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Introducing Fractions:

Teacher (person planning lesson): Clarisen Lacuata & Bobbie Bautista

Subject: Introduction to Fractions
Grade Level: 3rd Grade
Purpose Statement: The purpose of this lesson is to introduce fractions
Instructional Context:
__X__Beginning Lesson (introduce concept)
_____Developmental Lesson
_____Culminating Lesson
_____Other: __________________________________________________________
Teacher Content Knowledge/ Big Ideas and Essential Questions:
Include the Big Ideas and core concepts of the discipline the teacher needs
in order to teach the lesson
"A fraction tells us only about the relationship between the part and the
whole" (page 295)
Part- Whole is an effective way to teach children the meaning of fractions.
Allowing students to look at groups of people such as 3/5 of a class went on a
field trip or through part of a length such as 2 1/2 miles.
"A fraction tells us only about the relationship between the part and the
whole" (page 295)
Understanding equivalent fractions is critical. Two equivalent fractions are
two ways of describing the same amount by using different- sized fractional
parts. (Van De Walle, 2013, p. 290)
Fraction can represent parts of regions, parts of sets, parts of measures,
division or ratio.
A fraction is not meaningful without knowing what the whole is.
Taken from Van De Wall, John. Elementary and Middle School Mathematics.
8th Pearson Education Inc, 290-312. Print.
Common Core State Standards:
Number and Operations: Fractions
Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is
partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity
formed by a parts of size 1/b.

Student Learning Outcomes:

Defines what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of
the lesson; usually more specific than the benchmarks.
What a numerator (part) and a denominator (whole) is

Recognizing and naming fractions

Students must contribute to the discussion as a group and in whole class
Answering questions correctly for the candy bar worksheet will prove that
students know and understand what a numerator and a denominator is.

Area models:
Candy bar
Candy bar worksheet
Students will be in groups for the manipulatives and candy bar for discussion
and reasoning.
They will work on their worksheets individually.

a: Introduction (expected time, e.g., 7 minutes)
Every student will begin with a paper candy bar that has 12 parts. The
teacher will have an actual candy bar and follow what the children are doing.
The candy bar is a whole.
If you cut the candy bar in half what do you notice?
1 There are 6 pieces in 1 half of the candy bar. 6
2 6 pieces is 1 half of 12 = 6/12
3 We will talk about how if you split the candy bar in half with a
friend, you both would have EQUAL PARTS.
Then they will have to divide these parts in half again (two other friends
come over, so they have to split each half into equal parts again.)
1 We will label the parts with the fraction name as they are being
We will keep spitting the parts until there are 12 1/12 pieces.
We will go over again how we got from 1 whole to 1/12.
Using magnetic fraction bars, we will compare the sizes of the parts.
The students will enjoy the candy bar before the next activity
The students will be paired up and be given a small bag of M&Ms (prebagged on purpose by the teacher).
They will divide their M&M into groups according to color.
Students will figure out what fraction of the whole bag that color is
For example: There are 24 M&Ms in all. 8 are red, so red is 8/24 of the whole
Students are most likely to tell us that red is 1/3 of the bag.
After figuring out the fractions of each color, they will draw them out with

crayons, label them, and eat their fractions.

b. Developing
Expected time: 30 minutes
After eating their fractions, the students will be put into partners. Each pair
will recieve pattern blocks. They will be instructed to show what the teacher
asks of them:
How many green triangles are in a blue rhombus?
How many green triangles are in a yellow hexagon?
How many blue rhombuses are in a yellow hexagon?
How many red trapezoids are in a yellow hexagon?
How many green triangles are in a red trapezoid?
Between these questions we will ask thought provoking questions: "What
does a green triangle represent in a blue rhombus?" The answer we are
looking for is "One green triangle represents one out of two (1/2)" etc.
After doing this partner/whole class discussion. The students will have 15
minutes to work individually on the Candy Bar Worksheet (attached) and turn
it in to the teacher.
c. Concluding (expected time, e.g., 8 minutes)
The students will write a short journal entry about what they've learned
about fractions.

How will you adapt or extend the lesson for students at different levels?
For students at lower levels, we will use Tier 1 or 2 worksheets which are
easier than the Tier 3 worksheet given. The Tier 1 worksheet will be given to
those who need more assistance with fractions. The number of parts (of the
candy bar) match the denominator of the fraction we want them to show,
which is easier for students at a lower level. For Tier 2, students will not need
to give another equivalent fraction for the 2nd page (shaded region).
Students are focusing on finding the correct answer instead of multiple
What accommodations are planned for students with special needs?
Students with special needs will be able to use manipulatives while
completing the worksheet.
Group/Partner work.