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METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR INSTALLATION

OF EARTHING/GROUNDING SYSTEM & LIGHTNING


PROTECTION SYSTEM
1. INTRODUCTION & SCOPE OF WORKS :
This Method statement details the procedure of installation & testing of
Earthing/Grounding Systems and Lightning Protection Systems.
The Grounding System / Lightning Protection System are designed to
ensure the complete safety of both persons and equipment throughout
the Plant- for its buildings covered under the project Scope:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Substation Building 84-2


Substation building *4-3 & Finishing offices.
Remote Instruments Building
Rubber4 Finishing Building.
4 Nos. Operators Shelters.
As BS EN/IEC 62305 Lightning protection standard, the required earth
resistance for lightning protection System is below 10

2.
o
o
o

REFERENCES:
Specification :
Shop drawings :
Vendors recommendations/Guide lines Erico/Eritech Caldweld
Exothermic Welding Manual
o CADWELD Lightning Protection Connections Catalog Ref -Catalog A1E
o CADWELD Welded Electrical Connections
o CADWELD Welded Electrical Connections, Quick Reference Product
Guide, Pocket Catalog Ref. E782C-NAEN
3. SEQUENCE OF WORKS:
3.1 Material and Equipment:
1)
Copper earth rods
2)
Bare copper cable
3)
Cable clamp for earth rod and copper cable
4)
Copper tape and clips
5)
PVC pipe
6)
Concrete grounding pit.
7)
Cable lugs
8)
Air terminal
9)
Earth bar with disconnecting link
10)
Exothermic Welding Set
11)
Earth Tester

12)

Field Tester

3.2 Type of connection:


o Connect Bare Copper Conductor to Bare Copper Conductor (Detail-1)
o Connect Earth Rod to Bare Copper Conductor Wire (Detail-1).
o Connect rebar to bare copper wire (Detail-2).
o Connect copper bar to bar copper wire (Detail-3).
o Connect cable trays/ladders and pipes to grounding system (Detail of
electric continuity for cable tray shall be provided in method statement
for trays/ladders installation.).
3.3 Procedure of installation of Grounding System:
3.3.1 General & Safety Precautions
A. Only ERICO manufactured equipment and materials should be used to make
CADWELD connections.
B. Do not connect items except as detailed in instruction sheets. Failure to
comply with these instructions may result in improper and unsafe connections,
damage to items being connected, bodily injury and property damage.
C. Do not use worn or broken equipment which could cause leakage.
D. Do not alter equipment or material without ERICO authorization.
E. When using CADWELD do not use welding material package if damaged or
not fully intact.
F. When using CADWELD PLUS, do not tamper with or disassemble the welding
material unit.
G. Make connections in conformance with CADWELD instructions and all
governing codes.
i.

Personnel should be properly trained in the use of this product


and must wear safety glasses and gloves. Avoid contact with hot
materials.
ii.
Advise nearby personnel of welding operations in the area.
iii.
Remove or protect fire hazards in the immediate area.
iv.
Provide adequate ventilation to the work area.
v.
Do not smoke when handling starting material.
vi.
Avoid direct eye contact with flash of light from ignition of
starting material.
H. Welding material is an exothermic mixture and reacts to produce hot molten
material with temperatures in excess of 1400C (2500F) and a localized
release of smoke. These materials are not explosive. Ignition temperatures are
in excess of 900C (1650F) for welding material.
I. Adhering to the CADWELD welding procedures will minimize risk of burns and
fire caused by hot molten material spillage. In case of fire, use of water or CO2
will aid in control of burning containers. Large quantities of water will aid in
controlling a fire should the exothermic materials become involved. Water
should be applied from a distance.
J.

i. Make sure there is proper mold fit and assembly of equipment.


ii. Avoid moisture and contaminants in mold and materials being
welded. Contact between hot molten metal and moisture or
contaminants may result in spewing of hot material.
iii. Base material thickness must be sufficient for the size and type of
connection being made to prevent melt-through and leakage of hot
molten metal.
K. Applications or conditions may exist which require special considerations. The
following are examples, but are not intended to be a complete listing of
applications/conditions.

3.3.2 Installation of Exothermic Welding System:


The mould crucible with suitable size shall be used for exothermic
welding.
a) The following procedures shall be followed before conduct the
exothermic welding.
i)
Ensure that the mould is always clean and free of moisture.
ii)
Ensure that the tap hole is always in well-defined condition.
iii)
Ensure that the correctness of connection selector.
iv)
Ensure that the correctness of welding powder
b) Procedure to conduct the exothermic connections.
i) Fix the connection selector to the handle clamp as per the require sizes
of conductor to be welded.
ii)
Place the conductor in the mould; ensure that connection selector is
used in accordance to the conductor to be welded.
iii)
Close the handle clamp and lock in the lock position, drop the metal
retaining disc into the bottom of the mould crucible. Ensure that the
metal retaining disc is correctly, completely seated and cover up the tap
hole.
iv)
Deposit the welding power into the crucible and spread a little amount
on top of the mould edge as a role of starting power.
v)
Close the mould lips, and ignite with the flint gun.
vi)
Open the mould after a few seconds where the reaction is completed or
the metal has been solidified.
vii) Do not touch the welding surface after the reaction.
viii) Clean up the mould for the next joint.
3.3.3 Earthing Cable Installation:
a)
The earthing conductor, bare copper cable shall be installed as per
approved shop drawing.
b)
Ensure that the copper cable is straight (not wavy) so that it fits
nicely into the exothermic mould prior to the exothermic welding.
c)
Ensure that the copper cable is free of dirt / oil and dry keeping.
3.3.4 Earth Rod Installation:
o The copper rod is to be driven into the ground by means hammer drill /
sledge hammer.

o Make sure the rods are coupled with coupling and driving studs before
hammering as it will protect the thread or the head of the rods from
damaged.
o After the desired depth has achieved, the earthing conductor will be
joint to the earth bar / rod clamp of the earth pit and fastened it
securely.
o Resistivity check should be taken and if the resistivity is not achieved to
required value then it is advisable to drive it deeper.
o The rod shall be driven as deep as possible and does not force to drive it
as it may break the coupler and loose the rod.
o The number of rods driven into the ground will be dependable to the soil
resistivity on that particular area and as per approved shop drawing.
3.3.5 Earth Pit:
a) Install the inspection pit and ensure that it is flush with the external
ground / road level.
b) Ensure that the earth pit is free from dirt and rubbish.
3.4 Safety control method:
a) General:
The safety procedure generally has to be applied for all Engineers,
Supervisors, and Workers as following bellow:
o Make sure that all personal protection equipment (PPE) be provided on
site before starting work such as helmet, safety boot, safety glasses,
glove, mask etc.
o Make sure that PPE must be wear in the correctly way when working.
o Tools and equipment shall be inspected by authorized person before
carried out the work.
o Barricades and sign posts for warning shall be provided on site.
o Fire extinguishers shall be provided on site wherever exothermic welding
works and always ready to use.
b) Working exothermic welding:
o Ensure worker wear safety glasses, gloves, helmet etc.
o Fire extinguisher shall be always ready at work place
c) Working at height:
o Ensure every worker wear safety harness when working at more than 2
m height.
o Safety protected handrail on top layer of scaffolding shall be provided.
o Ensure A ladders are in good condition/quality.
3.5 Material storage:

a) Storage of exothermic welding materials should be in a clean, dry, NO


SMOKING area and should be restricted to access by authorized
personnel only.
b) Storage condition shall be such that exothermic welding materials are
not subject to rough handling or physical damage. Storage shall be in
cool place and in condition no humidity and moisture.
c) All boxes or container of material should be stored in accordance with
container (carton) or label marking This Side Up
d) These materials must be stored under shelter to protect the boxes from
the elements and raised to protect them from dampness or wet surface.

3.6 Execution work for Earthing of Lightning Protection:


o Drive the earth rods into the earth by hammer.
o Excavate a trench (D x W: 800:500) to link earth rods together by soft
drawn bare copper wire.
o Link earth rods to Grounding network.
o Backfilling the trench.
o Testing and record earthing resistant value.
o Joints shall be protected against rust by cold galvanized paint.
o Contact surfaces shall be flush prior to jointing.
o Bolt connections of copper wire with hot dip galvanized steel bar and
copper wire with copper bar should reach mechanical effect and
electrical effect.
o During the driving of the rods into the earth, it is better to measure
value of the resistance to earth in order to quantity of necessary
grounding rod.
3.7 Handling of chemicals to reduce soil resistivity:
o Prepare wiring trench
o Ensure no garbage on the trench
o Put the chemicals along the track covers a thick layer of copper 3mm
o Backfilling the trench.
3.8 Procedure of installation of Lightning Protection system:
o The installation of the lightning arresters will be closely coordinated with
Apron Floodlight and roofing works.
o The Grounding system for Lightning protection system must be
established prior to install Lightning protection system (refer to item 4.4
for Grounding installation).
o The down-conductor shall not be isolated nor enclosed in PVC pipe and
placed internal in the apron lighting towers.
o The down conductor should be fixed with a test joint in a position that is
convenient for the tests but shall not be reached by irresponsible
persons.

o The down conductor 95mm2 bare copper wires shall be connected


directly to the mounting base of the lightning arrester by terminal lug.
.
o The lightning arrester should be fitted into the mounting base before
lifting them and connecting to the Apron Floodlight Mast.
o After completing the installation of Lightning arrester into the Apron
Floodlight Mast, it shall ensure that the down conductor connecting
immediately to the mounting base and the grounding system.
4. STANDARD PROCEDURES:
o Down conductor for air terminal (ESE type) shall be connected to
earthing rods to ensure direct connection to earth of any stroke current
before interconnection with the general Grounding System.
o All equipment connected to power supply must be grounded.
o All metal parts, structural steel, cable trays, piping, reinforced concrete
must be grounded.
o All joints shall be according to shop drawing.
o Safety control:
- To secure an exit entrance whenever it has contingencies.
- Keep water out where is necessary.
- To keep workplace and amenities is always clean.
- Barricade and sign post are available around the site work.
- To pay attention to equipment/ tools as below:
+ Drill machine: insulation and earthing terminal
+ Cylinders: Pressure Gauge Set shall be inspected by authorities
+ Cutting machine: insulation and earthing terminal
5. INSPECTION AND TESTING PROCEDURES:
5.1 Inspection:
o The Grounding and Lightning Protection System shall be given a visual
inspection by the Engineer during the installation.
o The Contractor should not allow any backfilling of trenches or pits where
these systems are installed before inspection by the Engineer and the
appropriate documents are signed.
o Material delivered shall be inspected under the Engineers supervisor
about size, quality and quantity.
o After performing, works shall be inspected. Inspection of lightning
should be included two steps: check underground system and general.
For equipment fitted inside structural work or fix underground shall be
checked and inspect before backfilling.
o Check Grounding and Lightning Protection.
o Shop-drawing approved.
o Material approved.
o Test method of visual:

Check quality of grounding conductor and grounding electrode


delivered on site.
Check installation (connection, routing, and quantity) according to
approved shop drawings.
Check dimension, level and finishing of foundation of air terminal.
Check installation according to approved shop drawings and
manufacturers recommendation.
Functional Test: As per design and manufacturers recommendation.
Grounding Resistance Value shall be measured.

5.2 Field test:


5.2.1 General:
o Grounding rods shall be tested for ground resistance value before any
wire is connected. The test shall be performed in normal dry weather,
not less than 48 hours after rainfall.
o Ground resistance shall also be measured for each piece of equipment
to the ground electrode. Testing shall be with a portable ground testing
megger for each ground or group of grounds. The instrument shall be
equipped with ammeter reading directly in Ohms or fractions thereof to
indicate the ground value of the electrode under test.
o All test equipment including test meter shall be provided and one copy
of the ground megger manufacturers directions, including the method
shall be provided.
o The minimum resistance based on the allowable capacity of the
conductor shall be as indicated in the following table:
Resistance tests table
Amperes/

Ohms

25 through 50

250000

51 through 100

100000

101 through 200

50000

201 through 400

25000

401 through 800

12000

Over 800

5000

o The earth resistance shall be measured either soil resistivity testing or


earth resistance testing method.
5.2.2 Soil resistivity testing (based on Wenner method:
o Equipment and procedure for soil resistivity :

The test instrument is used Mega Digital Earth Tester. The instrument is
connected to the electrodes as detail below:

Four electrodes are driven into the ground, in a straight line with equal
spacing between them. Let the spacing be called 'a'.
The soil resistivity can then be calculated using the equation:
= 2 x 3.14 x a x R
Where
= soil resistivity (ohm meters)
a = electrode spacing (meters)
R = measured resistance (ohms)
-

Test Procedure:
Confirm the proposed test locations.
Insert four electrodes into the ground in a straight line a= 2 meters
spacing. Connect instrument to the electrodes as shown above.
Perform test and record measured resistance in Soil Resistivity Test
Form.
Shift electrodes to next spacing a= 4 meters and repeat test.
Repeat tests a= 6 meters, 8 meters and 10 meters electrode spacing.
Recorded measurements will be analyzed and presented in Soil
Resistivity Test Report.

6. STATUTE OF COMPLETION:
After finishing the installation works of Grounding and Lightning
Protection System, inspection shall be carried out and approved by
relative parties such as: Consultant, Main contractor. We can ask the
Experiment Center for inspection the whole system and then issue the
Certificate Completion.