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CHARACTERISTICS OF

NATURAL AND
MANUFACTURED

Created by Madison Card

NATURAL FIBERS

Cashm
ere

Cotton

Silk

Wool

Mohair

MANUFACTURED FIBERS

Acrylic

Metalli
c

Nylon

Polyest
er

Spand
ex

NATURAL FIBERS:
CASHMERE
Obtained from Cashmere goats and other goats.
There are 5 steps in processing cashmere: Collection,
Sorting/Scouring, Dehairing, Spinning, Weaving/Knitting
Main uses: Clothing made for warmth, blankets, and furnishings.
Advantages: The protein core will absorb up to 30% of its weight
in moisture without becoming damp or clammy. The scales are
hard, reducing wear on the fibers, and repel liquid water. Plus, wool
is comfortable on the skin and very insulating.
Disadvantages: Costly, becoming less common, may provide too
much warmth, requires a lot of maintenance, moths seize
cashmere.

NATURAL FIBERS: COTTON


Obtained from the cotton plant.
Processing: Cotton is harvested, stored, cleaned/de-seeded, USDA
evaluation, stored again until sold to a mill.
At the mill cotton is either spun or weaved.
Main uses: Virtually all clothing, home furnishings, medical
supplies, industrial thread, etc.
Advantages: Absorbent, breathes easily, doesnt stain easily,
resists static, soft feel, can withstand high heat, and inexpensive.
Disadvantages: not wrinkle resistant, fades in sunlight, dires
slowly, prone to shrinking and stetching.

NATURAL FIBER: SILK


Silk is obtained from the silkworm.
The process consists of: sorting and softening the cocoons, reeling
the filament, packaging the skeins, forming silk yarn, degumming
thrown yarn, and finishing silk fabrics.
Main uses: Lingerie, lace, thread, scarves, furnishings, and ribbons
Advantages: hypoallergenic, good in all climates, absorbs and
dries quickly, resists odors, and takes color well.
Disadvantages: Delicate, costly, non-organic, high maintenance

NATURAL FIBER: WOOL


Obtained from various sheep, goats, rabbits, and camels.
The manufacturing process consists of: shearing, grading/sorting,
cleaning/scouring, carding, spinning, weaving, and finishing.
Main uses: yarn, clothing, insulation, stuffing for furniture.
Advantages: holds moisture without feeling wet, resilient,
fire/dirt/static resistant, thermal insulator.
Disadvantages: uncomfortable, pill easily, heat/moisture can
cause wool to felt.

NATURAL FIBER: MOHAIR


Obtained from the Angora goat.
The process of creating mohair fabric includes: shaving the goat,
scouring, dyeing, carding, combing, drawing, spinning, weaving,
and finishing.
Main uses: Clothing, home furnishings
Advantages: Wrinkle resistant, high affinity for dye, moisture
resistant, and flame retardant.
Disadvantages: skin irritant and high maintenance .

SYNTHETIC FIBER: ACRYLIC


Made from polymer
Process of production consists of : dissolving polymer and spinning
it
Main uses: can mimic cotton
Advantages: better quality for the money, stain/wrinkle resistant,
and recovers back to shape well.
Disadvantages: they dont breathe and they may be itchy.

SYNTHETIC FIBER: METALLIC


Made from metal and plastic
2 Processes:
1. Laminating process: seals a layer of aluminum between 2
layers of acetate or polyester film. Then they are cut and colored
before lamination.
2. Metalizing process: heating the metal until itvaporizesthen
depositing it at a high pressure onto the polyester film.
Main uses: upholstery, needle point/weaving
Advantages: strong material
Disadvantages: skin discomfort

SYNTHETIC FIBER: NYLON


Obtained completely from chemicals.
Process of production includes: combining molecules with an acid
(COOH) group on each end are reacted with two chemicals that
contain amine (NH2) groups on each end. This process
createsnylon 6,6, made of hexamethylene diamine with six carbon
atoms and adipic acid.
Main uses: fishing net, rope, cords, fabric, and elastic hosiery.
Advantages: strong, durable, elastic, dries quickly, and wrinkle/soil
resistant.
Disadvantages: heat sensitive, clingy

SYNTHETIC FIBER:
POLYESTER
Obtained from: coal or petroleum
Process of production:reacting ethylene glycol with either
terephthalic acid or its methyl ester in the presence of an antimony
catalyst. The reaction is carried out at high temperature and
vacuum to achieve the high molecular weights need to form useful
fibers. Then PET ismelt spun.
Main uses: clothing, home furnishings
Advantages: strong, quick drying, wrinkle resistant, and easily
washed.
Disadvantages: pills easily and static buildup

SYNTHETIC FIBER: SPANDEX


Made from a polyester-polyurethane copolymer
Process: produce pre polymer, add diamine, spin, and finish.
Main uses: swim wear, dancewear, and exercise wear.
Advantages: ability to stretch, resistant to
lotions/oils/sun/perspiration, durable, soft/light weight
Disadvantages: easily damaged by chlorine bleach and
nonabsorbent.