are not very

high. The greatest results usually come from improved supervisor-to employee

communication. If the employee communication approach with commitment and the

top manager can see a benefit use, lower waste or higher productivity linked to

communication effort, the organisation able to substantial the return.

§ Step 7. Evaluate and revise

The final step is to evaluate what to see if the program worked and do the essential

things and revise the program for better evaluate to see overlooked or any errors.
4.2.3 Involving Employees

Involving employees need to appreciate the need for a comfortable, friendly

environment that will be conducive to communication or in metaphor from tech to touch.

Top management in UiTM Shah Alam have responsibility to talk to their employees

about the work some likes specific message about the UiTM’s objectives. Top

management parties can be discuss with subordinates about the mission, vision and

values but need to concern with subordinate’s own division rather than general issue.

UiTM Shah Alam staffs need to know what related to their responsibilities where they

will be judged on and what they are expected to do and this situation suitable conduct

at the time they are in their first day of work when staffs is most impressionable and

excited about it.

Generally in more institutions, compensation is being linked more to performance and

less to seniority. During teamwork each staff needs to get feedback on a frequent basis.

Annual performance reviews are not enough to keep people motivated. Performance

feedback should be continuous, even weekly, so that when the annual evaluation is

made there are no surprises. Non-stop conversation on performance can also help lead

to successful staff development. Performance can be identify by construct the form

regarding staff’s performance to see the outcome on it. Form to identify the

performance that related to top manager for communicating with constructed on table

4.1 as example.
Table 4.1: Example of form to measure the performance

Project Milestone Date of communicate Remark

Student’s A week 8 June 2008 Completed on time

result analysis
Update Two weeks 10 June 2008 Lack of staff to
financial data completed on time

As big educational institution, UiTM Shah Alam understood and concern that personal

problems can impact job performance, and because of that, top management have to

develop staff assistance programs not only for students but also UiTM’s staffs also

need assistance on it. Counselling session is the best assistance to help the

inconveniences such as substance abuse, economics problems and family

complexities. Some parties in each organisation need to be train to identify these

inconveniences and try to find the solutions on it when necessary.

As explanation in previous topic, staff’s ideas and suggestions for improvement are

important and seem likes sending staffs across the country to deal directly with

customers, or look at some product commercial in television. Via this concern able to

use to get constructive feedback from staff.

In UiTM Shah Alam there are 25 faculties, 3 learning centres and a lot of units as

mentioned in chapter 3. From this situation could be use as plan to make competition

among the units and unit’s own previous record. To realise the best result via

competition need to create standards of comparisons for own unit and other unit and

completed with suitable activities or programs. Below there are bulleted points of

suggestion for making immediate improvements in employee or staff communication:

§ Increase contact and communication between management and the shop floor.
§ Make supervisor and manager accountable for relaying information.

§ Develop channels that get information to supervisors and managers quickly.

§ Tell staffs how their unit is doing compared with other unit and the company as a


§ Expand upward communications.

All bulleted point above represent for explanation about how to improve organisation

communication that involving all staffs not only for UiTM Shah Alam but for all sectors.

4.2.4 Human Resource Communication

Currently organisations are making a number of strategic human resource changes by

reducing benefits, restructuring and downsizing, putting more compensation at risk,

linking rewards more closely to performance and providing increased training and

employee assistance. These trend used to reduced the personnel cost as much as

possible without losing ability to attract and retain good employees.

To make the organisation more competitive, management must get employees to buy

into the each unit’s mission, vision and values. This strategic role is new and often

linked between communication and human resources officials. An organisational

communication program strongly support human resources programs. As a matter of

fact, the linkage is so strong today that in as many as one third of all institutions or

companies, the function of employee communication is located in Human Resources


Human resource managers need to help professional communicators to identify

communication priorities, establish capabilities and assign responsibilities, develop and

implement programs which are linked to organisational goals. To complete there are

must include human resource strategy for communications department with

benchmarking staff concerns via an attitude survey, developing specific program

activities along with HR, producing materials and executing programs, and evaluating

results for linkage to corporate objective.

Certain work environment there are staff that want to hear information from their

supervisors, internal communications people must produce materials that supervisors

can use for targeted work audience-production workers, office staff, managers and

unionized labour.

But giving managers information to communicate to employees is only part of the

process-those managers must understand how important this is to their job. Managers

must be given training in interpersonal communication and their financial reward must

be at least partially based on how well they communicate with their employees in order

to make the system work. The development of appropriate HR communication

materials must be a joint exercise between HR and communications that result in

messages which are clearly matched to specific corporate HR objectives, delivered

according to a specific timetable and evaluated in term of measurable behavioural


Using media to communicate depends on the demographic profile of employees such

as how many locations are involved, organisational style, budget concerns and whether

the communication will be reused during orientation. Possible media might include

§ letters or memos, which are best for announcement of programs,

§ Articles in staff publications, which are best for updates on the program’s

progress. Key points should include representation from all parts of the

company that are involved in the process.

§ Employee meetings utilizing audiovisual and question and answer sessions.

By using a visually-oriented is the best method such as video or slides with a take-away

brochure that graphically shows the entire process. The brochure should also feature a

message from the CEO, a diagram of the pay evaluation program, and the most

commonly asked questions and their answers. Other ways to communicate include

highlight folders, payroll stuffers, telephone hotlines or tape message systems, posters

and bulleting boards and employee handbooks. Communication plan need to be link to

milestones, beginning with the start of the evaluation process and concluding with a

major communication effort during roll-out. This period can run from to a year.

Compensation program not suppose to communicate in nothingness. Benefits are part

of total compensation, so performance evaluations should be closely linked to

compensation. These links must be communicated to all employees. The best way to

communicate this information is through supervisors in their subject areas. From

communication its produce some priority as:

§ Companies install new flexible benefits programs that give employees the

opportunity to get involved in designing individualized programs.

§ Company or institution likes UiTM Shah Alam seek to provide more cost-

effective benefits in the face of rising health care cost, often through new cost-

sharing arrangements with employees.

4.2.5 Key Element of a Benefits Communication Plan

There are eight-steps method for improvement in process to develop a benefits

communication plan includes:

Step 1: Conduct Research

The best way to find out is to ask employees through focus group how they would like

to get their information. If UiTM Shah Alam has been going through hard times, then it

will make sense to be low-key. The reason for glitzy communications is they get through

to people.

Step 2: develop a strategy

The most important step in the whole process of communication is determining the

audience and the correct messages to relay. While all employees may be covered

under the plan, a good communication strategy recognises that there are a number of

staff subgroup-new hires, mid-career people, those near retirement with different needs.

Today, benefits are designed with the needs of these subgroups in mend and the

accompanying communications must address them but the program not only to be

informed but also motivate employees to take action.

Step 3: hand out Materials

These can include descriptions, benefits statements, worksheets and enrolment and

beneficiary forms. Top management need to develop and present to subordinates.

Step 4: schedule presentations

Presentations are ideal for small groups and should be conducted whenever major

changes are made. Small groups allow more opportunities for questions and answers.

Larger groups are more time efficient, but can add to downtime cost and require

supplemental question and answer materials or forms. For larger or dispersed

organisations, new technologies such as email or voice mail can be used but they

remove the people factor.

Step 5: prepare visually based communications

These should be a part of all presentations. Staffs now are video watchers. The

problem with so many benefits videos and slide shows is that they look as through they

were produced by a tax accountant. Calculations and complex explanations should be

saved for printed materials. The power of the visual medium is to use real-life examples

to demonstrate concepts to people. Try to keep visual communications simple. Stick

with highlights and use diagrams and easy-to-understand flow chart and graphics.

Step 6: prepare coordinated print pieces

Handouts should accompany all visual presentations. A take-away print piece reminds

staff of the highlight of the presentation.

Step 7: use interactive components

A number of interactive computer programs are now available. The overall goal is to

address individual questions concerning complex programs.

Step 8: evaluate the results

Evaluations will tell you if the program worked. Simple mail-back with questions

designed to test the effectives of the communication effort will help ensure that the

program is working

Table 4.2: Benefits communication tools to choose from include the


Develop generic communications and enrolment

Standard packages
packages that can be adapted for UiTM’s budget

Good delivering and impressions or feeling about

Television program. Serve to point out highlights and to

deliver the UiTM Shah Alam message

One of the most advance to the main frame and

not only look at possible benefits but also others

Interactive Computer Software
areas such as financial planning, training and


Allows users to enter their selections via mail

Automated Voice Response after they read over material sent to them by

Table 4.2 Benefits communication tools to choose from include the
following (cont’d)

Is oldest and most basic communication tool for

explaining benefits to employees and seen as a

supplement to more advances communication

technologies .

Most staff employees still prefer to get

information on a one-on-one basis from manager

Traditional method benefits information is

presented in meeting and not very high-tech but

Slides and overheads it allows the presenter to interject himself into the

presentation and this tool familiar for accounting


This is good but expensive by satellite across the

Video Conferences nation or around the world to spread the


Suitable for medium and large organisation as

UiTM Shah Alam for staff to have access to for

getting very specific answers to their questions

and need specialist on it.

This tool will cut down many of the employee’s

question when information directly

Payroll processing systems
communicated to employees via each payroll

4.2.6 Encouraging Feedback

Feedback from staff is the first step to finding out how closes top management to them.

Staffs feedbacks provides an even greater value staffs not willing to talk about

themselves but are also willing to suggest ideas that may help to improve the

organisation’s performance. In create feedback system evolving organisation frank and

candid comments from identifiable staffs will be valued. The larger organisation more

difficult it is to accomplish upward communication.

Sometimes by provide incentives such as monetary reward for the new ideas has been

as an effective of encouraging employee feedback. But via a token and high praise will

work just a well. Putting a picture of the employee/staff with this month’s “Bright Idea” in

the UiTM Shah Alam’s magazine will go a long way toward communicating to everyone

that ideas, suggestions and feedback are being rewarded. For employee/staff the final

reward is when their ideas will be implemented.

4.2.7 Evaluating Communication Programs

There are two types of measurements for employee communication: attitude survey

and communication audits. The attitude survey sometimes focuses on communication

but is also sometimes broader in scope, telling us what the climate and perception of

employees are, and what can be done to improve them. An employee attitude survey

can measure a wide range of subjects, including job climate, security, satisfaction,

opportunities for communication, management, compensation and benefits. A

communication survey measures:

§ Communication philosophy

§ Topics which are important to employees

§ Whether employees feel sufficiently informed

§ Employees’ preferred sources of information

§ The readership levels for publications

§ Communications’ credibility and usefulness

§ Managers’ or top management communication skills

§ Awareness by employees of the company’s mission, vision and values

In communications audits can measure employee attitudes and their knowledge of the

company, the effectiveness of feedback program and the impact of corporate media.

Techniques used in communication audits may include:

§ Focus groups: small groups of people representing the various demographics of

employee groups. Focus groups provide qualitative information, which means

that they show not only employees’ opinions, but also the context of those


§ Management climate assessment: generally a series of interviews with top

management and key unit managers used to determine the culture and values

of the organisation in relation to communication. This can also be used to

identify the effects of individual personalities and to define the context of jobs

and roles.

§ Content evaluation of published material” looks at the subject matter of memos,

policies, form, newsletter and the paper that a corporation uses to determine

what is important based on what is written down and maintained.

§ Surveys: provide a means to let everyone in the organisation get involved in the

audit process. Surveys allow people to participate anonymously. This data is

more quantitative that qualitative.

§ Network analysis: look at the interaction among people in an organisation to

determine or map such things as communication nodes or bottlenecks. The

theory is that the more people interact, the more successful an organisation is.

An attitude survey or communication audits is normally used when there has been

some major change in organisation, such as alignment, downsizing or reengineering.

4.2.8 Communication Research And Change

Via research its’ discover information about might be hard to hear the truth about what

employees thought about their top management but important to set up process for

getting past this problem:

§ Provide feedback that makes sense

§ Get commitment to take action before doing research
§ Relate actions to research; tell people that their input helped.
§ Measure how actions worked; find out if what you did worked.

The level of reaction to research can range from full implementation to full rejection,

with the worst outcome probably being a decision to do nothing. Communication

research is most helpful in choosing among possible alternatives while designing

communications and then making changes in the organisation to respond to that

feedback. Measuring the impact of communication programs becomes more important

that ever if we expect to convince top management that it pays, middle managers that it

works and everyone that it has true value.


This chapter was discussed about two important things that help this study achieve the

objectives as mentioned in chapter 1. This chapter was elaborate about the analysis

from the interpreted data via survey and interviews. All detail is about organisational

communication to see the scenario of organisational communication in UiTM Shah

Alam. From the analysis, I concluded that UiTM Shah Alam was achieve a good level in

organisational communication because from the survey found the positive answer is

higher than negative answer which is agreed and disagreed about the statement that

ask in survey questions that given to respondents.

The findings also discover to improve the items that related to organisational

communication. Findings in this chapter discussed about the planning to improve the

organisational communication via program, research, evaluation and including tools.

The findings are all about to plan the best organisational communication.




Based on history Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam operated almost 30 years and

above in Section 1 Shah Alam and some of the organisation change time by time in

order to improve the services and fulfil the current demand for higher education. As a

title world class university, all the quality of work, management, infrastructures,

transportations, technologies and etc need to be enhance and by the way all the

aspects need to be start from the basis of organisation especially in communication.

This study about communication in UiTM Shah Alam also needs to discover the better

organisational communication as educational institution and this situation same with

other industries such as construction industry. There are many relations in construction

industry from client / employer to final user or consumer. There are lot work to do and

very complicated but if there any massive and good organisational communication all

the plans and work will be rolling better and find the best way to achieve the goals.

Next explanations are about recommendations and planning the best ways for UiTM

Shah Alam as guideline to develop better and strategic of communication plan.



5.2.1 Changing Communication Needs

Many organisations that have downsized layers of managers and workers are trying

new approaches to boosting output, such as quality circles, self directed work teams

and renewed focus on mission, vision and values this situation also goes to UiTM Shah.

Management seems to be cutting back and, at the same time, giving more responsibility

to employees. In this new atmosphere, senior management knows it literally cannot

afford to look at employees simply as a labour cost; rather they must see them as

potential contributors to growth.

Traditionally employer-employee contract or in contact UiTM as public University of

longevity for loyalty but need the promise of a job for life for a lifetime of dedicated and

loyal services has evaporated as a result of cutbacks, downsizing and/ or realignment.

Organisations are finding a cynical, uncommitted and discontented work force that is

working longer hours and seeing more of its salary being put at risk in incentive

programs. Staff or employee communication can help turn around this situation. It is the

glue that can patch today’s tattered working environment.

The importance of communication in restoring a balance between the needs of the

organisation and those of employees and helping to restore and maintain credibility is

becoming apparent to more people. Strategic communication focused on accomplishing

concrete business or product or services objectives such education provider likes UiTM
Shah Alam is order of the day as companies go back to drawing board to reengineer

their services. There are complicated in communication job for everybody in current’s

flattened, spread-out organisation and no longer a work just for somebody at the top

management such executive and etc.

The approach in which messages are being communicated is also changing in this new

high-tech era. Electronic communication or could be tools for communication is

supplementing, even replacing, print while managers are being asked to increase one-

on-one and other high-touch forms of interpersonal communication.

Now, there can be email or voice mail sent to each employee from the top management

such as CEO for informal meeting. By this way it is a far cry from the formal

communications of yesterday. The content of organisational communication is also

changing as follow the high-tech era and reaching out to a new kind of employee, one is

more diverse and multicultural-and very media savvy. The old message of big

organisation as UiTM Shah Alam not really works in this new era, diverse workplace,

where non-stop layoffs and downsizings, strikes, management shift, reorganizations

and bad press have a daily reality.

5.2.2 The Changing Work Force

Time by time work force of current age is very different from many years ago. Activities

in communication must recognise and reflect these changes:


Homogenous Diverse/ multicultural

Authoritarian Shared responsibility

Stable Dynamic

Security and loyalty to the organisation Loyalty to self and


Table 5.1: Changing of work force

In the new workplace, workers are diverse and multicultural even though UiTM open for

dweller student but other race can have profession here, and have different values.

They have less job security, but management wants expanded employees participation

in decision making. Employees who now often define their lives in terms of their work

have higher expectations for their jobs. In this environment, top management must now

lead rather boss. This requires even more communication.

5.2.3 The New Workplace and Communication

The changing profile or workers is reflected in how they relate to communication


Table 5.2: Changing of workplace


Readers Viewers

Not computer literate keyboarders

Formal communications informal

Ideas images as ideas

Focused attention short attention span

What was said who said it

To reach the new workers, new information communication technologies are being


Traditional New Communication

Communication technologies

v Memos to v Email
employees v Voice memos
v Newsletters v Video/ video
v Formal newsletters
supervisor/employee v Weekly tip sheet
meeting v Interactive computer
v Bulletin boards programs
v Company

Figure 5.1: Examples of technologies adopted then and now

5.2.4 Good Organisational Communication: A Big Reward

Good communication is good business as education provider. From the Japanese who

invest as heavily in their people as in their machinery. Peoples always working with

problem but with more people will increase the better chance for success.

Communication is the glue which bonds people working together toward a common

goal. The rush to install quality programs, empower employees in UiTM Shah Alam to

make decisions, solve problems at the lowest level, and reengineer the corporation will

only be successful if it is based on a geometric increases in communication at all levels

in the organisation. If the employees of UiTM Shah Alam are not given adequate

information nor allowed to contribute to the solution of problems, they may revert to

being the cause of them , resulting in increased absenteeism, lowers productivity,

grievance and so on.

There are two parts to communication: a systems side that utilizes the right media, and

a human side that delivers the information in a believable and empathetic manner. As

one expert has said, communication must have body and soul. Good communication is

carefully planned from the top down, supported in writing, made part of a upper party in

organisation of UiTM Shah Alam performance evaluation, and focused on the work.

There are three major variables that UiTM Shah Alam as educational provider needs to

look at in evaluating organisational communication processes:


Results Flow Communication


Figure 5.2: Communication Variables

Figure at above represented for three major variables of communication and the

variables are Flow, Content and Impact.

1. Flow is how information moves through the organisation to its


2. Content is the type of information communicated and how it is targeted

to specific audiences.

3. Impact is the result produced by communications effort.

5.2.5 The New Professional Communicator

Now’s worker communicator has the job of providing managers and supervisors

throughout the organisation with the messages and media they need to get the word

out. The information that the employee communicator delivers can range from a revised

benefits program to better management tips. Once communications is more focused on

creating value, a new type of communicator is emerging, one who:

v Understands today’s employees

v Knows the mission of the organisation
v Understand the relative merits of new communication tools
v Is responsible for making sure top executives or management are
trained to communicate and relay feedback information.
Table 5.3: Changing Of Actions

That was then This is now

Craftspeople strategies
Writers propagandists
Reporters storytellers
Primary communicators supporters of line communication
Makers of things sellers of ideas
Always part of public relations may be in Public Relations or HR
Reactive Pre-emptive

Currently professional communicator has more of strategic job-developing

communication strategies to achieve work’s objectives and then with the support of top

management, making sure top parties in organisation get the word out. This goes well

past the old skills of just writing and producing materials. The organisation in UiTM

Shah Alam should involve in three primary activities:

1. Strategizing: looking at a business issue and deciding how it should be


2. Toolmaking: developing the communication materials based on the

information that must be communicated.

3. Delivering: communicating of the messages

From the topic 5.1.1 to 5.1.5, there are some factors that can help to improve the

organisation in UiTM Shah Alam to become more efficient in communication for








Figure 5.3: Recommendations


The conclusion are summarised to answer the objectives of the study. The objectives of

this study which explain in chapter 1 are all about the organisational communication.

Universiti Teknologi MARA as a case study had been discovered the information about

the organisational communication and others related information about it.

In chapter 2 explained details about the organisation, communication and other related

information that created for literature review that draw about the view of organisational

communication that need to discover in chapter 3 and chapter 4. By using the interview,

survey and search the information from internet about organisational communication

the scenario of organisational communication in UiTM Shah Alam was answered in

chapter 3.

In addition, by executed the survey and interview, at the same time the information that

gathered used to create as data that interpreted into figure such as percentages and

chart to understand the value about the issue that related to organisational

communication from respondents which is worked in UiTM Shah Alam. As a result the

positive answer more than negative answer and shown that UiTM Shah Alam is one of

the institution that consist with the best organisational communication in its organisation

but some items could be improve via finding that discovered in chapter 4.

Finally, in chapter 5 the recommendations was explained to improve the organisation

communication especially in issues that related to staff either superior or subordinates.

As an institution that consist with fragmented activities UiTM Shah Alam really need the
best organisational communication. Currently UiTM Shah Alam reached so many goals

in activities that related to organisational communication, because of that there are

compliment from many parties such as ISO, Ministry of Higher Education and many

award that belongs to UiTM Shah Alam as effected of effort in enrich organisational

communication by superior and subordinates.

As mentioned in abstract, hopefully the organisational communication that implemented

in UiTM Shah Alam will be as a guideline for any organisation in any sectors especially

for construction industry which consist fragment activities. Because of that this study

take UiTM Shah Alam as case to study the organisational communication even there

are from construction but it occur in all sector either we are realized or not.

1. Alan Jay Zaremba (2006). Organizational Communication. Foundations for

Business and Collaboration.

2. Andrew Dainty, David Moore and Micheal Murray (2006).Communication in

Construction: Theory and practice. Taylor & Francis Group

3. Barry K. Spiker (2004).Perspective on Organisational Communication.3rd

Edition. WBC Brown & Benchmark Publication.

4. Cal Wal. Downs (1988). Communication Audits. Library of Congress Cataloging-

in- Publication Data.

5. Charles Conrad & Marshall Scott Poole (2002).Strategic Organisational

Communication in A Global Economic.5th Edition. Harcourt College Publication.

6. “Communications In Construction” - Associated Construction Publications

Available:http://www.acppubs.com/article/CA473342.html (Accessed: July 17th


7. Daniels Spiker Papa (1997). Perspectives on Organizational Communication, 4th

Edition .Mc Graw Hill.

8. Daniel P. Modaff, Sue Dewine & Jennifer Butler (2008). Organizational

Communication: Foundations, Challenges, and Misunderstandings. 2nd Edition.

Pearson Education, Inc.

9. Dr. Narimah Ismail and Dr Saodah Wok (2006). Kursus Komunikasi Organisasi.

PTS Publications and Distributor Sdn Bhd.

10. “Flat Organisational Structures”- Available:http://www.learnmanagement2.com.

(Accessed: July 20, 2008)

11. Frank M.Corrado (1994).Communicating with Employees: Improving

Organizational Communication. Crisp Publication Inc.

12. Gary L. Peterson (2000). Construction in Organisation: A casebook.2nd Edition.

Library of Congress Cataloguing-in- Publication Data.

13. Gay Lumsden & Donald Lumsden (2004).Communicating in Group and

Team:Sharing Leadership.4th Edition. Thomsom Wadsworth.

14. Gary L. Kreps (1990). Organizational Communication. 2nd Edition .Longman

New York & London.

15. Gerald L. Peper (1995). Communicating in Organizations: A Cultural Approach.

McGraw-Hill, Inc.

16. Katherine Miller (2006). Organisational Communication. 4th Edition. Approaches

and Process. Thomsom Warsworth.

17. Pace, R.W., & Faules, D.F (1994). Organizational Communication.3rd Edition.

New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

18. Pamela Shockley& Zalabak (2002).Fundamentals of Organisational

Communication: Knowledge, sensitivity, Skills, Values. 4th Edition. Library of

Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data Tom D Daniels

19. Patricia Hayes Andrews and Richard T. Herschel (1996). Organizational

Communication: Empowerment in Technological Society. Houghton Mifflin


20. S.Haykin & M.Moher (2003). Modem Wireless Communication, Pearson

Education International.


NAME: :.............................................................................
POST: :………………………………………………………..


1. What do you understood about organisational communication?

o Definition
o Types of communication
o Structure

2. Is there any communication in your scope of work and how the illustration of relation?
o same level
o superior to subordinate

3. To execute the communication process, what are the tools that used to assist it?
o Telecommunication technologies
o Manual by letter
o briefing

4. What type of organisation structure in your office?

o Matrix
o Multidimensional
Ø Upward
Ø Downward
Ø Horizontal

5. What are the problems and impact of organisational communication?

o before
o during
o after

6. What are your suggestions to improve organisational communication?

o Quality
o Example of best organisation

7. Could you please give me the written information that related to organisational
o Pamphlet
o Brochure
o Documents




Dear respondent: I would be grateful if you could kindly complete the survey which is a
requirement of my final project (Dissertation-QSM 664)
Check ( / ) yes or no for the answers that are appropriate to conditions in your

Application of Communication In UiTM

1. What is the main communication channel that usually used?

1. Interpersonal

2. Letter

3. Meeting

4. Email

5. Briefing

6. Others ,state:_____________________

2. What sources of information that used during communication?

o HEA information

o HEP information

o Employee information

o Physical development of UiTM

o Instruction of work

o Others state :_____________________

Communication Policy

1. Is there a written communication policy in your organisation?

2. Does the policy provide 2-way communication?

3. Does the policy have the active support of management?

4. Does the policy commit the organisation to honesty?

5. Are communication objectives stated clearly?

6. Does one individual have overall responsibility for administering the policy?


1. Are there written procedures to implement the policy?

2. Do all communication activities and media conform to the policy, and they


3. Are the policy and programs regularly reviewed for effectiveness and compatibility?

4. Does top management take an active part in the program?

Delegated Authority

1. Is there an organisational chart that shows communication channels?

2. Is accountability for communication defined?

3. Do supervisors know their accountabilities for relaying information up and down the

Keeping Superiors Informed

1. Are supervisors given advance information about the organisation’s plans and


2. Are superior given the “why” of all matters transmitted directly through them to

employees, so that they can discuss the subjects intelligently and answer any questions that

may arise?

3. Is there a specific method for keeping superior regularly informed about employee

thinking and rumours?

4. Do the supervisors meet regularly with employees for discussions?

5. Are employees encouraged to seek information from their supervisors?

6. Are supervisors trained to transmit information to employees and to answer their


7. Are bulletins given to supervisors before they are placed on bulletin boards?

8. Are there regular management meetings?

9. Do supervisors meet with each of their subordinates on a regular basis?

10. Is there a procedure for getting supervisor ideas on staff contract improvement?

11. Is there a procedure a supervisor’s manual for ready reference on all important


12. Is there a manual of policies and procedures which is kept up-to-date, and is

available to all supervisors?

Human Relations Communications

1. Are employee’s basic want and interest (security, recognition, fair wages and opportunities to

advance) considered in determining what information to present to organisation?

2. Are employees being given information about:

o salary and benefits

o opportunities for advancement

o training opportunity?

Information about Employer-Employee Relations

1. Does the company “sell itself to its employees?

2. Does the top officer of the organisation:

o talk with employees in a group

o meet socially with employees

o visit informally with employees at their work stations?