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TheAusVELS

Curriculum

Domain

English,TheHumanitiesHistory

Level

Level7,Level8,Level9andLevel10

Dated

Monday,16March2015

Exceptinglogos,trademarksorotherthirdpartycontentasindicated,theF10AusVELSCurriculumcontentinthisdocument
islicensedCreativeCommonsAttributionNonCommercialShareAlike(3.0Australia).

AusVELSAustralianCurriculumcontent(identifiedwithAC),derivesfromtheAustralianCurriculumAssessmentand
ReportingAuthority(ACARA).
AusVELS andthe

logoareregisteredtrademarksoftheVictorianCurriculumandAssessmentAuthority.

English

TableofContents
Overview

RationaleandAims

Contentstructure

EnglishacrossFoundationtoLevel10

Achievementstandards

Diversityoflearners

Crosscurriculumpriorities

11

Scope&Sequence

12

CurriculumF10

13

Level7

13

Level8

20

Level9

27

Level10

35

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English

Rationale
ThestudyofEnglishiscentraltothelearninganddevelopmentofallyoungAustralians.Ithelpscreateconfident
communicators,imaginativethinkersandinformedcitizens.ItisthroughthestudyofEnglishthatindividualslearntoanalyse,
understand,communicatewithandbuildrelationshipswithothersandwiththeworldaroundthem.ThestudyofEnglish
helpsyoungpeopledeveloptheknowledgeandskillsneededforeducation,trainingandtheworkplace.Ithelpsthem
becomeethical,thoughtful,informedandactivemembersofsociety.InthislightitisclearthatAusVELSEnglishplaysan
importantpartindevelopingtheunderstanding,attitudesandcapabilitiesofthosewhowilltakeresponsibilityforAustralias
future.
AlthoughAustraliaisalinguisticallyandculturallydiversecountry,participationinmanyaspectsofAustralianlifedependson
effectivecommunicationinStandardAustralianEnglish.Inaddition,proficiencyinEnglishisinvaluableglobally.AusVELS
Englishcontributesbothtonationbuildingandtointernationalisation.
AusVELSEnglishalsohelpsstudentstoengageimaginativelyandcriticallywithliteraturetoexpandthescopeoftheir
experience.AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeopleshavecontributedtoAustraliansocietyandtoitscontemporary
literatureanditsliteraryheritagethroughtheirdistinctivewaysofrepresentingandcommunicatingknowledge,traditionsand
experience.AusVELSEnglishvalues,respectsandexploresthiscontribution.ItalsoemphasisesAustraliaslinkstoAsia.

Aims
AusVELSEnglishaimstoensurethatstudents:
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learntolistento,read,view,speak,write,createandreflectonincreasinglycomplexandsophisticatedspoken,written
andmultimodaltextsacrossagrowingrangeofcontextswithaccuracy,fluencyandpurpose

appreciate,enjoyandusetheEnglishlanguageinallitsvariationsanddevelopasenseofitsrichnessandpowerto
evokefeelings,conveyinformation,formideas,facilitateinteractionwithothers,entertain,persuadeandargue

understandhowStandardAustralianEnglishworksinitsspokenandwrittenformsandincombinationwithnon
linguisticformsofcommunicationtocreatemeaning

developinterestandskillsininquiringintotheaestheticaspectsoftexts,anddevelopaninformedappreciationof
literature.

ContentStructure
Languagemodes
TheAusVELSCurriculum:EnglishFoundationtoLevel10(whichincludesLevelsAtoDforStudentswithDisabilities)is
organisedintoReadingandviewing,Writing,andSpeakingandlistening.Thelanguagemodesareinterrelatedandthe
learningofoneoftensupportsandextendslearningoftheothers.
Contentdescriptionsandachievementstandardsareviewedbylanguagemodes.Eachcontentdescriptionhasbeenplaced
inthemodeinwhichamajorfocusofitslearningoccurs.
Classroomcontextsthataddressparticularcontentdescriptionswillnecessarilydrawfrommorethanoneofthese
processesinordertosupportstudentseffectivelearning.Forexample,studentswilllearnnewvocabularythroughlistening
andreadingandapplytheirknowledgeandunderstandingintheirspeakingandwritingaswellasintheircomprehensionof
bothspokenandwrittentexts.

Strandsandsubstrands

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English
Contentdescriptionsineachlanguagemodearealsogroupedintostrandsandsubstrandsthat,acrossthelevels,present
asequenceofdevelopmentofknowledge,understandingandskills.Thethreestrands,Language,LiteratureandLiteracy,
areinterrelatedandsupportstudents'growingunderstandinganduseofStandardAustralianEnglish(English).Togetherthe
threestrandsfocusondevelopingstudentsknowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking
andwriting.
EachstrandcontributestothestudyofEnglishitsowndistinctivegoals,bodyofknowledge,historyofideasandinterests,
andeachrelatestomaterialworthstudyinginitsownright.Teaching,learningandassessmentprogramsshouldbalance
andintegratethethreestrandsinordertosupportthedevelopmentofknowledge,understandingandskills.Thekeyfocal
pointforaunitofworkoralearningactivitymayarisefromanyoneofthestrands,buttheintentionisthatunitsandactivities
drawonallthreestrandsinwaysthatareintegratedandcleartolearners.
Thestrandsandsubstrandsare:

Language*

Literature

Literacy

Languagevariationandchange

Literatureandcontext

Textsincontext

Languageforinteraction

Respondingtoliterature

Interactingwithothers

Textstructureandorganisation

Examiningliterature

Interpreting,analysingandevaluating

Expressinganddevelopingideas

Creatingliterature

Creatingtexts

Soundandletterknowledge

*FormoreinformationontheLanguage,Literature,orLiteracystrands,pleaseseebelow.
ThescopeandsequenceforAusVELSEnglishdemonstratestherelationshipbetweenthelanguagemodes,strands,
substrandsandcontentdescriptions.

Leveldescriptions
Leveldescriptionshavethreefunctions.First,theyemphasisetheinterrelatednatureofthethreestrandsandtheexpectation
thatplanninganEnglishprogramwillinvolveintegrationofcontentfromthestrands.Second,theyprovideinformationabout
thelearningcontextsthatareappropriateateachlevelforlearningacrosstheLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracystrands.
Third,theyprovideanoverviewoftherangeoftextstobestudiedandanindicationoftheircomplexityandkeyfeatures.They
alsodescribedifferencesinthetextsthatstudentscreate.Intheearlylevels,developmentinreadingandwritingisrapidand
cleardistinctionsintextcomplexitycanbemadesodescriptionsarewrittenforeachlevelatFoundation(includingLevelsA
toDforStudentswithDisabilities),1and2.InLevels310,thetwoleveldescriptionprovidesforgreaterflexibility.

Contentdescriptions

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English
AusVELSEnglishincludescontentdescriptionsateachlevel.Thesedescribetheknowledge,understanding,skillsand
processesthatteachersareexpectedtoteachandstudentsareexpectedtolearn,butdonotprescribeapproachesto
teaching.LearninginEnglishisrecursiveandcumulative,andbuildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlier
levels.Nevertheless,thecontentdescriptionshavebeenwrittentoensurethatlearningisappropriatelyorderedandthat
unnecessaryrepetitionisavoided.However,aconceptorskillintroducedatonelevelmayberevisited,strengthenedand
extendedatlaterlevelsasneeded.

Contentelaborations
Contentelaborationsareprovidedforalllevelstoillustrateandexemplifycontentandassistteachersindevelopinga
commonunderstandingofthecontentdescriptions.Theyarenotintendedtobecomprehensivecontentpointsthatall
studentsneedtobetaught.

Texts
Textsprovidethemeansforcommunication.Theycanbewritten,spokenormultimodal,andinprintordigital/onlineforms.
Multimodaltextscombinelanguagewithothermeansofcommunicationsuchasvisualimages,soundtrackorspokenword,
asinfilmorcomputerpresentationmedia.Textsprovideimportantopportunitiesforlearningaboutaspectsofhuman
experienceandaboutaestheticvalue.Manyofthetasksthatstudentsundertakeinandoutofschoolinvolveunderstanding
andproducingimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetexts,mediatexts,everydaytextsandworkplacetexts.
Thetermliteraturereferstopastandpresenttextsacrossarangeofculturalcontextsthatarevaluedfortheirformandstyle
andarerecognisedashavingenduringorartisticvalue.Whilethenatureofwhatconstitutesliterarytextsisdynamicand
evolving,theyareseenashavingpersonal,social,culturalandaestheticvalueandpotentialforenrichingstudentsscopeof
experience.Literatureincludesabroadrangeofformssuchasnovels,poetry,shortstoriesandplaysfictionforyoungadults
andchildren,multimodaltextssuchasfilm,andavarietyofnonfiction.Literarytextsalsoincludeexcerptsfromlongertexts.
Thisenablesarangeofliterarytextstobeincludedwithinanyonelevelforclosestudyorcomparativepurposes.
Englisheducatorsusemanywaysofcategorisingtexts.ThedescriptionsoftextsusedinAusVELSEnglisharebasedon
practicalaswellasconceptualconsiderations.Thespecificdesignationofastrandlabelledliteratureisaimedat
encouragingteachersworkingatalllevelsnotonlytousetextsconventionallyunderstoodasliterary,butalsotoengage
studentsinexamining,evaluatinganddiscussingtextsinincreasinglysophisticatedandinformedliteraryways.
Theusefulnessofdistinctionsamongtypesoftextsrelateslargelytohowclearlyateachlevelthesedistinctionscanguide
theselectionofmaterialsforstudentstolistento,read,view,writeandcreate,andthekindsofpurposefulactivitiesthatcan
beorganisedaroundthesematerials.

Glossary
Aglossaryisprovidedtosupportacommonunderstandingofkeytermsinthecontentdescriptions.

Aboutthe'Language'strand:knowingabouttheEnglishlanguage

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English
IntheLanguagestrand,studentsdeveloptheirknowledgeoftheEnglishlanguageandhowitworks.Theylearnthat
changesinEnglisharerelatedtohistoricaldevelopmentsandthegeographicaldifferencesofitsusersoverthecenturies,
andthattherearemanydifferencesindialectandaccent.Theylearnhowlanguageenablespeopletointeracteffectively,to
buildandmaintainrelationshipsandtoexpressandexchangeknowledge,skills,attitudes,feelingsandopinions.They
discoverthepatternsandpurposesofEnglishusage,includingspelling,grammarandpunctuationatthelevelsoftheword,
sentenceandextendedtext,andtheystudytheconnectionsbetweentheselevels.Bydevelopingabodyofknowledgeabout
thesepatternsandtheirconnections,studentslearntocommunicateeffectivelythroughcoherent,wellstructuredsentences
andtexts.Theygainaconsistentwayofunderstandingandtalkingaboutlanguage,languageinuseandlanguagea s
system,sotheycanreflectontheirownspeakingandwritinganddiscusstheseproductivelywithothers.
TheLanguagestrandisbasedonconceptsdrawnlargelyfromhistoricalandlinguisticaccountsoftheEnglishlanguage.
Theseapproachesdrawattentiontothewaysinwhichlanguageschange,andtothedistinctionbetweenlanguageinuse
andlanguagea ssystem.Theseapproachesalsoacknowledgethatstudentsabilitytousegrammarwillexceedtheirability
toexplicitlyreflectongrammar.Youngchildren,forexample,willusecomplexsentencesbeforetheycanexplainhowthese
arestructured.Theseapproaches,indescribinglanguage,alsopayattentiontoboththestructure(syntax)andmeaning
(semantics)attheleveloftheword,thesentenceandthetext.TheAustralianCurriculum:Englishusesstandard
grammaticalterminologywithinacontextualframework,inwhichlanguagechoicesareseentovaryaccordingtothetopicsat
hand,thenatureandproximityoftherelationshipsbetweenthelanguageusers,andthemodalitiesorchannelsof
communicationavailable.ThisstrandinformstheplanningandconductofteachingandlearningactivitiesinEnglishand
providesresourcesthatconnecttokeyconceptsandskillsintheotherstrands.

Languagesubstrands
Languagevariationandchange:Studentslearnthatlanguagesanddialectsareconstantlyevolvingduetohistorical,social
andculturalchanges,demographicmovementsandtechnologicalinnovations.Theycometounderstandthatthesefactors,
alongwithnewvirtualcommunitiesandenvironments,continuetoaffectthenatureandspreadofEnglish.
Languageforinteraction:Studentslearnthatthelanguageusedbyindividualsvariesaccordingtotheirsocialsettingand
therelationshipsbetweentheparticipants.Theylearnthataccentsandstylesofspeechandidiomarepartofthecreation
andexpressionofpersonalandsocialidentities.
Textstructureandorganisation:Studentslearnhowtextsarestructuredtoachieveparticularpurposeshowlanguageis
usedtocreatetextsthatarecohesiveandcoherenthowtextsaboutmorespecialisedtopicscontainmorecomplex
languagepatternsandfeaturesandhowtheauthorguidesthereader/viewerthroughthetextthrougheffectiveuseof
resourcesatthelevelofthewholetext,theparagraphandthesentence.
Expressinganddevelopingideas:Studentslearnhow,inatext,effectiveauthorscontrolanduseanincreasingly
differentiatedrangeofclausestructures,wordsandwordgroups,aswellascombinationsofsound,image,movement,
verbalelementsandlayout.Theylearnthattheconventions,patternsandgeneralisationsthatrelatetoEnglishspelling
involvetheoriginsofwords,wordendings,GreekandLatinroots,basewordsandaffixes.
Soundandletterknowledge:StudentsdevelopknowledgeaboutthesoundsofEnglishandlearntoidentifythesoundsin
spokenwords.Theylearnthelettersofthealphabetandhowtorepresentspokenwordsbyusingcombinationsofthese
letters.

Aboutthe'Literature'strand:understanding,appreciating,respondingto,analysing
andcreatingliterature

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English
TheLiteraturestrandaimstoengagestudentsinthestudyofliterarytextsofpersonal,cultural,socialandaestheticvalue.
Thesetextsincludesomethatarerecognisedashavingenduringsocialandartisticvalueandsomethatattract
contemporaryattention.Textsarechosenbecausetheyarejudgedtohavepotentialforenrichingthelivesofstudents,
expandingthescopeoftheirexperience,andbecausetheyrepresenteffectiveandinterestingfeaturesofformandstyle.
Learningtoappreciateliterarytextsandtocreatetheirownliterarytextsenrichesstudentsunderstandingofhuman
experiencesandthecapacityforlanguagetodeepenthoseexperiences.Itbuildsstudentsknowledgeabouthowlanguage
canbeusedforaestheticends,tocreateparticularemotional,intellectualorphilosophicaleffects.Studentsinterpret,
appreciate,evaluateandcreateliterarytextssuchasshortstories,novels,poetry,prose,plays,filmandmultimodaltexts,in
spoken,printanddigital/onlineforms.Textsrecognisedashavingenduringartisticandculturalvaluearedrawnfromworld
andAustralianliterature.TheseincludetheoralnarrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,texts
fromAsia,textsfromAustraliasimmigrantculturesandtextsofthestudentschoice.
Therearemanyapproachestothestudyofliterature.InAusVELSEnglishthesourcesdrawnonmostsubstantiallyinclude:
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culturalstudies,withemphasisonthedifferentwaysinwhichliteratureissignificantineverydaylife

structuralism,withitsemphasisoncloseanalysisofliteraryworksandthekeyideasonwhichtheyarebasedfor
example,thedetailedstylisticstudyofdifferingstylesofliterarywork

comparativism,withitsemphasisoncomparisonsofworksofliteraturefromdifferentlanguage,ethnicandcultural
backgrounds

historicism,withitsemphasisonexploringtherelationshipsbetweenhistorical,culturalandliterarytraditions.

TheLiteraturestrandalsogivesstudentstheopportunitytostudytheprocessesbywhichcertainliteraryworksbecome
prizedandperennial,thevaluingprocessitself,andwhyitisthatmostcultureshaveworkstheycherish.Theapproachto
learninginthisstrandisnottopresentstudentswithanEnglishliterarycanonthatisastaticentity,butrathertoinvitetheir
curiosityabout,anddevelopanincreasinglyspecialisedinquiryinto,thehistorical,culturalandaestheticprocessesbywhich
workscometoberegardedasvaluedandcherished.

Literaturesubstrands
Literatureandcontext:Studentslearnhowideasandviewpointsaboutevents,issuesandcharactersthatareexpressedby
authorsintextsaredrawnfromandshapedbydifferenthistorical,socialandculturalcontexts.
Respondingtoliterature:Studentslearntoidentifypersonalideas,experiencesandopinionsaboutliterarytextsand
discussthemwithothers.Theylearnhowtorecogniseareasofagreementanddifference,andhowtodevelopandrefine
theirinterpretationsthroughdiscussionandargument.
Examiningliterature:Studentslearnhowtoexplainandanalysethewaysinwhichstories,characters,settingsand
experiencesarereflectedinparticularliterarygenres,andhowtodiscusstheappealofthesegenres.Theylearnhowto
compareandappraisethewaysauthorsuselanguageandliterarytechniquesanddevicestoinfluencereaders.Theyalso
learntounderstand,interpret,discussandevaluatehowcertainstylisticchoicescancreatemultiplelayersofinterpretation
andeffect.
Creatingliterature:Studentslearnhowtousepersonalknowledgeandliterarytextsasstartingpointstocreateimaginative
writingindifferentformsandgenresandforparticularaudiences.Usingprint,digitalandonlinemedia,studentsdevelop
skillsthatallowthemtoconveymeaning,addresssignificantissuesandheightenengagementandimpact.

Aboutthe'Literacy'strand:expandingtherepertoireofEnglishusage

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English
TheLiteracystrandaimstodevelopstudentsabilitytointerpretandcreatetextswithappropriateness,accuracy,confidence,
fluencyandefficacyforlearninginandoutofschool,andforparticipatinginAustralianlifemoregenerally.Textschosen
includemediatexts,everydaytextsandworkplacetextsfromincreasinglycomplexandunfamiliarsettings,rangingfromthe
everydaylanguageofpersonalexperiencetomoreabstract,specialisedandtechnicallanguage,includingthelanguageof
schoolingandacademicstudy.Studentslearntoadaptlanguagetomeetthedemandsofmoregeneralormorespecialised
purposes,audiencesandcontexts.Theylearnaboutthedifferentwaysinwhichknowledgeandopinionarerepresentedand
developedintexts,andabouthowmoreorlessabstractionandcomplexitycanbeshownthroughlanguageandthrough
multimodalrepresentations.Thismeansthatprintanddigitalcontextsareincluded,andthatlistening,viewing,reading,
speaking,writingandcreatingarealldevelopedsystematicallyandconcurrently.
TheLiteracystrandtakesaccountofapproachestoliteracylearningthatarebasedonthedevelopmentofskills,socialand
psychologicalgrowth,andcriticalandculturalanalysis.Theseapproachesholdthatthetechnical,intellectualandcultural
resourcesrelatedtocompetenceinliteracyhavedevelopedtoservethebigandsmallpractical,everydaycommunication
purposesassociatedwithlivingandparticipatinginsocietiessuchascontemporaryAustralia.Thesetechnical,intellectual
andculturalresourcesinclude:
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fluencyinthesoundlettercorrespondencesofEnglish

anexpandingreading,writingandspeakingvocabularyandagraspofgrammaticalandtextualpatternssufficientto
understandandlearnfromtextsencounteredinandoutofschool,andtocreateeffectiveandinnovativetexts

fluencyandinnovationinreading,viewingandcreatingtextsindifferentsettings

theskillanddispositionneededtoanalyseandunderstandthephilosophical,moral,politicalandaestheticbaseson
whichmanytextsarebuilt

aninterestinexpandingtherangeofmaterialslistenedto,viewedandread,andinexperimentingwithinnovativeways
ofexpressingincreasinglysubtleandcomplexideasthroughtexts.

Literacysubstrands
Textsincontext:Studentslearnthattextsfromdifferentculturesorhistoricalperiodsmayrevealdifferentpatternsinhow
theygoaboutnarrating,informingandpersuading.
Interactingwithothers:Studentslearnhowindividualsandgroupsuselanguagepatternstoexpressideasandkey
conceptstodevelopanddefendarguments.Theylearnhowtopromoteapointofviewbydesigning,rehearsingand
deliveringspokenandwrittenpresentationsandbyappropriatelyselectingandsequencinglinguisticandmultimodal
elements.
Interpreting,analysing,evaluating:Studentslearntocomprehendwhattheyreadandviewbyapplyinggrowingcontextual,
semantic,grammaticalandphonicknowledge.Theydevelopmoresophisticatedprocessesforinterpreting,analysing,
evaluatingandcritiquingideas,informationandissuesfromavarietyofsources.Theyexplorethewaysconventionsand
structuresareusedinwritten,digital,multimediaandcinematictextstoentertain,informandpersuadeaudiences,andthey
usetheirgrowingknowledgeoftextualfeaturestoexplainhowtextsmakeanimpactondifferentaudiences.
Creatingtexts:Studentsapplyknowledgetheyhavedevelopedinotherstrandsandsubstrandstocreatewithclarity,
authorityandnoveltyarangeofspoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsthatentertain,informandpersuadeaudiences.Theydo
sobystrategicallyselectingkeyaspectsofatopicaswellaslanguage,visualandaudiofeatures.Theylearnhowtoeditfor
enhancedmeaningandeffectbyrefiningideas,reorderingsentences,addingorsubstitutingwordsforclarity,andremoving
repetition.Theydevelopandconsolidateahandwritingstylethatislegible,fluentandautomatic,andthatsupportssustained
writing.Theylearntousearangeofsoftwareprogramsincludingwordprocessingsoftware,selectingpurposefullyfroma
rangeoffunctionstocommunicateandcreateclear,effective,informativeandinnovativetexts.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English

EnglishacrossFoundationtoLevel10
TheAusVELScurriculumisdescribedbylevels.Thisdocumentprovidesadviceonthenatureoflearners,byleveland
ageandtherelevantcurriculum:
l

FoundationtoLevel2:typicallystudentsfrom5to8yearsofage

Levels36:typicallystudentsfrom8to12yearsofage

Levels710:typicallystudentsfrom12to16yearsofage.

TheTowardsFoundationLevelAusVELSLevelsAtoD(StudentswithDisabilities)focussesonprogressingstudentsfrom
apreintentionaltointentionalstate,andarenotassociatedwithanysetageoryearlevelthatlinkschronologicalageto
cognitiveprogress.

FoundationtoLevel2
Studentsbringwiththemtoschoolawiderangeofexperienceswithlanguageandtexts.Theseexperiencesareincludedin
thecurriculumasvalidwaysofcommunicatingandasrichresourcesforfurtherlearningaboutlanguage,literatureand
literacy.FromFoundationtoLevel2,studentsengagewithpurposefullistening,reading,viewing,speakingandwriting
activitiesfordifferentpurposesandcontexts.
Thecurriculumintheselevelsaimstoextendtheabilitiesofstudentspriortoschoollearningandtoprovidethefoundation
neededforcontinuedlearning.ThestudyofEnglishfromFoundationtoLevel2developsstudentsskillsanddispositionto
expandtheirknowledgeoflanguageaswellasstrategiestoassistthatgrowth.Itaimstodothisthroughpleasurableand
variedexperiencesofliteratureandthroughthebeginningsofarepertoireofactivitiesinvolvinglistening,viewing,reading,
speakingandwriting.

Levels36
Studentspractise,consolidateandextendwhattheyhavelearned.Theydevelopanincreasinglysophisticatedunderstanding
ofgrammarandlanguage,andareincreasinglyabletoarticulatethisknowledge.Gradually,morecomplexpunctuation,
clauseandsentencestructures,andtextualpurposesandpatternsareintroduced.Thisdeeperunderstandingincludes
moreexplicitmetalanguage,asstudentslearntoclassifywords,sentencestructuresandtexts.Toconsolidatebothlearning
toreadandwriteandreadingandwritingtolearn,studentsexplorethelanguageofdifferenttypesoftexts,includingvisual
texts,advertising,digital/onlineandmediatexts.

Levels710
Studentscontinuetopractise,consolidateandextendwhattheyhavelearnedfrompreviouslevels.Theyalsoextendtheir
understandingofhowlanguageworks,andlearntotransferthisknowledgetodifferentcontexts.Toachievethis,students
developanunderstandingoftherequirementsofdifferenttypesoftextstheyareintroducedtoincreasinglysophisticated
analysesofvariouskindsofliterary,popularculture,andeverydaytexts,andtheyaregivenopportunitiestoengagewiththe
technicalaspectsoftexts,includingthoseoftheirownchoosingandtoexplainwhytheymadethatchoice.
Thenotionofvaluingcertaintextsasliteratureisintroduced.Studentslearnhowsuchtextscanbediscussedandanalysed
inrelationtothemes,ideasandhistoricalandculturalcontexts.
Studentsengagewithavarietyofgenresandmodes.Theyreenact,representanddescribetextsinordertodisplaytheir
understandingofnarrative,theme,purpose,contextandargumentandtodefendtheirideasinwrittenandoralmodes.
Studentsaregivenfurtheropportunitiestocreateincreasinglysophisticatedandmultimodaltextsingroupsandindividually.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English
TheAusVELSEnglishScopeandSequencechartisavailablefromtheVCAAwebsite.

Achievementstandards
Achievementstandardsindicatethequalityoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallydemonstratebyaparticularpointin
theirschooling.Theydescribethequalityoflearning(theextentofknowledge,thedepthofunderstandingandthe
sophisticationofskills)thatwouldindicatethestudentiswellplacedtocommencethelearningrequiredatthenextlevelof
achievement.
Thesequenceofachievementstandardsacrossthelevelsdescribesprogressinthelearningarea.Thissequenceprovides
teacherswithaframeworkofgrowthanddevelopmentinthelearningarea.
Studentworksamplesplayakeyroleincommunicatingexpectationsdescribedintheachievementstandards.Eachwork
sampleincludestherelevantassessmenttask,thestudentsresponse,andannotationsidentifyingthequalityoflearning
evidentinthestudentsresponseinrelationtorelevantpartsoftheachievementstandard.Together,thedescriptionofthe
achievementstandardandtheaccompanyingsetofannotatedworksampleshelpteacherstomakejudgmentsabout
whetherstudentshaveachievedthestandard.

DiversityofLearners
TheAusVELScurriculumhasbeendevelopedtoensurethatcurriculumcontentandachievementstandardsestablishhigh
expectationsforallstudents.Everystudentisentitledtoenrichinglearningexperiencesacrossallareasofthecurriculum.
StudentsinAustralianclassroomshavemultiple,diverseandchangingneedsthatareshapedbyindividuallearning
historiesandabilitiesaswellasculturallanguagebackgroundsandsocioeconomicfactors.

StudentswithDisabilities
TheobjectivesofAusVELSarethesameforallstudents.Thecurriculumoffersflexibilityforteacherstotailortheirteachingin
waysthatproviderigorous,relevantandengaginglearningandassessmentopportunitiesforstudentswithdisabilities.
Moststudentswithdisabilitiescanengagewiththecurriculumprovidedthenecessaryadjustmentsaremadetothe
complexityofthecurriculumcontentandtothemeansthroughwhichstudentsdemonstratetheirknowledge,skillsand
understanding.
Forsomelearners,makingadjustmentstoinstructionalprocessesandtoassessmentstrategiesenablesstudentsto
achieveeducationalstandardscommensuratewiththeirpeers.
Forotherstudents,teacherswillneedtomakeappropriateadjustmentstothecomplexityofthecurriculumcontent,focusing
instructiononcontentdifferenttothattaughttoothersintheiragegroup.Itfollowsthatadjustmentswillalsoneedtobemade
tohowthestudentsprogressismonitored,assessedandreported.
Forasmallpercentageofstudentswithdisabilities,theirlearningwillbewellbelowtheAusVELSFoundationstandards.
Mostofthesestudentshaveasignificantintellectualdisability.TowardsFoundationLevelAusVELSprovidesthiscohortof
studentswithaccesstocurriculumcontentandstandardsthatenablesstudentstomovetowardthelearningdescribedat
Foundationlevel.
ForAusVELSEnglish,Mathematics,ScienceandHistory,theTowardsFoundationLevelAusVELSmaterialsareintegrated
directlyintotheAusVELScurriculumandarereferredtoasLevelsAtoD.Thesematerialsincludelearningareaspecific
leveldescriptions,contentdescriptionsandelaborations,achievementstandardsandscopeandsequencecharts.

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

English
AboutLevelsAtoD(StudentswithDisabilities)
LevelsAtoD(StudentswithDisabilities)focusonprogressingstudentsfromapreintentionaltointentionalengagementin
learning.Theysupportstudentstodeveloptheirindependenceastheyexplore,participateandengageintheworldaround
them.Asstudentsprogressthroughtheselevels,theamountofsupportdecreasesastheyproceedtowardsbecoming
independentlearners.
LevelsAtoDarenotassociatedwithanysetageoryearlevelthatlinkschronologicalagetocognitiveprogress.Ratherthe
learningdescriptionsforlevelsAtoDarestructuredbythefollowingcontinuum:
LevelA:BeginningtoExplore
Atthislevelstudentsexperiencearangeoflearningactivitiesthatwillassistthemtoattendtoandexploretheworldaround
themwithasmuchindependenceaspossible.Experiencesaredesignedtomovestudentsfromapreintentionallevelof
respondingtoalevelwheretheresponseindicatesbeginningintention.Studentsneedhighlevelsofcoactivesupportand
focusedattentionfromtheteachertohelptheminitiateandrefinetheirresponses.Studentsdemonstratesomeawareness
andrecognitionoffamiliarpeopleandroutineactivities.
LevelB:ActiveExploration
Studentsatthislevelbecomelessreliantonhighlevelsofcoactivesupportandbecomemorereliantonverbalpromptsand
gesturestofacilitatetheirlearning.Theybegintoexploretheirworldindependentlyandengageinsimplecauseandeffect
playactivities.Studentsareabletofocusonstructuredlearningactivitiesforshortperiodsoftime.Theyrespondtofamiliar
peopleandeventsandbegintouseyes/noresponses.
LevelC:IntentionalParticipation
Studentsatthislevelarelessdependentoncoactivesupportandrespondmoreconsistentlytopromptsandsimpleclear
directionsfromtheteachertosupportthemintheirlearning.Theyaredisplayingthefirstsignsofindependenceand
becomingmorepeerfocused.Studentsparticipateinstructuredlearningactivitieswithothersandtheybegintousepictures,
photosandobjectstocommunicatepersonalinterestsandexperiences.Theystarttouseandlinksomefamiliarwordsand
imagestoconstructameaningfulcommunication.
LevelD:BuildingIndependence
Withteachersupportandcurriculumscaffolding,studentsatthislevelparticipatecooperativelyingrouplearningactivities.
Theyexpresstheirfeelings,needsandchoicesinincreasinglyappropriatewaysandcombineandsequencekeywordsand
imagestocommunicatepersonalinterestsandtorecountsignificantexperiences.Theyindicatebeginningunderstandingof
socialrulesandexpectationsandarebeginningtoreflectontheirownbehaviour.
SpecificleveldescriptionsforAusVELSEnglishareintegratedwiththeAusVELScurriculum,i.e.,see

http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/English/Curriculum/F10.
Formoreadviceinregardtocurriculumprovisionandstudentswithdisabilities,pleaseseetheAusVELSStudents

withDisabilitiesGuidelines(PDF).AdditionaladviceandsupportisalsoavailablefromtheDEECDAbilitiesBased
LearningandEducationSupport(ABLES)website.

Englishasanadditionallanguage

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ManystudentsinAustralianschoolsarelearnersofEnglishasanadditionallanguage(EAL).LearnersofEALarestudents
whosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanStandardAustralianEnglishandwhorequireadditionalsupporttoassist
themtodevelopEnglishlanguageproficiency.WhilemanyEALlearnersdowellinschool,asignificantgroupofthese
learnersleaveschoolwithoutachievingtheirpotential.
EALstudentscomefromdiversebackgroundsandmayinclude:
l

childrenwhosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanEnglish

AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderstudentswhosefirstlanguageisanIndigenouslanguage,includingtraditional
languages,creolesandrelatedvarieties,orAboriginalEnglish.

EALlearnersenterAustralianschoolsatdifferentagesandatdifferentstagesofEnglishlanguagelearningandhavevarious
educationalbackgroundsintheirfirstlanguages.Forsome,schoolistheonlyplacetheyuseEnglish.
TheaimsofAusVELSEnglishareultimatelythesameforallstudents.However,EALlearnersaresimultaneouslylearninga
newlanguageandtheknowledge,understandingandskillsoftheEnglishcurriculumthroughthatnewlanguage.They
requireadditionaltimeandsupport,alongwithinformedteachingthatexplicitlyaddressestheirlanguageneeds,and
assessmentsthattakeintoaccounttheirdevelopinglanguageproficiency.
AnationalEALdocumentisbeingproducedthatwillsupporttheAusVELScurriculum.Itwillprovideadescriptionofhow
languageproficiencydevelops,andwillbeavaluablereferenceforallteachers.ItwillallowEnglishteacherstoidentifythe
languagelevelsoftheEALlearnersintheirclassroomsandtoaddresstheirspecificlearningrequirementswhenteaching,
ensuringequityofaccesstotheEnglishlearningareaforall.
Intheinterim,adviceabouthowtousethecurriculumwithEALstudentsisavailablehere.

Crosscurriculumpriorities
TherearethreecrosscurriculumprioritiesinAusVELSEnglish:
l

AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures

AsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsia

Sustainability.

Thecrosscurriculumprioritiesareembeddedinthecurriculumandwillhaveastrongbutvaryingpresencedependingon
theirrelevancetoeachofthelearningareas.

AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunitiesarestrong,richanddiverse.AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderIdentityis
centraltothispriorityandisintrinsicallylinkedtoliving,learningAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunities,deep
knowledgetraditionsandholisticworldview.
AconceptualframeworkbasedonAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoplesuniquesenseofIdentityhasbeen
developedasastructuraltoolfortheembeddingofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultureswithin
AusVELSEnglish.ThissenseofIdentityisapproachedthroughtheinterconnectedaspectsofCountry/Place,Peopleand
Culture.Embracingtheseelementsenhancesallareasofthecurriculum.

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TheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpriorityprovidesopportunitiesforalllearnerstodeepentheirknowledgeofAustralia
byengagingwiththeworldsoldestcontinuouslivingcultures.Thisknowledgeandunderstandingwillenrichtheirabilityto
participatepositivelyintheongoingdevelopmentofAustralia.
AusVELSEnglishvaluesAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures.Itarticulatesrelevantaspectsof
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderlanguages,literaturesandliteracies.
Allstudentswilldevelopanawarenessandappreciationof,andrespectfortheliteratureofAboriginalandTorresStrait
IslanderPeoplesincludingstorytellingtraditions(oralnarrative)aswellascontemporaryliterature.Studentswillbetaughtto
developrespectfulcriticalunderstandingsofthesocial,historicalandculturalcontextsassociatedwithdifferentusesof
languageandtextualfeatures.
StudentswillbetaughtthattherearemanylanguagesanddialectsspokeninAustraliaincludingAboriginalEnglishand
Yumplatok(TorresStraitIslanderCreole)andthattheselanguagesmayhavedifferentwritingsystemsandoraltraditions.
TheselanguagescanbeusedtoenhanceenquiryandunderstandingofEnglishliteracy.

AsiaandAustralia'sengagementwithAsia
InAusVELSEnglish,thepriorityofAsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsiaprovidesrichandengagingcontextsfor
developingstudentsabilitiesinlistening,speaking,reading,viewingandwriting.
AusVELSEnglishenablesstudentstoexploreandappreciatethediverserangeoftraditionalandcontemporarytextsfrom
andaboutthepeoplesandcountriesofAsia,includingtextswrittenbyAustraliansofAsianheritage.Itenablesstudentsto
understandhowAustraliancultureandtheEnglishlanguagehavebeeninfluencedbythemanyAsianlanguagesusedin
Australianhomes,classroomsandcommunities.
Inthislearningarea,studentsdrawonknowledgeoftheAsiaregion,includingliterature,toinfluenceandenhancetheirown
creativepursuits.Theydevelopcommunicationskillsthatreflectculturalawarenessandinterculturalunderstanding.

Sustainability
AusVELSEnglish,thepriorityofsustainabilityprovidesrichandengagingcontextsfordevelopingstudentsabilitiesin
listening,speaking,reading,viewingandwriting.
AusVELSEnglishassistsstudentstodeveloptheskillsnecessarytoinvestigate,analyseandcommunicateideasand
informationrelatedtosustainability,andtoadvocate,generateandevaluateactionsforsustainablefutures.Thecontentin
thelanguage,literatureandliteracystrandsiskeytodevelopingandsharingknowledgeaboutsocial,economicand
ecologicalsystemsandworldviewsthatpromotesocialjustice.
Inthislearningarea,studentsmayinterrogatearangeoftextstoshapetheirdecisionmakinginrelationtosustainability.
Theydeveloptheunderstandingandskillsnecessarytoactresponsiblyandcreatetextsthatinformandpersuadeothersto
takeactionforsustainablefutures.

EnglishScopeandSequence
l

ScopeandSequence(AD)

ScopeandSequence(F10)

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English

Level7
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand
learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents
knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish
buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas
needed.
InLevels7and8,studentscommunicatewithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarange
offacetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginbothfamiliarandunfamiliarcontextsthat
relatetotheschoolcurriculum,localcommunity,regionalandglobalcontexts.
Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,view,interpret,evaluateandperformarangeof
spoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformand
persuade.Theseincludevarioustypesofmediatextsincludingnewspapers,magazinesanddigitaltexts,early
adolescentnovels,nonfiction,poetryanddramaticperformances.Studentsdeveloptheirunderstandingofhowtexts,
includingmediatexts,areinfluencedbycontext,purposeandaudience.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral
narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary
literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom
andaboutAsia.
LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels7and8asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof
realistic,fantasy,speculativefictionandhistoricalgenresandinvolvesomechallengingandunpredictableplot
sequencesandarangeofnonstereotypicalcharacters.Thesetextsexplorethemesofinterpersonalrelationshipsand
ethicaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informativetextspresent
technicalandcontentinformationfromvarioussourcesaboutspecialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplex
includingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesinclude
successivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,unfamiliartechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetorical
language,andinformationsupportedbyvarioustypesofgraphicspresentedinvisualform.
Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftexts,forexamplenarratives,procedures,
performances,reportsanddiscussions,andarebeginningtocreateliteraryanalysesandtransformationsoftexts.

Level7contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing
Language

Elaborations

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English
l

comparingchoicesforpointofviewinanimations,
advertisementsandotherpersuasivetexts

comparinghowdifferentadvertisementsusevisual
elementstoadvertisethesameproduct

experimentingwithdigitalstorytellingconventionsto
createpersonalreflectionsonsharedexperiences

Understandhowlanguageisusedtoevaluatetexts

defendingpointsofviewinreadingcirclediscussions

andhowevaluationsaboutatextcanbesubstantiated

respondingtopointsofviewbydevelopingand
elaboratingonothersresponses

(ACELA1782)

buildingaknowledgebaseaboutwordsofevaluation,
includingwordstoexpressemotionalresponsesto
texts,judgmentofcharactersandtheiractions,and
appreciationoftheaestheticqualitiesoftext

Understandandexplainhowthetextstructuresand

learningaboutthestructureofthebookorfilmreview
andhowitmovesfromcontextdescriptiontotext
summaryandthentoatextjudgment

Analysehowpointofviewisgeneratedinvisualtexts
bymeansofchoices,forexamplegaze,angleand
socialdistance(ACELA1764)

Investigatevocabularytypicalofextendedandmore
academictextsandtheroleofabstractnouns,
classification,descriptionandgeneralisationin
buildingspecialisedknowledgethroughlanguage
(ACELA1537)

byreferencetothetextandothersources

languagefeaturesoftextsbecomemorecomplexin
informativeandpersuasivetextsandidentify
underlyingstructuressuchastaxonomies,causeand
effect,andextendedmetaphors(ACELA1531)
Literature
Recogniseandanalysethewaysthat

Elaborations
l

analysingandexplainingthestructureandfeaturesof
shortstoriesdiscussingthepurposesandappealof
differentauthorialchoicesforstructureandlanguage

exploringtraditionalstoriesfromAsiaanddiscussing
theirengagingfeatures,forexampleuseoftheoral
mode,visualelements,verse,useofpuppetstoconvey
thenarrative

analysingwritersdepictionsofchallengesintexts,for
examplethosefacedbyAboriginalandTorresStrait
Islanderpeople

discussingatextsintendedaudience,whetherthetext
istypicalofitstypeandwhetherithasfulfilledits
purpose

identifyingstereotypes,prejudiceandoversimplifications
intexts

exploringethicalissuesinliterarytextsdrawingona
rangeofexamplesfromthetextstoillustrateand
substantiatetheviewsexpressed

characterisation,eventsandsettingsarecombinedin
narratives,anddiscussthepurposesandappealof
differentapproaches(ACELT1622)

Comparethewaysthatlanguageandimagesare
usedtocreatecharacter,andtoinfluenceemotions
andopinionsindifferenttypesoftexts(ACELT1621)

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English
Understand,interpretanddiscusshowlanguageis

compressedtoproduceadramaticeffectinfilmor
drama,andtocreatelayersofmeaninginpoetry,for

experiencingthesoundandrhythmofpoetryandusing
metalanguage,forexamplerefrain,chanttodiscuss
thelayersofmeaningthatarecreated

examplehaiku,tankas,couplets,freeverseandverse
novels(ACELT1623)

Discussaspectsoftexts,forexampletheiraesthetic
andsocialvalue,usingrelevantandappropriate
metalanguage(ACELT1803)
Literacy

Elaborations

Analyseandexplainthewaystextstructuresand

identifyingthepurposeandpossibleaudienceforatext

languagefeaturesshapemeaningandvaryaccording

explainingtherelationshipbetweentextfeaturesand
structuresandaudienceandpurpose,suchas
identifyingwhichgroupwouldbethemostlikelytargetfor
theinformationinanadvertisementandjustifyingwhyon
thebasisoftextualfeatures

identifyingcauseandeffectinexplanationsandhow
theseareusedtoconvinceanaudienceofacourseof
action

inferringthetoneandemotionalintentofacharacterin
dialogueinanarrative

investigatingtheinfluenceonwrittenlanguageof
communicativetechnologieslikeSMS,text,emailand
Twitter

analysingtheimpactofinteractiveelementsofdigital
magazines

toaudienceandpurpose(ACELY1721)

Comparethetextstructuresandlanguagefeaturesof
multimodaltexts,explaininghowtheycombineto
influenceaudiences(ACELY1724)
Usepriorknowledgeandtextprocessingstrategiesto
interpretarangeoftypesoftexts(ACELY1722)

Usecomprehensionstrategiestointerpret,analyse
andsynthesiseideasandinformation,critiquing
ideasandissuesfromavarietyoftextualsources
(ACELY1723)
Analyseandexplaintheeffectoftechnological
innovationsontexts,particularlymediatexts
(ACELY1765)

Writing
Language
Understandthatthecoherenceofmorecomplextexts

Elaborations
l

analysingthestructureofmediatextssuchastelevision
newsitemsandbroadcastsandvarioustypesof
newspaperandmagazinearticles

writingstructuredparagraphsforuseinarangeof
academicsettingssuchasparagraphresponses,
reportsandpresentations

reliesondevicesthatsignaltextstructureandguide
readers,forexampleoverviews,initialandconcluding
paragraphsandtopicsentences,indexesorsite
mapsorbreadcrumbtrailsforonlinetexts
(ACELA1763)

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English
Understandtheuseofpunctuationtosupport

discussinghowqualifyingstatementsaddmeaningto
opinionsandviewsinspokentexts

identifyingandexperimentingwitharangeofclause
typesanddiscussingtheeffectoftheseinthe
expressionanddevelopmentofideas

observinganddiscussinghowasenseofcertainty,
probabilityandobligationiscreatedintexts

meaningincomplexsentenceswithprepositional
phrasesandembeddedclauses(ACELA1532)
Recogniseandunderstandthatsubordinateclauses
embeddedwithinnoungroups/phrasesarea
commonfeatureofwrittensentencestructuresand
increasethedensityofinformation(ACELA1534)
Understandhowmodalityisachievedthrough
discriminatingchoicesinmodalverbs,adverbs,
adjectivesandnouns(ACELA1536)
Understandhowtousespellingrulesandword
origins,forexampleGreekandLatinroots,base
words,suffixes,prefixes,spellingpatternsand
generalisationstolearnnewwordsandhowtospell
them(ACELA1539)
Literature
Experimentwithtextstructuresandlanguagefeatures

Elaborations
l

experimentingwithdifferentnarrativestructuressuchas
theepistolaryform,flashback,multipleperspectives

transformingfamiliarprintnarrativesintoshortvideoor
filmnarratives,drawingonknowledgeofthetypeoftext
andpossibleadaptationsnecessarytoanewmode

drawingonliteratureandlifeexperiencestocreatea
poem,forexampleballad,seriesofhaiku

usingaspectsoftextsinimaginativerecreationssuchas
resituatingacharacterfromatextinanewsituation

imaginingacharacterslifeevents(forexample
misadventuresorganisedretrospectivelytobe
presentedasaseriesofflashbacksinscripted
monologuesupportedbysingleimages),makinga
sequelorprequelorrewritinganending

creatingchaptersforanautobiography,shortstoryor
diary

andtheireffectsincreatingliterarytexts,forexample,
usingrhythm,soundeffects,monologue,layout,
navigationandcolour(ACELT1805)

Createliterarytextsthatadaptstylisticfeatures
encounteredinothertexts,forexample,narrative
viewpoint,structureofstanzas,contrastand
juxtaposition(ACELT1625)

Literacy
Plan,draftandpublishimaginative,informativeand

Elaborations
l

compilingaportfoliooftextsinarangeofmodesrelated
toaparticularconcept,purposeoraudience,forexample
aclassanthologyofpoemsorstories

usingappropriatetextualconventions,createscriptsfor
interviews,presentations,advertisementsandradio
segments

writinganddeliveringpresentationswithspecific
rhetoricaldevicestoengageanaudience

persuasivetexts,selectingaspectsofsubjectmatter
andparticularlanguage,visual,andaudiofeaturesto
conveyinformationandideas(ACELY1725)

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English
Editformeaningbyremovingrepetition,refining

usingcollaborativetechnologiestojointlyconstructand
edittexts

understandingconventionsassociatedwithparticular
kindsofsoftwareandusingthemappropriately,for
examplesynthesisinginformationandideasindot
pointsandsequencinginformationinpresentationsor
timingscenesinanimation

ideas,reorderingsentencesandaddingor
substitutingwordsforimpact(ACELY1726)
Consolidateapersonalhandwritingstylethatis
legible,fluentandautomaticandsupportswritingfor
extendedperiods(ACELY1727)
Usearangeofsoftware,includingwordprocessing
programs,toconfidentlycreate,editandpublish
writtenandmultimodaltexts(ACELY1728)

SpeakingandListening
Language
Understandthewaylanguageevolvestoreflecta

Elaborations
l

exploringlanguagesanddialectsthroughbuilding
webcamrelationshipswithschoolsacrossAustraliaand
Asia

investigatingchangesinworduseandmeaningover
timeandsomeofthereasonsforthesechanges,for
exampletheinfluenceonspellingandvocabularyofnew
formsofcommunicationliketexting,emoticonsand
email

buildingadatabaseoflocalidiomsandtheirmeanings,
accentsandstylesofspeechfordifferentcontexts,
exploringthepossibilitiesofthesechoicesindramaand
roleplay,anddiscussingtheirconnectionwithpersonal
andsocialidentities

developingdialoguesauthentictocharactersincomics,
cartoonsandanimations

changingworld,particularlyinresponsetotheuseof
newtechnologyforpresentingtextsand
communicating(ACELA1528)

Understandhowaccents,stylesofspeechand
idiomsexpressandcreatepersonalandsocial
identities(ACELA1529)

Literature
Identifyandexploreideasandviewpointsabout

Elaborations
l

buildingknowledge,understandingandskillsinrelation
tothehistory,culture,andliteraryheritageofAboriginal
andTorresStraitIslanderpeoples

identifyingandexplainingdifferencesbetweenpointsof
viewintexts,forexamplecontrastingthecityandthe
bushordifferentperspectivesbasedonculture,gender
orage

exploringconceptsaboutthecriteriaforheroismand
testingthesecriteriainarangeoftexts,includingmore
complexoneswheretheheromaybeflawed

establishingforumsfordiscussingtherelativemeritsof
fictionandfilmtexts

comparingpersonalviewpointsontextsandjustifying
responsesinactualandvirtualdiscussions

events,issuesandcharactersrepresentedintexts
drawnfromdifferenthistorical,socialandcultural
contexts(ACELT1619)

Reflectonideasandopinionsaboutcharacters,
settingsandeventsinliterarytexts,identifyingareasof
agreementanddifferencewithothersandjustifyinga
pointofview(ACELT1620)

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English
Literacy
Identifyanddiscussmainideas,conceptsandpoints

Elaborations
l

identifying,discussingandinterpretingideasand
conceptsthatotherindividualsandgroupsvalue

identifyingkeyevidencesupportinganargumentina
discussionbetweentwospeakers

participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunity
speakingandlisteningsituations,includinginformal
conversations,discussions,debatesandpresentations

usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussionin
rangeofformalandinformalcontexts,including
speakingclearlyandcoherentlyandatappropriate
length,clarifyingandrephrasingcommentsofothers

choosingvocabularyandspokentextandsentence
structuresforparticularpurposesandaudiences,
adaptinglanguagechoicestomeettheperceived
audienceneeds,suchasdebatingatopicwithateam
fromanotherschool,introducingaspeakerataschool
function

selectingvoiceeffectsfordifferentaudiencesand
purposes,suchastone,volume,pitchandpace,
recognisingtheeffectsthesehaveonaudience
understandingandengagement

preparingapresentationcombiningprint,visualand
audioelementstoexploreandinterpretideas,drawing
onknowledgeandresearchaboutperspectivesdifferent
fromstudentsown

ofviewinspokentextstoevaluatequalities,for
examplethestrengthofanargumentorthelyrical
powerofapoeticrendition(ACELY1719)
Useinteractionskillswhendiscussingand
presentingideasandinformation,selectingbody
language,voicequalitiesandotherelements,(for
examplemusicandsound)toaddinterestand
meaning(ACELY1804)

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations,selecting
andsequencingappropriatecontentandmultimodal
elementstopromoteapointofvieworenableanew
wayofseeing(ACELY1720)

Level7achievementstandard
Readingandviewing
BytheendofLevel7,studentsunderstandhowtextstructurescaninfluencethecomplexityofatextandaredependenton
audience,purposeandcontext.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofhowthechoiceoflanguagefeatures,imagesand
vocabularyaffectsmeaning.Theyexplainissuesandideasfromavarietyofsources,analysingsupportingevidenceand
impliedmeaning.Theyselectspecificdetailsfromtextstodeveloptheirownresponse,recognisingthattextsreflectdifferent
viewpoints.
Writing
Studentsunderstandhowtheselectionofavarietyoflanguagefeaturescaninfluenceanaudience.Theyunderstandhowto
drawonpersonalknowledge,textualanalysisandothersourcestoexpressorchallengeapointofview.Theycreatetexts
showinghowlanguagefeatures,textstructures,andimagesfromothertextscanbecombinedforeffect.Theycreate
structuredandcoherenttextsforarangeofpurposesandaudiences.Whencreatingandeditingtextstheydemonstrate
understandingofgrammar,useavarietyofmorespecialisedvocabulary,useaccuratespellingandpunctuation.
SpeakingandListening

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English
Studentslistenforandexplaindifferentperspectivesintexts.Theyunderstandhowtheselectionofavarietyoflanguage
featurescaninfluenceanaudience.Theyunderstandhowtodrawonpersonalknowledge,textualanalysisandother
sourcestoexpressorchallengeapointofview.Theycreatetextsshowinghowlanguagefeaturesandimagesfromother
textscanbecombinedforeffect.Theycreatetextsstructuredandcoherenttextsforarangepurposesandaudiences.They
makepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussions,usinglanguagefeaturestoengagethe
audience.

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English
Level8
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand
learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents
knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish
buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas
needed.
InLevels7and8,studentsinteractwithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarangeofface
tofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginbothfamiliarandunfamiliarcontextsthatrelatetothe
schoolcurriculum,localcommunity,regionalandglobalcontexts.
Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theylistento,read,view,interpret,evaluateandperformarangeof
spoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformand
persuade.Theseincludevarioustypesofmediatextsincludingnewspapers,magazinesanddigitaltexts,early
adolescentnovels,nonfiction,poetryanddramaticperformances.Studentsdeveloptheirunderstandingofhowtexts,
includingmediatexts,areinfluencedbycontext,purposeandaudience.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral
narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary
literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom
andaboutAsia.
LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels7and8asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof
realistic,fantasy,speculativefictionandhistoricalgenresandinvolvesomechallengingandunpredictableplot
sequencesandarangeofnonstereotypicalcharacters.Thesetextsexplorethemesofinterpersonalrelationshipsand
ethicaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informativetextspresent
technicalandcontentinformationfromvarioussourcesaboutspecialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplex
includingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesinclude
successivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,unfamiliartechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetorical
language,andinformationsupportedbyvarioustypesofgraphicspresentedinvisualform.
Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftexts,forexamplenarratives,procedures,
performances,reportsanddiscussions,andbegintocreateliteraryanalysesandtransformationsoftexts.

Level8contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing
Language
Analysehowthetextstructuresandlanguage
featuresofpersuasivetexts,includingmedia
texts,varyaccordingtothemediumandmode

Elaborations
l

discussinghowparticularperspectivesofthesameeventare
portrayedthroughthecombinationofimagesandwordsin
variousmediatexts

ofcommunication(ACELA1543)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

20

English
Understandhowcohesionintextsisimproved

writingparagraphsofextendedlengththatexplainand
substantiateaparticularpersonalviewpoint

evaluatinghowspeechmakersinfluenceaudiencesthough
specificlanguagefeaturessuchastheuseofembedded
clausestoaddinformation

experimentingwithvocabularychoicesinarangeofwrittenand
spokentextsandassessingthedifferenteffectsthesechoices
generate

identifyingandevaluatingexamplesofhowrhetoricaldevices
revealthedarkorseriousaspectsofatopicinwaysthatcause
laughteroramusement,forexamplebymakingastatementbut
implying/meaningtheopposite(irony)exaggeratingor
overstatingsomething(hyperbole)imitatingorsendingup
something(parody),andmakingsomethingappearless
seriousthanitreallyis(understatement)

comprehendingaseriesofstaticimagesandcombinationsof
languageandimagesinapicturebook,forexampletitle,setting,
characters,actions,aswellastechnicalelementsincluding
position,size,colour,angle,framing,pointofview

analysingtherelationshipbetweenvisualelementsandtextin
nonfictiontextssuchasdocumentaries,televisionnews,online
newspapersanddigitalmagazines

bystrengtheningtheinternalstructureof
paragraphsthroughtheuseofexamples,
quotationsandsubstantiationofclaims
(ACELA1766)
Analyseandexaminehoweffectiveauthors
controlanduseavarietyofclausestructures,
includingclausesembeddedwithinthe
structureofanoungroup/phraseorclause
(ACELA1545)
Recognisethatvocabularychoicescontribute
tothespecificity,abstractionandstyleoftexts
(ACELA1547)
Understandhowrhetoricaldevicesareused
topersuadeandhowdifferentlayersof
meaningaredevelopedthroughtheuseof
metaphor,ironyandparody(ACELA1542)

Investigatehowvisualandmultimodaltexts
alludetoordrawonothertextsorimagesto
enhanceandlayermeaning(ACELA1548)

Literature
Explorethewaysthatideasandviewpointsin

Elaborations
l

investigatingtextsaboutAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander
historyfromdifferentsourcesandexplainingdifferingviewpoints

comparingattitudesandideasintextsdrawnfromcontextsthat
aredifferenttostudentsown

recognisingthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweentypesof
texts(forexampleacomplexpicturebookandafeaturefilm)in
ordertounderstandhowdifferentcombinationsofwordsand
imagesleadreaderstointerpretvisualtextsinparticularways,
accordingtoaudience,purposeandcontext

literarytextsdrawnfromdifferenthistorical,
socialandculturalcontextsmayreflector
challengethevaluesofindividualsandgroups
(ACELT1626)

Understandandexplainhowcombinationsof
wordsandimagesintextsareusedto
representparticulargroupsinsociety,and
howtextspositionreadersinrelationtothose
groups(ACELT1628)

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English
Recognise,explainandanalysetheways

exploringhowsomewritersuseterseandrelativelysimple
languagechoiceswhileothersusemoreelaborateandcomplex
syntax

examiningthelanguagepatterns,includingsentencepatterns,
inarangeofshorttextsanddiscussingtheeffectonreaders
interpretationofthesechoices

writingorspeakingaboutaliterarytextandoutliningtheimpact
ofthetextonalistener,viewerorreader,forexampleinajournal
inwhichstudentsreflectontheirpersonalresponsesandon
howlanguageandstructuralfeaturesinthetextcontributetoits
impact

discussing,debatingandassessingremakesofliterarytexts
andtheireffectivenessandpurpose

discussing,debatingandassessingbookorfilmseries,
sequels,prequels,fanfictionsites,tieinpublicationsor
merchandise

understandingthattone(serious,bitter,sincere,amused)
indicatesattitudetothesubjectandtoreaders/listeners,who
canidentifyorjudgetonethroughpastexperienceandlanguage
cluesinthetext

identifyinganddescribingthewaysfilmssuggestCountry/Place
andIdentitythroughlanguagefeaturessuchasimage,
soundtrackandnarrativecontrol

selectingaspectsofatextrelatedtoCountryandPlace,People,
IdentityandCultureandadaptitforanewcontext,notingif
changesinoneaspectwillresultinchangesinanother

explaininghowindividualinterpretationsoftheseaspectsare
influencedbystudentsownknowledge,valuesandcultural
assumptions

selectanaspectofatextsuchasasentencepatternoran
imageorwordandadaptitforanewcontextexplaininghowthe
changewillaffectmeaning

analysingargumentsforandagainstaparticularissuein
currentcommunitydebatesandjustifyingapersonalstance

literarytextsdrawonreadersknowledgeof
othertextsandenablenewunderstandingand
appreciationofaestheticqualities
(ACELT1629)

Identifyandevaluatedevicesthatcreatetone,
forexamplehumour,wordplay,innuendoand
parodyinpoetry,humorousprose,dramaor
visualtexts(ACELT1630)
ExploretheinterconnectednessofCountry
andPlace,People,IdentityandCultureintexts
includingthosebyAboriginalandTorresStrait
Islanderauthors(ACELT1806)

Interpretandanalyselanguagechoices,
includingsentencepatterns,dialogue,
imageryandotherlanguagefeatures,inshort
stories,literaryessaysandplays
(ACELT1767)
Recogniseandexplaindifferingviewpoints
abouttheworld,cultures,individualpeople
andconcernsrepresentedintexts
(ACELT1807)

Literacy

Elaborations

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English
l

identifyingthemeaningofawiderangeofwords,including
technicalandliterarylanguageinvariouscontexts

understandthecontentoftexts(ACELY1733)

usingprintanddigital/onlinethesaurusesanddictionariesof
synonyms,antonymsandhomonymsandsubjectspecific
dictionaries

Usecomprehensionstrategiestointerpret

reflectingoncontentbyconnectingandcomparinginformation
foundinatexttoknowledgesourcedelsewhere

determiningandapplyingcriteriaforevaluatingthecredibilityofa
website

authorspointofview(ACELY1734)

explainingwhethertheauthorconveysmeaningadequately,
particularlyindistinguishingfactfromopinion

Analyseandexplainhowlanguagehas

identifyingandexplaininghowmobiletechnologiesare
influencinglanguageusesandstructures

mediahaveinfluencedlanguageuseand

analysingthewaysthatidentitymaybecreatedindigitalcontexts

formsofcommunication(ACELY1729)

identifyinghowmeaningsorwordschangeorshiftdepending
oncontext,forexamplethewordcoolisusedtodescribe
temperatureortoexpressapprovalwhenusedininformal
contexts

Analyseandevaluatethewaysthattext

evaluatinganauthor'suseofparticulartextualstructuresand
languagefeaturesinachievingtherepresentationofapointof
view

makingassertionsaboutthesufficiencyandadequacyof
informationorevidenceandthecredibilityofsources

exploringtextsthatattempttosolvemoralproblemsina
particularway,forexamplebyconsiderationofconsequencesor
rights/duties,andbyidentifyingstrengthsaswellasproblems
thatarisefromthisapproach

comparingrepresentationsofdifferentsocialgroupsintexts
drawnfromdifferentmodesandmedia,forexamplecomparing
contemporaryrepresentationsofhomelesspeoplewith
romanticrepresentationsoftheswagmanandtheimpactof
theserepresentationsontheaudience

Applyincreasingknowledgeofvocabulary,text
structuresandlanguagefeaturesto

andevaluatetextsbyreflectingonthevalidity
ofcontentandthecredibilityofsources,
includingfindingevidenceinthetextforthe

evolvedovertimeandhowtechnologyandthe

structuresandlanguagefeaturesvary
accordingtothepurposeofthetextandthe
waysthatreferencedsourcesaddauthorityto
atext(ACELY1732)

Exploreandexplainthewaysauthorscombine
differentmodesandmediaincreatingtexts,
andtheimpactofthesechoicesonthe
viewer/listener(ACELY1735)

Writing
Language
Understandhowcoherenceiscreatedin

Elaborations
l

interpretingcomplexsentencestructuresthroughreadingaloud
literarytextssuchassonnetsorplays

usingcohesivedeviceswhenwritingcomplextexts

analysingformalandpersuasivetextstoidentifyandexplain
languagechoicessuchasnominalisation

complextextsthroughdeviceslikelexical
cohesion,ellipsis,grammaticalthemeand
textconnectives(ACELA1809)
Understandtheeffectofnominalisationinthe
writingofinformativeandpersuasivetexts
(ACELA1546)

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English
Understandhowtoapplylearnedknowledge

understandingthedifferentwayscomplexwordsareconstructed
and,whenspellingthesewords,drawingonmorphemic
knowledgeandknowledgeofunusuallettercombinations

creatingdialogueindramashowinginterruptions,asidesand
pausesforeffect

consistentlyinordertospellaccuratelyandto
learnnewwordsincludingnominalisations
(ACELA1549)
Understandtheuseofpunctuation
conventions,includingcolons,semicolons,
dashesandbracketsinformalandinformal
texts(ACELA1544)
Literature
Experimentwithparticularlanguagefeatures

Elaborations
l

creatingandperformingscriptsforshortplaysthatmakeuseof
theaffordancesofvisual,verbalandadditionalmodes(for
examplemusic)tocreateatmosphere,todeepeninterpretation
ofverbalmeaningandtoenhancethedramaofaperformance

creatingliteraryinterpretationsofshortstoriesbasedon
understandingandanalysisoftheircontext,narrativestructure
(includingthetwistattheend),layersofmeaning,themes,point
ofviewandstyle

combiningvisualanddigitalelementstocreatelayersof
meaningforseriousandhumorouspurposes

drawnfromdifferenttypesoftexts,including
combinationsoflanguageandvisualchoices
tocreatenewtexts(ACELT1768)
Createliterarytextsthatdrawupontext
structuresandlanguagefeaturesofothertexts
forparticularpurposesandeffects
(ACELT1632)

Literacy
Createimaginative,informativeand

Elaborations
l

integratingmultimodalapproacheswithinaspoken
presentationtopurposefullydevelopmeaningforagiven
audience

selectingvocabularytoinfluencemeaningandtopositionand
persuadetheaudience,forexampleadjustinglanguagetoshow
oracknowledgepower

experimentingwithtextstructuresandlanguagefeatures,for
exampleparagraphorderandcontent,languagechoicesor
modeofdelivery,torefineandclarifyideasandtoimprovetext
effectiveness

combiningverbal,visualandsoundelementsinimaginative
multimodaltexts

orderingparagraphstobestsupportandsustainanargument
andtoorganiseandconveyinformationclearly

persuasivetextsthatraiseissues,report
eventsandadvanceopinions,using
deliberatelanguageandtextualchoices,and
includingdigitalelementsasappropriate
(ACELY1736)
Experimentwithtextstructuresandlanguage
featurestorefineandclarifyideastoimprove
theeffectivenessofstudentsowntexts
(ACELY1810)

Usearangeofsoftware,includingword
processingprograms,tocreate,editand
publishtextsimaginatively(ACELY1738)
SpeakingandListening
Language

Elaborations

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English
Understandtheinfluenceandimpactthatthe

exploringexamplesofSinglish(SingaporeEnglish)froma
Singlishdictionary

investigatingborrowingsfromarangeoflanguagesinto
English,forexamplefromFrenchandItalian

understandingthatouruseoflanguagehelpstocreatedifferent
identities,forexampleteenagegroupsandsportspeoplehave
adoptedparticularwordsorwaysofspeaking

Englishlanguagehashadonother
languagesordialectsandhowEnglishhas
beeninfluencedinreturn(ACELA1540)

Understandhowconventionsofspeech
adoptedbycommunitiesinfluencethe
identitiesofpeopleinthosecommunities
(ACELA1541)
Literature
Share,reflecton,clarifyandevaluateopinions

Elaborations
l

andargumentsaboutaspectsofliterarytexts

discussingtherelativemeritsofliterarytextsandcomparingand
evaluatingpersonalviewpointsontexts

(ACELT1627)
Literacy
Interpretthestatedandimpliedmeaningsin

Elaborations
l

listentoaconversationorspeechandidentifythepointbeing
madeandexplainthetoneandmannerofpresentation.Change
thefocusoftheconversationorspeechandidentifyhow
meaninghaschanged

changethetoneinwhichthespeechorconversationis
presentedanddiscusshowinterpretationscanalsochange.

participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunity
speakingandlisteningsituations,includinginformal
conversations,discussions,debatesandpresentations

usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussioninrange
offormalandinformalcontexts,includingspeakingclearlyand
coherentlyandatappropriatelength,askingquestionsabout
statedandimpliedideas,andrestatingandsummarisingmain
ideas

choosingvocabularyandspokentextandsentencestructures
forparticularpurposesandaudiences,suchasdebatingatopic
withateamfromanotherschool,creatingavoiceoverfora
mediapresentation,andadaptinglanguagechoicessuchas
useofsimiles,metaphorsandpersonification,tomeet
perceivedaudienceneeds

selectingvoiceeffects,suchastone,volume,pitchandpace,
withparticularattentiontotheeffectsthesemayhaveon
audiencereactionandacceptanceoftheideaspresented

creatingtextsthatexpressviewsandvaluesotherthanstudents
own

researchingsubjectmatteronsocialissuesand/or
relationshipsandpresentingideasinparticularwaystoappeal
todifferentaudiences

spokentexts,anduseevidencetosupportor
challengedifferentperspectives(ACELY1730)

Useinteractionskillsforidentifiedpurposes,
usingvoiceandlanguageconventionstosuit
differentsituations,selectingvocabulary,
modulatingvoiceandusingelementssuchas
music,imagesandsoundforspecificeffects
(ACELY1808)

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations,
selectingandsequencingappropriatecontent,
includingmultimodalelements,toreflecta
diversityofviewpoints(ACELY1731)

Level8achievementstandard

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25

English
Readingandviewing
BytheendofLevel8,studentsunderstandhowtheselectionoftextstructuresisinfluencedbytheselectionoflanguage
modeandhowthisvariesfordifferentpurposesandaudiences.Theyexplainhowlanguagefeatures,imagesand
vocabularyareusedtorepresentdifferentideasandissuesintexts.Theyinterprettexts,questioningthereliabilityofsources
ofideasandinformation.Theyselectevidencefromthetexttoshowhowevents,situationsandpeoplecanberepresented
fromdifferentviewpoints.
Writing
Studentsunderstandhowtheselectionoflanguagefeaturescanbeusedforparticularpurposesandeffects.Theyexplain
theeffectivenessoflanguagechoicestheyusetoinfluencetheaudience.Throughcombiningideas,imagesandlanguage
featuresfromothertextsstudentsshowhowideascanbeexpressedinnewways.Theycreatetextsfordifferentpurposes
selectinglanguagetoinfluenceaudienceresponse.Whencreatingandeditingtextsforspecificeffects,theytakeinto
accountintendedpurposesandtheneedsandinterestsofaudiences.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofgrammar,select
vocabularyforeffectanduseaccuratespellingandpunctuation.
SpeakingandListening
Studentslistenforandidentifydifferentemphasesintexts,usingthatunderstandingtoelaborateupondiscussions.They
understandhowtheselectionoflanguagefeaturescanbeusedforparticularpurposesandeffects.Theyexplainthe
effectivenessoflanguagechoicestheyusetoinfluencetheaudience.Throughcombiningideas,imagesandlanguage
featuresfromothertextsstudentsshowhowideascanbeexpressedinnewways.Theycreatetextsfordifferentpurposes
selectinglanguagetoinfluenceaudienceresponse.Theymakepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroup
discussions,usinglanguagepatternsforeffect.

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English
Level9
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand
learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents
knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish
buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas
needed.
InLevels9and10,studentsinteractwithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarangeof
facetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginfamiliarandunfamiliarcontexts,includinglocal
community,vocationalandglobalcontexts.
Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theyinterpret,create,evaluate,discussandperformawiderange
ofliterarytextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These
includevarioustypesofmediatexts,includingnewspapers,filmanddigitaltexts,fiction,nonfiction,poetry,dramatic
performancesandmultimodaltexts,withthemesandissuesinvolvinglevelsofabstraction,higherorderreasoningand
intertextualreferences.Studentsdevelopacriticalunderstandingofthecontemporarymedia,andthedifferences
betweenmediatexts.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral
narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary
literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom
andaboutAsia.
LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels9and10asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof
genresandinvolvecomplex,challengingandunpredictableplotsequencesandhybridstructuresthatmayservemultiple
purposes.Thesetextsexplorethemesofhumanexperienceandculturalsignificance,interpersonalrelationships,and
ethicalandglobaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informative
textsrepresentasynthesisoftechnicalandabstractinformation(fromcredible/verifiablesources)aboutawiderangeof
specialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplexincludingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,
indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesincludesuccessivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,ahigh
proportionofunfamiliarandtechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetoricallanguage,anddenseinformationsupportedby
varioustypesofgraphicspresentedinvisualform.
Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextsincludingnarratives,procedures,
performances,reports,discussions,literaryanalyses,transformationsoftextsandreviews.

Level9contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing
Language
Understandthatauthorsinnovatewithtext
structuresandlanguageforspecific

Elaborations
l

experimentingwithwaystopresentpersonalviewpointsthrough
innovatingwithtexts

purposesandeffects(ACELA1553)

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English
Compareandcontrasttheuseofcohesive

sequencinganddevelopinganargumentusingbasiclanguage
structuresthatsuggestconclusions(therefore,thusands o)or
givereasons(since,because)orsuggestconditionals(if
then)

comparingtextsthatuseevaluativelanguageindifferentways
printadvertisements,editorials,talkbackradioandpoetryand
identifyingwordingsthatappraisethingsindirectly,through
evocativelanguage,similesandmetaphorsthatdirecttheviewsof
thereadersinparticularways

investigatingtheuseofsymbols,forexampletheflag,thediggers
hatandtheSouthernCrossinimages,filmsandpicturebooks,
andevaluatingtheircontributiontoviewersunderstandingof
issues,forexamplenationalidentity,recognisingthatvisualand
verbalsymbolshavedifferentmeaningsfordifferentgroups

comparingandcontrastingvocabularychoicesininformativeand
narrativetexts,consideringhowtheyareusedtocreateprecise
information,abstractideasand/orstylisticinterpretationsoftexts

identifyingexamplesofacronyms,abbreviationsandproprietary
wordswhichareusedcreativelyintexts

identifyingandanalysingaspectsofrhetoricinspeechesdrawn
fromcontemporaryandearliercontextsandstudentscreating
speechesoftheirown

devicesintexts,focusingonhowtheyserve
tosignpostideas,tomakeconnectionsand
tobuildsemanticassociationsbetween
ideas(ACELA1770)
Investigatehowevaluationcanbe
expresseddirectlyandindirectlyusing
devices,forexampleallusion,evocative
vocabularyandmetaphor(ACELA1552)

Analyseandexplaintheuseofsymbols,
iconsandmythinstillandmovingimages
andhowtheseaugmentmeaning
(ACELA1560)

Identifyhowvocabularychoicescontribute
tospecificity,abstractionandstylistic
effectiveness(ACELA1561)

Understandhowspellingisusedcreatively
intextsforparticulareffects,forexample
characterisationandhumourandto
representaccentsandstylesofspeech
(ACELA1562)
Explainhowauthorscreativelyusethe
structuresofsentencesandclausesfor
particulareffects(ACELA1557)
Literature
Interpretandcomparehowrepresentations

Elaborations
l

exploringandreflectingonrepresentationsofvalues(forexample
love,freedom,integrity)inliteraturedrawnfromculturesandtimes
differentfromthestudentsown

exploringandreflectingonpersonalunderstandingoftheworld
andhumanexperience,interpretedinliteraturedrawnfrom
culturesandtimesdifferentfromthestudentsown

reviewinghistoricalfictionornonfictionwrittenbyandaboutthe
peoplesofAsia

analysingliterarytextscreatedbyandaboutAboriginalandTorres
StraitIslanderpeoples(includingdocumentaries,picturebooks,
printtextsandothermultimodaltexts)andalsotextsincludingfilm
producedbyandaboutpeoplesofAsianbackground,and
consideringthedifferentwaysthesetextsrepresentpeople,
places,thingsandissues

ofpeopleandcultureinliterarytextsare
drawnfromdifferenthistorical,socialand
culturalcontexts(ACELT1633)

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28

English
l

interrogatingandmakingjudgmentsaboutatext,comparing
othersideasagainstthestudentsownandreachingan
independentdecisionorsharedconsensusaboutthe
interpretationsandideasexpressed

comparingtextscreatedbythesameauthortodetermineliterary
style,assessingitsappealandpresentingthiscomparisonto
others

authorsliterarystyle(ACELT1636)

examininghowdifferentauthorsmakeuseofdeviceslikemyth,
iconsandimageryandevaluatingtheeffectofthesechoiceson
audiences

Exploreandreflectonpersonal

establishingawidereadinglistonaparticularissuebasedon
personalpreferenceandestablishingreasonsfortheinclusionof
thesetexts

evaluatingtheeffectonreadersoftextstructuresandlanguage
featuresofaliterarytextandcomparingthesewithothertexts

comparisonswithothertexts(ACELT1772)

bycomparingtexts,writingorspeakingabouthowwelltheauthor
constructedtheopeningandclosingsectionsofthetextandused
hookstokeepthereader/viewer/listenerengagedandreading
on/watching/listeningtotheend

Investigateandexperimentwiththeuseand

identifyingexamplesoflanguagedevicesinarangeofpoems,
balladsorpoeticextracts,andconsideringhowtheiruseaddsto
meaningandmayalsoinfluencetheemotionalresponsesof
listenersorreaders,invaryingways

exploringhowlanguagedeviceslookorsoundinwrittenorspoken
texts,howtheycanbeidentified,purposestheyserveandwhat
effecttheymighthaveonhowtheaudienceresponds

takingaparticularareaofstudy,atopicorthemeandexamining
howdifferentauthorsmakeuseofdeviceslikemyth,iconsand
imageryintheirwork

Presentanargumentaboutaliterarytext
basedoninitialimpressionsand
subsequentanalysisofthewholetext
(ACELT1771)
Analysetextsfromfamiliarandunfamiliar
contexts,anddiscussandevaluatetheir
contentandtheappealofanindividual

understandingoftheworldandsignificant
humanexperiencegainedfrominterpreting
variousrepresentationsoflifemattersin
texts(ACELT1635)
Analysetextstructuresandlanguage
featuresofliterarytexts,andmakerelevant

effectofextendedmetaphor,metonymy,
allegory,icons,mythsandsymbolismin
texts,forexamplepoetry,shortfilms,
graphicnovels,andplaysonsimilar
themes(ACELT1637)

Literacy

Elaborations

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English
Interpret,analyseandevaluatehowdifferent

debatingthereliabilityofthecoverageinarangeofnewsmediaof
acontentiousissuesuchascommercialloggingofoldgrowth
forests

evaluatingtechniquesusedtoconstructplotandcreateemotional
responsessuchascomparison,contrast,exaggeration,
juxtaposition,thechangingofchronologicalorder,ortheexpansion
andcompressionoftime

constructingquestionstoframeananalysisofdiffering
representationsonmoralissuesintexts,andincludingacritical
analysisofapersonalviewintheoverallanalysisoftheissue

identifyingwhethertwotextsmayshareacommonpurposeor
audience,forexampleafeaturearticleonaparticularwebsiteorin
aparticularnewspaper

analysinghowissuesaredebatedandreportedinthemediain
differentcountries,andthepossiblereasonsforthis,forexample
whalinginJapanandAustralia

analysingandinterpretingassumptionsaboutgroupsthathave
shapedorinfluencedrepresentationsofpeople,places,events
andthingsidentifyinghowlisteners,viewersandreadersare
positionedbytheserepresentations,andsupportingidentified
pointswithexamples

identifyingorcommentingontheauthor'sapproachesanduseof
techniques,design,formandstyle

evaluatingtechniquesusedtoconstructplotandcreateemotional
responses,forexamplecomparison,contrast,exaggeration,
juxtaposition,thechangingofchronologicalorder,ortheexpansion
andcompressionoftime

comparingperspectivesrepresentedintextsfromdifferenttimes
andplaces,includingtextsdrawnfrompopularculture

identifying,comparingandcreatingrelationshipsbetweentexts
(includingnovels,illustratedstories,socialissuecartoons,
documentaries,multimodaltexts)

reflectingonthenotionthatalltextsbuildonabodyofpriortextsin
aculture

analysingandidentifyinghowsocioculturalvalues,attitudesand
beliefsareconveyedintexts,forexamplecomparingandanalysing
perspectivesaboutanAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderissue
reportedincommercialmediacomparedtopublicandAboriginal
andTorresStraitIslandermedia

analysingandinterpretingassumptionsaboutgroupsthathave
shapedorinfluencedrepresentationsofpeople,places,events
andthingsandidentifyinghowlistenersandreadersare
positionedbytheserepresentations

perspectivesofissue,event,situation,
individualsorgroupsareconstructedto
servespecificpurposesintexts
(ACELY1742)

Exploreandexplainthecombinationsof
languageandvisualchoicesthatauthors
maketopresentinformation,opinionsand
perspectivesindifferenttexts(ACELY1745)
Usecomprehensionstrategiestointerpret
andanalysetexts,comparingand
evaluatingrepresentationsofanevent,
issue,situationorcharacterindifferenttexts
(ACELY1744)
Analysehowtheconstructionand
interpretationoftexts,includingmediatexts,
canbeinfluencedbyculturalperspectives
andothertexts(ACELY1739)

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30

English
Applyanexpandingvocabularytoread

increasinglycomplextextswithfluencyand

predictingmeaningsofunfamiliarwordsbyusingmorphographic
patterns

comprehension(ACELY1743)
Writing
Language
Understandhowcertainabstractnounscan

Elaborations
l

exploringsectionsofacademicandtechnicaltextsandanalysing
theuseofabstractnounstocompactanddistilinformation,
structureargumentandsummariseprecedingexplanations

experimentingwiththeuseofcolonsandsemicolonsin
expositionsandotherextendedwritingtoimproveprecisionand
clarityofexpression

investigatinginstancesofcolonsandsemicolonsinexpository
textsanddiscusstheirusesinelaboratingonandclarifyingideas
incomplexsentences

beusedtosummariseprecedingor
subsequentstretchesoftext(ACELA1559)
Understandhowpunctuationisusedalong
withlayoutandfontvariationsin
constructingtextsfordifferentaudiences
andpurposes(ACELA1556)

Literature
Experimentwiththewaysthatlanguage

Elaborations
l

makinglanguagechoicesandchoosingparticularlanguage
devicestoachieveintendedeffects,forexamplebuildingina
surpriseortwistintheendingofashortstoryorfinalsceneofa
film

takinganexistingshortstory,poem,playorspeechinprintform
andcreatingashortvisualtextwhichisaccompaniedbyasound
trackcontainingmusicandsoundeffects,andwhichisintendedto
amuseaudienceswhoarefamiliarwiththeoriginaltext

creatingwritteninterpretationsoftraditionalandcontemporary
literaturewhichemploysdeviceslikemetaphor,symbol,allegory
andmyth,andevaluatingthecontributionofthesedevicestothe
interpretationofthetext

creatingwritteninterpretationsoftraditionalandcontemporary
poetry(forexamplesonnetsandcontemporarysonglyrics)
focusingontheiruseofsymbol,myth,iconsandimagery

features,imageandsoundcanbeadapted
inliterarytexts,forexampletheeffectsof
stereotypicalcharactersandsettings,the
playfulnessofhumourandpunandtheuse
ofhyperlink(ACELT1638)

Createliterarytexts,includinghybridtexts,
thatinnovateonaspectsofothertexts,for
examplebyusingparody,allusionand
appropriation(ACELT1773)
Literacy

Elaborations

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31

English
Createimaginative,informativeand

presentingargumentsthatadvanceopinions,justifypositions,and
makejudgmentsinordertopersuadeothersaboutissuessuch
theimportanceofmaintainingbalanceinthebiosphere

creatingimaginativetextswithmainideasdevelopedthroughthe
interconnectionsofplot,settings,characters,thechangingof
chronologicalorder,foreshadowinginwritten,spokenanddigital
texts

creatinginformativeandargumentativetextswithexplanations,
detailsandevidence

followingthestructureofanargumentwhichhasaseriesof
sequencedandlinkedparagraphs,beginningwithanoutlineofthe
stancetobetaken,aseriesofsupportedpointsthatdevelopaline
ofargument,andaconclusionwhichsummarisesthemainlineof
argument

checkingforrunonsentences,eliminatingunnecessarydetailor
repetition,andprovidingclearintroductoryandconcluding
paragraphs

applyingwordprocessingfunctions,forexampleoutlining,
standardstylesandindexing

persuasivetextsthatpresentapointofview
andadvanceorillustratearguments,
includingtextsthatintegratevisual,print
and/oraudiofeatures(ACELY1746)

Reviewandeditstudentsownandothers
textstoimproveclarityandcontrolover
content,organisation,paragraphing,
sentencestructure,vocabularyand
audio/visualfeatures(ACELY1747)
Usearangeofsoftware,includingword
processingprograms,flexiblyand
imaginativelytopublishtexts(ACELY1748)
SpeakingandListening
Language
UnderstandthatStandardAustralian

Elaborations
l

identifyingsomeofthechangesinthegrammarofEnglishover
time,forexamplefromtheeandthoutoyou

exploringexamplesofGlobishEnglish

identifyingthevariouscommunitiestowhichstudentsbelongand
howlanguagereinforcesmembershipofthesecommunities(the
intimatelanguageoffamilymembers,thejargonofteenage
groups,thetechnicalityofsomeonlinecommunities,thelanguage
specifictorecreationalgroups,theinteractionpatternsofthe
classroom,thecommonalitiesinmigrantandculturalgroups)

Englishisalivinglanguagewithinwhich
thecreationandlossofwordsandthe
evolutionofusageisongoing(ACELA1550)
Understandthatrolesandrelationshipsare
developedandchallengedthrough
languageandinterpersonalskills
(ACELA1551)

Literature

Elaborations

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32

English
Reflecton,discussandexplorenotionsof

reflectingonanddiscussingresponsestoliteratureincludingplot
events,settingdetails,characterisation,themes,structureand
languagedevicesusedtoachieveparticulareffects,and
collaborativelyformulatingalistoffactorsthatcharacterisemerit

discussing,debatingandevaluatingthecinematicqualitiesand
successofafilmornewversionsofafilm

exploringthewaysthatcontexthasshapedtherepresentationof
particularcultures,suchasthroughtheanalysisofdiffering
viewpointsintextsaboutdifferentculturesorbycomparingthe
waystextsfromdifferentperiodsrevealdifferencesinviewpoints
(forexampledifferencesintheportrayalofmigrantsintraditional
andmorecontemporaryliterature)

literaryvalueandhowandwhysuchnotions
varyaccordingtocontext(ACELT1634)

Literacy
Listentospokentextsconstructedfor

Elaborations
l

comparingandevaluatingbiasorstereotypingandpresenting
findingsindiscussionsandpresentations

identifyingandcommentingonomissionsofinformationin
differenttexts

exploringandidentifyingmoralandethicaldimensionsofanissue
representedindifferenttexts,andhowthesealignorcontradict
withpersonalandothersperspectives

understandingtheroleofintonation,pausing,combinationsof
clauseandrhythminspokenlanguageandofpunctuation

participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunityspeaking
andlisteningsituations,includinginformalconversations,
discussions,debatesandpresentations

usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussioninarangeof
formalandinformalcontexts,includingspeakingclearlyand
coherentlyandatappropriatelength,presentingapointofviewand
listeningtootherviewpoints,andnegotiatinganagreedpositionon
anissue

choosingvocabulary,spokentextandsentencestructuresfor
particularpurposesandaudiences,suchasdebatingatopicwith
ateamfromanotherschool,creatingavoiceoverforamedia
presentation,andadaptinglanguagechoicessuchasuseof
similes,metaphorsandpersonificationtomeettheperceived
audienceneeds

selectingvoiceeffectssuchastone,volume,pitchandpacefor
theirspecificeffects,suchasputtingforwardapointofviewor
attemptingtopersuadeanaudiencetoacourseofaction

usinggraphicsandtextanimationstoaccompanyspokentext,for
examplepresentinganewsitemsuitableforacurrentaffairs
programthatalignsimagetospokentext,orestablishinghumour
bycreatingadisjunctbetweensound,imageandspokentext

differentpurposes,forexampletoentertain
andtopersuade,andanalysehow
languagefeaturesofthesetextsposition
listenerstorespondinparticularways
(ACELY1740)

Useinteractionskillstopresentand
discussanideaandtoinfluenceand
engageanaudiencebyselecting
persuasivelanguage,varyingvoicetone,
pitch,andpace,andusingelementssuch
asmusicandsoundeffects(ACELY1811)

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations,
selectingandsequencingappropriate
contentandmultimodalelementsfor
aestheticandplayfulpurposes
(ACELY1741)

Level9achievementstandard
Readingandviewing

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English
BytheendofLevel9,studentsanalysethewaysthattextstructurescanbemanipulatedforeffect.Theyanalyseandexplain
howimages,vocabularychoicesandlanguagefeaturesdistinguishtheworkofindividualauthors.Theyevaluateand
integrateideasandinformationfromtextstoformtheirowninterpretations.Theyselectevidencefromthetexttoanalyseand
explainhowlanguagechoicesandconventionsareusedtoinfluenceanaudience.
Writing
Studentsunderstandhowtouseavarietyoflanguagefeaturestocreatedifferentlevelsofmeaning.Theyunderstandhow
interpretationscanvarybycomparingtheirresponsestotextstotheresponsesofothers.Increatingtextsstudents
demonstratehowmanipulatinglanguagefeaturesandimagescancreateinnovativetexts.Theycreatetextsthatrespondto
issuesinterpretingandintegratingideasfromothertexts.Theyeditforeffect,selectingvocabularyandgrammarthat
contributetotheprecisionandpersuasivenessoftextsandusingaccuratespellingandpunctuation.
SpeakingandListening
Theylistenforwaystextspositionanaudience.Theyunderstandhowtouseavarietyoflanguagefeaturestocreatedifferent
levelsofmeaning.Theyunderstandhowinterpretationscanvarybycomparingtheirresponsestotextstotheresponsesof
others.Increatingtexts,studentsdemonstratehowmanipulatinglanguagefeaturesandimagescancreateinnovativetexts.
Theycreatetextsthatrespondtoissues,interpretingandintegratingideasfromtexts.Theymakepresentationsand
contributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussions,comparingandevaluatingresponsestoideasandissues.

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34

English
Level10
TheEnglishcurriculumisbuiltaroundthethreeinterrelatedstrandsofLanguage,LiteratureandLiteracy.Teachingand
learningprogramsshouldbalanceandintegrateallthreestrands.Togetherthestrandsfocusondevelopingstudents
knowledge,understandingandskillsinlistening,reading,viewing,speaking,writingandcreating.LearninginEnglish
buildsonconcepts,skillsandprocessesdevelopedinearlierlevels,andteacherswillrevisitandstrengthentheseas
needed.
InLevels9and10,studentsinteractwithpeers,teachers,individuals,groupsandcommunitymembersinarangeof
facetofaceandonline/virtualenvironments.Theyexperiencelearninginfamiliarandunfamiliarcontexts,includinglocal
community,vocationalandglobalcontexts.
Studentsengagewithavarietyoftextsforenjoyment.Theyinterpret,create,evaluate,discussandperformawiderange
ofliterarytextsinwhichtheprimarypurposeisaesthetic,aswellastextsdesignedtoinformandpersuade.These
includevarioustypesofmediatexts,includingnewspapers,filmanddigitaltexts,fiction,nonfiction,poetry,dramatic
performancesandmultimodaltexts,withthemesandissuesinvolvinglevelsofabstraction,higherorderreasoningand
intertextualreferences.Studentsdevelopcriticalunderstandingofthecontemporarymedia,andthedifferencesbetween
mediatexts.

TherangeofliterarytextsforFoundationtoLevel10comprisesAustralianliterature,includingtheoral
narrativetraditionsofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,aswellasthecontemporary
literatureofthesetwoculturalgroups,andclassicandcontemporaryworldliterature,includingtextsfrom
andaboutAsia.
LiterarytextsthatsupportandextendstudentsinLevels9and10asindependentreadersaredrawnfromarangeof
genresandinvolvecomplex,challengingandunpredictableplotsequencesandhybridstructuresthatmayservemultiple
purposes.Thesetextsexplorethemesofhumanexperienceandculturalsignificance,interpersonalrelationships,and
ethicalandglobaldilemmaswithinrealworldandfictionalsettingsandrepresentavarietyofperspectives.Informative
textsrepresentasynthesisoftechnicalandabstractinformation(fromcredible/verifiablesources)aboutawiderangeof
specialisedtopics.Textstructuresaremorecomplexincludingchapters,headingsandsubheadings,tablesofcontents,
indexesandglossaries.Languagefeaturesincludesuccessivecomplexsentenceswithembeddedclauses,ahigh
proportionofunfamiliarandtechnicalvocabulary,figurativeandrhetoricallanguage,anddenseinformationsupportedby
varioustypesofgraphicsandimages.
Studentscreatearangeofimaginative,informativeandpersuasivetypesoftextsincludingnarratives,procedures,
performances,reports,discussions,literaryanalyses,transformationsoftextsandreviews.

Level10contentdescriptions
Readingandviewing
Language

Elaborations

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35

English
Comparethepurposes,textstructures

reproducingandadaptingexistingprinttextsforanonline
environmentandexplainingthereasonsfortheadaptations(for
exampleaccountingforthenavigationanduseofhyperlinksas
structuringprinciplesinhypertextnarratives)

investigatingthestructureandlanguageofsimilartexttypeslike
informationreportsandnarrativesandhowtheseareinfluencedby
differenttechnologicalaffordances(forexamplehyperlinksas
structuringprinciplesinhypertextnarrativesversuslineartext
sequencingprinciplesinprintnarratives)

experimentingwithaspectsofvisualtextstoestablishdifferent
nuances,forexampleevaluatingtheimpactofthemovementof
cameraorlightinmovingimages

consideringwhetherethicaljudgmentsofgood,bad,rightorwrong
areabsoluteorrelativethroughconsiderationoftextswithvarying
pointsofviewandthroughdiscussionwithothers

interpretingtextsbydrawingonknowledgeofthehistoricalcontextin
whichtextswerecreated

andlanguagefeaturesoftraditionaland
contemporarytextsindifferentmedia
(ACELA1566)

Evaluatetheimpactonaudiencesof
differentchoicesintherepresentationof
stillandmovingimages(ACELA1572)
Understandthatpeoplesevaluationsof
textsareinfluencedbytheirvaluesystems,
thecontextandthepurposeandmodeof
communication(ACELA1565)

Literature
Compareandevaluatearangeof

Elaborations
l

investigatingandanalysingthewaysculturalstoriesmayberetold
andadaptedacrossarangeofcontextssuchastheCinderella
storyandtheantihero

imaginativelyadaptingtextsfromanearliertimeordifferentsocial
contextforanewaudience

exploringandreflectingonpersonalunderstandingoftheworldand
humanexperiencegainedfrominterpretingliteraturedrawnfrom
culturesandtimesdifferentfromthestudentsown

lookingatarangeoftextstoconsiderhowtheuseofastructural
device,forexampleafemalenarrator,mayinfluencefemale
readers/viewers/listenerstorespondsympatheticallytoaneventor
issue

lookingatarangeofshortpoems,ashortstory,orextractsfroma
novelorfilmtofindanddiscussexamplesofhowlanguagedevices
layermeaningandinfluencetheresponsesoflisteners,viewersor
readers

usingtermsassociatedwithliterarytextanalysis(forexample
narrative,characters,poetry,figurativelanguage,symbolism,
soundtrack)whenevaluatingaspectsthatarevaluedandthat
containaestheticqualities

writingorspeakingabouthoweffectivelytheauthorconstructedthe
textandengagedandsustainedthereaders/viewers/listeners
personalinterest

representationsofindividualsandgroups
indifferenthistorical,socialandcultural
contexts(ACELT1639)

Analyseandexplainhowtextstructures,
languagefeaturesandvisualfeaturesof
textsandthecontextinwhichtextsare
experiencedmayinfluenceaudience
response(ACELT1641)
Identify,explainanddiscusshownarrative
viewpoint,structure,characterisationand
devicesincludinganalogyandsatire
shapedifferentinterpretationsand
responsestoatext(ACELT1642)
Analyseandevaluatetextstructuresand
languagefeaturesofliterarytextsand
makerelevantthematicandintertextual
connectionswithothertexts(ACELT1774)

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36

English
Compareandevaluatehowvoiceasa

creatingextendedwrittenresponsestoliterarytexts,making
referencetovaryingpointsofviewabouttheissuesraised

identifyingandanalysingethicalpositionsonacurrentissue
debatedinblogsoronlinediscussionforums,includingvalues
and/orprinciplesinvolvedandthestrengthsandweaknessesofthe
positioninthecontextoftheissue

literarydevicecanbeusedinarangeof
differenttypesoftextssuchaspoetryto
evokeparticularemotionalresponses
(ACELT1643)
Evaluatethesocial,moralandethical
positionsrepresentedintexts
(ACELT1812)

Literacy

Elaborations
l

consideringethicalpositionsacrossmorethanonecultureas
representedintextandconsiderthesimilaritiesanddifferences

questioningtherepresentationofstereotypesofpeople,cultures,
places,eventsandconcepts,andexpressingviewsonthe
appropriatenessoftheserepresentations

identifyingandexplainingsatiricalevents,includingeventsinother
cultures,forexampledepictionsinpoliticalcartoons

identifyingandevaluatingpoetic,lyricallanguageinthedepictionof
people,culture,places,events,thingsandconceptsintexts

analysingthewayssocioculturalvalues,attitudesandbeliefsare
presentedintextsbycomparingthewaysnewsisreportedin
commercialmediaandAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandermedia

skimreadingsectionsofapersuasivetexttoidentifythemain
contention,keyargumentsinlinkedparagraphsandsupporting
evidenceinordertolocatepointsforbuildingrebuttalorcounter
argument

Chooseareadingtechniqueandreading

assessingtheimpactofhyperlinkedtextinawebsitesnavigation

pathappropriateforthetypeoftext,to

usingappropriatemetalanguageassociatedwithdigital
technologiestoanalysereadingpathwaysonwebsites

identifyingthemeaningofanincreasingrangeofsubtlevocabulary,
forexampleinferringthedifferentconnotationsofwordsin
advertisingtextsfromothercultures

Analyseandevaluatehowpeople,
cultures,places,events,objectsand
conceptsarerepresentedintexts,
includingmediatexts,throughlanguage,
structuraland/orvisualchoices
(ACELY1749)

Identifyandanalyseimplicitorexplicit
values,beliefsandassumptionsintexts
andhowtheseareinfluencedbypurposes
andlikelyaudiences(ACELY1752)

retrieveandconnectideaswithinand
betweentexts(ACELY1753)
Usecomprehensionstrategiesto
compareandcontrastinformationwithin
andbetweentexts,identifyingand
analysingembeddedperspectives,and
evaluatingsupportingevidence
(ACELY1754)

Writing
Language

Elaborations

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37

English
Understandhowparagraphsandimages

analysingandexperimentingwithcombinationsofgraphics,textand
soundintheproductionofmultimodaltextssuchasdocumentaries,
mediareports,onlinemagazinesanddigitalbooks

recognisinghowemphasisinsentencescanbechangedby
reorderingclauses(forexample,Shemadeherwayhomebecause
shewasfeelingillascomparedwithBecauseshewasfeelingill,
shemadeherwayhome)orpartsofclauses(forexample,The
horsesracedupfromthevalleyascomparedwithUpfromthe
valleyracedthehorses)

recognisinghowthefocusofasentencecanbechangedthrough
theuseofthepassivevoice(forexamplecompareactive,The
policehadcaughtthethief.withpassiveThethiefhadbeen
caught.)

observinghowauthorssometimesuseverblessclausesforeffect
(forexample,Andwhatabouttheotherwoman?Withherlongblack
eyelashesandredlipstick)

understandingthatasentencecanbeginwithacoordinating
conjunctionforstylisticeffect(forexample,Andshewenton
planningtoherselfhowshewouldmanageit)

consideringhownominalisationaffectsthewayinwhicheventsare
constructedandexplained,makingsomeinformationmoreexplicit
andotherinformationlessso

analysinghowlogicalrelationsbetweenideasarebuiltupby
combiningmainwithsubordinateclausesindicatingcause,result,
manner,concession,condition,andsoon(forexample,Although
hispoemswerenotgenerallywellreceivedbycriticsduringhislife
(concession),Keatsreputationgrewsubstantiallyafterhisdeath)

notinghowtechnicalityallowsforefficientreferencetoshared
knowledge,indicatinggrowingexpertiseinthefield(forexample,
TheRomanticpoetryofKeatsischaracterisedbysensualimagery,
mostnotablyintheseriesofodes.)

observinghowabstractionallowsforgreatergeneralisationata
higherlevel(forexample,thepolitical,religious,socialand
economicfeaturesofthesocietywhichisanabstractnoun
group/phrase)

creatingtextsthatdemandcomplexprocessesofresponding,for
exampletheinclusionofsymbolisminadvertising,foreshadowing
indocumentaryandironyinhumoroustexts

canbearrangedfordifferentpurposes,
audiences,perspectivesandstylistic
effects(ACELA1567)
Analyseandevaluatetheeffectivenessof
awiderangeofsentenceandclause
structuresasauthorsdesignandcraft
texts(ACELA1569)

Analysehowhigherorderconceptsare
developedincomplextextsthrough
languagefeaturesincluding
nominalisation,clausecombinations,
technicalityandabstraction(ACELA1570)

Refinevocabularychoicestodiscriminate
betweenshadesofmeaning,with
deliberateattentiontotheeffecton
audiences(ACELA1571)
Understandhowtouseknowledgeofthe
spellingsystemtospellunusualand
technicalwordsaccurately,forexample
thosebasedonuncommonGreekand
Latinroots(ACELA1573)

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38

English
Understandconventionsforcitingothers,

andhowtoreferencetheseindifferent
ways(ACELA1568)
Literature
Createliterarytextsthatreflectan

Elaborations
l

creatingtextswhichdrawonstudentsexperienceofothertextsand
whichhaveapersonalaestheticappeal

reflectontheauthorswhohaveinfluencedstudentsownaesthetic
styleandevaluatetheirimpact

creatingarangeofstudentsownspoken,writtenormultimodal
texts,experimentingwithandmanipulatinglanguagedevicesfor
particularaudiences,purposesandcontexts

usinghumouranddramaasdevicestoentertain,informand
persuadelisteners,viewersandreaders

creatingtextsthatrefertothemesormakeparticularconnectionsto
texts,forexamplewritingcrimefictionorromanceshortstories

emergingsenseofpersonalstyleand
evaluatetheeffectivenessofthesetexts
(ACELT1814)
Createliterarytextswithasustained
voice,selectingandadaptingappropriate
textstructures,literarydevices,language,
auditoryandvisualstructuresandfeatures

understandingwhotociteinessays,reviewsandacademic
assignmentsandwhenitisappropriatetousedirectquotationsor
toreportsourcesmoregenerally

foraspecificpurposeandintended
audience(ACELT1815)
Createimaginativetextsthatmake
relevantthematicandintertextual
connectionswithothertexts(ACELT1644)
Literacy
Createsustainedtexts,includingtextsthat

Elaborations
l

presentingastructuredargumentbyprovidingastatementofthe
majorperspectivesorconcernsrelatingtoanissuepreviewingthe
structureofargumentsstructuringthetexttoprovideamajorpoint
foreachparagraphwithsuccinctelaboration,andconcludingwitha
summaryofthemainissuesorrecommendationsinanargument

creatingspoken,writtenandmultimodaltextsthatcompelreadersto
empathisewiththeideasandemotionsexpressedorimplied

exploringmodelsofsustainedtextscreatedforpersuasive
purposesaboutachallengingorcomplexissuefromothercultures,
includingAsia

reflectingon,critiquingandrefiningstudentsowntextspriorto
publishingforanauthenticaudience,suchasuploadingamovieto
awebsite,contributingtoananthology,writingtextsappropriatefor
theworkplace,ordeliveringapresentation

designingawebpagethatcombinesnavigation,text,soundand
movingandstillimagesforaspecificaudience

combinespecificdigitalormediacontent,
forimaginative,informative,orpersuasive
purposesthatreflectuponchallenging
andcomplexissues(ACELY1756)

Review,editandrefinestudentsownand
otherstextsforcontrolofcontent,
organisation,sentencestructure,
vocabulary,and/orvisualfeaturesto
achieveparticularpurposesandeffects
(ACELY1757)
Usearangeofsoftware,includingword
processingprograms,confidently,flexibly
andimaginativelytocreate,editand
publishtexts,consideringtheidentified
purposeandthecharacteristicsofthe
user(ACELY1776)
SpeakingandListening

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39

English
Language
UnderstandthatStandardAustralian

Elaborations
l

investigatingdifferencesbetweenspokenandwrittenEnglishby
comparingthelanguageofconversationandinterviewswiththe
writtenlanguageofprinttexts

experimentingwithandincorporatingnewwordsandcreative
inventionsinstudentsownwrittenandspokentexts

understandinghowandwhyspellingbecamestandardisedand
howconventionshavechangedovertimeandcontinuetochange
throughcommonusage,theinventionofnewwordsandcreative
combinationsofexistingwords

identifyinglanguagethatseekstoalignthelistenerorreader(for
example'ofcourse','obviously','asyoucanimagine')

identifyingtheuseoffirstperson(I,we)andsecondperson
pronouns(you)todistanceorinvolvetheaudience,forexampleina
speechmadetoalocalculturalcommunity

identifyingreferencestosharedassumptions

identifyingappealstosharedculturalknowledge,valuesandbeliefs

reflectingonexperiencesofwhenlanguageincludes,distancesor
marginalisesothers

creatingtextsthatrepresentpersonalbeliefsystems(suchas
credos,statementsofethicaljudgements,guidelines,letterstothe
editorandblogentries)

Englishinitsspokenandwrittenforms
hasahistoryofevolutionandchangeand
continuestoevolve(ACELA1563)

Understandhowlanguageusecanhave
inclusiveandexclusivesocialeffects,and
canempowerordisempowerpeople
(ACELA1564)

Literature
Reflecton,extend,endorseorrefute

Elaborations
l

determining,throughdebate,whetheratextpossessesuniversal
qualitiesandremainsrelevant

presentingargumentsbasedonclosetextualanalysistosupportan
interpretationofatext,forexamplewritinganessayorcreatingaset
ofdirectorsnotes

creatingpersonalreadinglistsinavarietyofgenresandexplainwhy
thetextsqualifyforinclusiononaparticularlist

reflectinguponandaskingquestionsaboutinterpretationsoftexts
relevanttoastudentsculturalbackground

othersinterpretationsofandresponsesto
literature(ACELT1640)

Literacy
Identifyandexplorethepurposesand

Elaborations
l

identifyingstereotypesofpeople,cultures,places,events,and
conceptsandexplainingwhytheyarestereotypes

identifyingandexplainingsatiricalevents,includingeventsinother
cultures,forexampledepictionsinpoliticalcartoons

applyingknowledgeofspoken,visual,auditory,technicaland
multimodalresources(forexamplesoundandsilence,camerashot
types,lightingandcolour)inconjunctionwithverbalresourcesfor
varyingpurposesandcontexts

selectingsubjectmatterandlanguagetopositionreaderstoaccept
representationsofpeople,events,ideasandinformation

effectsofdifferenttextstructuresand
languagefeaturesofspokentexts,and
usethisknowledgetocreatepurposeful
textsthatinform,persuadeandengage
(ACELY1750)

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40

English
Useorganisationpatterns,voiceand

participatinginpair,group,class,schoolandcommunityspeaking
andlisteningsituations,includinginformalconversations,
discussions,debatesandpresentations

usingeffectivestrategiesfordialogueanddiscussioninarangeof
formalandinformalcontexts,includingspeakingclearlyand
coherentlyandatappropriatelength,activatingpriorknowledgeto
assessthecredibilityofaspeakersassertions,andsummarising
alternativeviewsonanissue

choosingvocabularyandspokentextandsentencestructuresfor
particularpurposesandaudiences,suchasdebatingatopicwitha
teamfromanotherschool,creatingavoiceoverforamedia
presentation,andadaptinglanguagedevicessuchasevaluative
language,causeandeffect,anecdotesandhumourforparticular
effects

adaptingvoiceeffects,suchastone,volume,pitch,pausesand
changeofpace,fortheirspecificeffectssuchasputtingforwarda
pointofvieworattemptingtopersuadeanaudiencetoacourseof
action

usingassumptionsaboutlisteners,viewersandreaderstotryto
positionthemtoacceptaparticularpointofview

languageconventionstopresentapointof
viewonasubject,speakingclearly,
coherentlyandwitheffect,usinglogic,
imageryandrhetoricaldevicestoengage
audiences(ACELY1813)

Plan,rehearseanddeliverpresentations,
selectingandsequencingappropriate
contentandmultimodalelementsto
influenceacourseofaction(ACELY1751)

Level10achievementstandard
Readingandviewing
BytheendofLevel10,studentsevaluatehowtextstructurescanbeusedininnovativewaysbydifferentauthors.Theyexplain
howthechoiceoflanguagefeatures,imagesandvocabularycontributestothedevelopmentofindividualstyle.
Theydevelopandjustifytheirowninterpretationsoftexts.Theyevaluateotherinterpretations,analysingtheevidenceusedto
supportthem.
Writing
Studentsshowhowtheselectionoflanguagefeaturescanachieveprecisionandstylisticeffect.Theyexplaindifferent
viewpoints,attitudesandperspectivesthroughthedevelopmentofcohesiveandlogicalarguments.Theydeveloptheirown
stylebyexperimentingwithlanguagefeatures,stylisticdevices,textstructuresandimages.Theycreateawiderangeoftexts
toarticulatecomplexideas.Theydemonstrateunderstandingofgrammar,varyvocabularychoicesforimpact,andaccurately
usespellingandpunctuationwhencreatingandeditingtexts.
SpeakingandListening
Studentslistenforwaysfeatureswithintextscanbemanipulatedtoachieveparticulareffects.Theyshowhowtheselectionof
languagefeaturescanachieveprecisionandstylisticeffect.Theyexplaindifferentviewpoints,attitudesandperspectives
throughthedevelopmentofcohesiveandlogicalarguments.Theydeveloptheirownstylebyexperimentingwithlanguage
features,stylisticdevices,textstructuresandimages.Theycreateawiderangeoftextstoarticulatecomplexideas.They
makepresentationsandcontributeactivelytoclassandgroupdiscussionsbuildingonothers'ideas,solvingproblems,
justifyingopinionsanddevelopingandexpandingarguments.

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41

The Humanities - History

TableofContents
Overview

RationaleandAims

Contentstructure

HistoryacrossFoundationtoLevel10

Achievementstandards

Diversityoflearners

Crosscurriculumpriorities

CurriculumF10

10

Level7

10

Level8

19

Level9

29

Level10

37

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

The Humanities - History

Rationale
Historyisadisciplinedprocessofinquiryintothepastthatdevelopsstudents'curiosityandimagination.Awarenessof
historyisanessentialcharacteristicofanysociety,andhistoricalknowledgeisfundamentaltounderstandingourselvesand
others.Itpromotestheunderstandingofsocieties,events,movementsanddevelopmentsthathaveshapedhumanityfrom
earliesttimes.Ithelpsstudentsappreciatehowtheworldanditspeoplehavechanged,aswellasthesignificantcontinuities
thatexisttothepresentday.History,asadiscipline,hasitsownmethodsandprocedureswhichmakeitdifferentfromother
waysofunderstandinghumanexperience.Thestudyofhistoryisbasedonevidencederivedfromremainsofthepast.Itis
interpretativebynature,promotesdebateandencouragesthinkingabouthumanvalues,includingpresentandfuture
challenges.Theprocessofhistoricalinquirydevelopstransferableskills,suchastheabilitytoaskrelevantquestions
criticallyanalyseandinterpretsourcesconsidercontextrespectandexplaindifferentperspectivesdevelopandsubstantiate
interpretations,andcommunicateeffectively.
ThecurriculumgenerallytakesaworldhistoryapproachwithinwhichthehistoryofAustraliaistaught.Itdoesthisinorderto
equipstudentsfortheworld(local,regionalandglobal)inwhichtheylive.Anunderstandingofworldhistoryenhances
studentsappreciationofAustralianhistory.Itenablesthemtodevelopanunderstandingofthepastandpresentexperiences
ofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples,theiridentityandthecontinuingvalueoftheirculture.Italsohelpsstudents
toappreciateAustralia'sdistinctivepathofsocial,economicandpoliticaldevelopment,itspositionintheAsiaPacificregion,
anditsglobalinterrelationships.Thisknowledgeandunderstandingisessentialforinformedandactiveparticipationin
Australia'sdiversesociety.

Aims
AusVELSHistoryaimstoensurethatstudentsdevelop:
l

interestin,andenjoymentof,historicalstudyforlifelonglearningandwork,includingtheircapacityandwillingnessto
beinformedandactivecitizens

knowledge,understandingandappreciationofthepastandtheforcesthatshapesocieties,includingAustralian
society

understandinganduseofhistoricalconcepts,suchasevidence,continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,
empathy,significanceandcontestability

capacitytoundertakehistoricalinquiry,includingskillsintheanalysisanduseofsources,andinexplanationand
communication.

ContentStructure
AusVELSHistoryisorganisedintotwointerrelatedstrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills.

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding
Thisstrandincludespersonal,family,local,stateorterritory,national,regionalandworldhistory.Thereisanemphasison
AustralianhistoryinitsworldhistorycontextatFoundation(includingLevelsAtoDforStudentswithDisabilities)toLevel10
andafocusonworldhistoryintheseniorsecondarylevels.Thestrandincludesastudyofsocieties,events,movementsand
developmentsthathaveshapedworldhistoryfromthetimeoftheearliesthumancommunitiestothepresentday.

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Thisstrandexploreskeyconceptsfordevelopinghistoricalunderstanding,suchas:evidence,continuityandchange,cause
andeffect,significance,perspectives,empathyandcontestability.Theseconceptsmaybeinvestigatedwithinaparticular
historicalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusforhistoricalinquiries.

HistoricalSkills
Thisstrandpromotesskillsusedintheprocessofhistoricalinquiry:chronology,termsandconceptshistoricalquestions
andresearchtheanalysisanduseofsourcesperspectivesandinterpretationsexplanationandcommunication.Withinthis
strandthereisanincreasingemphasisonhistoricalinterpretationandtheuseofevidence.

Relationshipbetweenthestrands
Thetwostrandsareintegratedinthedevelopmentofateachingandlearningprogram.TheHistoricalKnowledgeand
Understandingstrandprovidesthecontextsthroughwhichparticularskillsaretobedeveloped.HistoricalSkillshavebeen
describedinbandsofschooling,overthreelevelsatFoundation(includingLevelsAtoDforStudentswithDisabilities)to
Level2andattwolevelintervalsinsubsequentlevels.ThesequencinganddescriptionoftheHistoricalSkillsstrand,in
bandsofschoolingwillassistinmultiageprogrammingbyprovidingacommonfocusfortheteachingandlearningof
contentintheHistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingstrand.

Inquiryquestions
Eachlevelincludeskeyinquiryquestionsthatprovideaframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,
understandingandskills.

Overviews
HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingincludesanoverviewofthehistoricalperiodtobecoveredineachlevelfromLevel
7to10.Theoverviewisnotintendedtobetaughtindepthitwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthe
level.Theoverviewcontentidentifiesimportantfeaturesofthehistoricalperiodattherelevantlevelandprovidesanexpansive
chronologythathelpsstudentsunderstandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.

Depthstudies
Inadditiontotheoverview,HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingincludesthreedepthstudiesforthehistoricalperiodat
eachlevelfromLevel7to10.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocusonaparticularsociety,event,
movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectiveisstudiedindetail,whichwillconstituteapproximately30%ofthe
totalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachelectiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthe
historicalperiod.Theorderanddetailinwhichcontentistaughtisaprogrammingdecision.Contentmaybeintegratedin
waysappropriatetothespecificlocalcontextanditmaybeintegratedwiththecontentofotherdepthstudyelectives.

Relationshipbetweenoverviewsanddepthstudies
Aspartofateachingandlearningprogram,thedepthstudycontentateachlevelfromLevel7to10maybeintegratedwith
theoverviewcontent.Theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingofdepthstudycontent.Thismeansthatthe
overviewcontentcanprovidestudentswithanintroductiontothehistoricalperioditcanmakethelinkstoandbetweenthe
depthstudies,anditcanconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod.

Conceptsfordevelopinghistoricalunderstanding
AusVELSHistoryincludesconceptsfordevelopinghistoricalunderstanding,suchas:evidence,continuityandchange,cause
andeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.

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InFoundation(includingLevelsAtoDforStudentswithDisabilities)toLevel2,thereisaparticularemphasisonthe
conceptsofcontinuityandchange,causeandeffect,andsignificancewithinthecontextofpersonal,familyandlocalhistory.
TheseconceptscontinuetobeafocusofstudyinLevels36withtheinclusionofcontentrelatedtoperspectiveschallenging
thenotionthatthepastisagivenandisunproblematic.InLevels710theconceptsofevidenceandcontestabilityare
introducedtofurtherdevelopstudents'understandingofthenatureofhistoricalinterpretationandargument.

Leveldescriptions
Leveldescriptionsprovideanoverviewofthecontentthatisbeingstudiedatthatlevel.Theyalsoemphasisetheinterrelated
natureofthetwostrandsandtheexpectationthatplanningwillinvolveintegrationofcontentfromacrossthestrands.

Contentdescriptions
AusVELSHistoryincludescontentdescriptionsateachlevel.Thesesetouttheknowledge,understandingandskillsthat
teachersareexpectedtoteachandstudentsareexpectedtolearn.Howevertheydonotprescribeapproachestoteaching.
Thecontentdescriptionshavebeenwrittentoensurethatlearningisappropriatelyorderedandthatunnecessaryrepetitionis
avoided.However,aconceptorskillintroducedatonelevelmayberevisited,strengthenedandextendedatlaterlevelsas
needed.

Contentelaborations
Contentelaborationsareprovidedforalllevelstoillustrateandexemplifycontentandtoassistteachersindevelopinga
commonunderstandingofthecontentdescriptions.Theyarenotintendedtobecomprehensivecontentpointsthatall
studentsneedtobetaught.

Glossary
Aglossaryisprovidedtosupportacommonunderstandingofkeytermsandconceptsinthecontentdescriptions.

HistoryacrossFoundationtoLevel10
TheAusVELScurriculumisdescribedbylevels.Thisdocumentprovidesadviceonthenatureoflearners,byleveland
ageandtherelevantcurriculum:
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FoundationtoLevel2:typicallystudentsfrom5to8yearsofage

Levels36:typicallystudentsfrom8to12yearsofage

Levels710:typicallystudentsfrom12to16yearsofage.

TheTowardsFoundationLevelAusVELSLevelsAtoD(StudentswithDisabilities)focussesonprogressingstudentsfrom
apreintentionaltointentionalstate,andarenotassociatedwithanysetageoryearlevelthatlinkschronologicalageto
cognitiveprogress.

FoundationtoLevel2
Curriculumfocus:Awarenessoffamilyhistoryandcommunityheritage
Throughexperimentation,practiceandplay,childrenintheselevelsusetheirinterestinpeopleandhowthingsworktomake
senseoftheirworld.

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ThishistorycurriculumenablesstudentsinFoundationtoLevel2tolearnabouttheirownsocialcontextoffamily,friendsand
school,andthesignificanceofthepast.Theyengagewiththeremainsofthepastdevelopaconceptoftimeaspresent,past
andfuture,andthroughroleplayusetheirimaginationtospeculateaboutthelivesofothersinthepast.

Levels36
Curriculumfocus:Local/nationalhistoryanduseofarangeofsources
Studentsdrawontheirgrowingexperienceoffamily,schoolandthewidercommunitytodeveloptheirunderstandingofthe
worldandtheirrelationshiptootherspastandpresent.Intheselevels,studentsbegintobetterunderstandandappreciate
differentpointsofviewandtodevelopanawarenessofjusticeandfairplay.
ThishistorycurriculumseekstotargetthedistinctnatureoflearnersinLevels3to6byincludingcontentaboutAboriginal
andTorresStraitIslandersocieties,democraticconceptsandrights,andthediversityofAustraliansociety.
Inthisway,studentsdevelopanunderstandingoftheheritageoftheircommunityandoftheirabilitytocontributetoit.They
becomeawareofsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenpeopleandbecomemoreawareofdiversityinthewidercommunity
aswellastheconceptofchangeovertime.

Levels710
Curriculumfocus:WorldandAustralianhistory,theanalysisanduseofsourcesandhistorical
interpretation
Asstudentsmoveintoadolescence,theyundergoarangeofimportantphysical,cognitive,emotionalandsocialchanges.
Studentsoftenbegintoquestionestablishedconventions,practicesandvalues.Theirinterestsextendwellbeyondtheirown
communitiesandtheybegintodevelopconcernsaboutwiderissues.
Studentsinthisagerangeincreasinglylookforandvaluelearningthatisperceivedtoberelevant,isconsistentwithpersonal
goals,and/orleadstoimportantoutcomes.Increasinglytheyareabletoworkwithmoreabstractconceptsandarekeento
explorethenatureofevidenceandthecontestabilityofideas.
Throughthishistorycurriculum,studentsinLevels7to10pursuebroadquestionssuchas:Howdoweknowaboutthe
ancientpast?Whatkeybeliefsandvaluesemergedandhowdidtheyinfluencesocieties?Howdidthenatureofglobal
conflictchangeduringthetwentiethcentury?Thiscurriculumalsoprovidesopportunitiestoengagestudentsthrough
contextsthataremeaningfulandrelevanttothemandthroughpastandpresentdebates.

Curriculumstructure:FoundationtoLevel6andLevels710
Thecurriculumstructureateachlevel(F6)includesadescriptionofthecontentfocusandkeyinquiryquestions.The
curriculumprovidesopportunitiesforthecontenttobetaughtusingspecificlocalcontexts.
Thecurriculumstructureateachlevel(710)includesadescriptionofthecontentfocus,keyinquiryquestions,overviewof
thehistoricalperiod,anddepthstudies.Theoverviewisdesignedtointroducethebroadcontentandcontextsforstudy.In
addition,forLevels710therearethreedepthstudiesthatprovideanopportunitytoinvestigateaspectsingreaterdepthand
thusprovidescopeforthedevelopmentofhistoricalknowledge,understandingandskills.Thecurriculumprovides
opportunitiesforthecontenttobetaughtusingspecificlocalcontexts.ThestudyofhistoryinLevels710consistsoffour
historicalperiods:
l

theLevel7curriculumfocusesonhistoryfromthetimeoftheearliesthumancommunitiestotheendoftheancient
period(approximately60,000BCEc.650CE)aperioddefinedbythedevelopmentofculturalpracticesandorganised
societies

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l

theLevel8curriculumfocusesonhistoryfromtheendoftheancientperiodtothebeginningofthemodernperiod
(c.6501750)aspanofhumanhistorymarkedbysignificanteconomic,religiousandpoliticalchange

theLevel9curriculumfocusesonthemakingofthemodernworldandAustraliafrom1750to1918aneraof
industrialism,nationalismandimperialism

theLevel10curriculumfocusesonthehistoryofthemodernworldandAustraliafrom1918tothepresentThe
twentiethcenturywasanimportantperiodinAustraliassocial,cultural,economicandpoliticaldevelopment.

TheAusVELSHistoryScopeandSequencechartisavailablefromtheVCAAwebsite.

AchievementStandards
Achievementstandardsindicatethequalityoflearningstudentsshouldtypicallydemonstratebyaparticularpointintheir
schooling.Theydescribethequalityoflearning(theextentofknowledge,thedepthofunderstandingandthesophisticationof
skills)thatwouldindicatethestudentiswellplacedtocommencethelearningrequiredatthenextlevelofachievement.
Thesequenceofachievementstandardsacrossthelevelsdescribesprogressinthelearningarea.Thissequenceprovides
teacherswithaframeworkofgrowthanddevelopmentinthelearningarea.
Studentworksamplesplayakeyroleincommunicatingexpectationsdescribedintheachievementstandards.Eachwork
sampleincludestherelevantassessmenttask,thestudentsresponse,andannotationsidentifyingthequalityoflearning
evidentinthestudentsresponseinrelationtorelevantpartsoftheachievementstandard.Together,thedescriptionofthe
achievementstandardandtheaccompanyingsetofannotatedworksampleshelpteacherstomakejudgmentsabout
whetherstudentshaveachievedthestandard.

DiversityofLearners
TheAusVELScurriculumhasbeendevelopedtoensurethatcurriculumcontentandachievementstandardsestablishhigh
expectationsforallstudents.Everystudentisentitledtoenrichinglearningexperiencesacrossallareasofthecurriculum.
StudentsinAustralianclassroomshavemultiple,diverseandchangingneedsthatareshapedbyindividuallearning
historiesandabilitiesaswellascultural,languagebackgroundsandsocioeconomicfactors.

StudentswithDisabilities
TheobjectivesofAusVELSarethesameforallstudents.Thecurriculumoffersflexibilityforteacherstotailortheirteachingin
waysthatproviderigorous,relevantandengaginglearningandassessmentopportunitiesforstudentswithdisabilities.
Moststudentswithdisabilitiescanengagewiththecurriculumprovidedthenecessaryadjustmentsaremadetothe
complexityofthecurriculumcontentandtothemeansthroughwhichstudentsdemonstratetheirknowledge,skillsand
understanding.
Forsomelearners,makingadjustmentstoinstructionalprocessesandtoassessmentstrategiesenablesstudentsto
achieveeducationalstandardscommensuratewiththeirpeers.
Forotherstudents,teacherswillneedtomakeappropriateadjustmentstothecomplexityofthecurriculumcontent,focusing
instructiononcontentdifferenttothattaughttoothersintheiragegroup.Itfollowsthatadjustmentswillalsoneedtobemade
tohowthestudentsprogressismonitored,assessedandreported.

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Forasmallpercentageofstudentswithdisabilities,theirlearningwillbewellbelowtheAusVELSFoundationstandards.
Mostofthesestudentshaveasignificantintellectualdisability.TowardsFoundationLevelAusVELSprovidesthiscohortof
studentswithaccesstocurriculumcontentandstandardsthatenablesstudentstomovetowardthelearningdescribedat
Foundationlevel.
ForAusVELSEnglish,Mathematics,ScienceandHistory,theTowardsFoundationLevelAusVELSmaterialsareintegrated
directlyintotheAusVELScurriculumandarereferredtoasLevelsAtoD.Thesematerialsincludelearningareaspecific
leveldescriptions,contentdescriptionsandelaborations,achievementstandardsandscopeandsequencecharts.
AboutLevelsAtoD(StudentswithDisabilities)
LevelsAtoD(StudentswithDisabilities)focusonprogressingstudentsfromapreintentionaltointentionalengagementin
learning.Theysupportstudentstodeveloptheirindependenceastheyexplore,participateandengageintheworldaround
them.Asstudentsprogressthroughtheselevels,theamountofsupportdecreasesastheyproceedtowardsbecoming
independentlearners.
LevelsAtoDarenotassociatedwithanysetageoryearlevelthatlinkschronologicalagetocognitiveprogress.Ratherthe
learningdescriptionsforlevelsAtoDarestructuredbythefollowingcontinuum:
LevelA:BeginningtoExplore
Atthislevelstudentsexperiencearangeoflearningactivitiesthatwillassistthemtoattendtoandexploretheworldaround
themwithasmuchindependenceaspossible.Experiencesaredesignedtomovestudentsfromapreintentionallevelof
respondingtoalevelwheretheresponseindicatesbeginningintention.Studentsneedhighlevelsofcoactivesupportand
focusedattentionfromtheteachertohelptheminitiateandrefinetheirresponses.Studentsdemonstratesomeawareness
andrecognitionoffamiliarpeopleandroutineactivities.
LevelB:ActiveExploration
Studentsatthislevelbecomelessreliantonhighlevelsofcoactivesupportandbecomemorereliantonverbalpromptsand
gesturestofacilitatetheirlearning.Theybegintoexploretheirworldindependentlyandengageinsimplecauseandeffect
playactivities.Studentsareabletofocusonstructuredlearningactivitiesforshortperiodsoftime.Theyrespondtofamiliar
peopleandeventsandbegintouseyes/noresponses.
LevelC:IntentionalParticipation
Studentsatthislevelarelessdependentoncoactivesupportandrespondmoreconsistentlytopromptsandsimpleclear
directionsfromtheteachertosupportthemintheirlearning.Theyaredisplayingthefirstsignsofindependenceand
becomingmorepeerfocused.Studentsparticipateinstructuredlearningactivitieswithothersandtheybegintousepictures,
photosandobjectstocommunicatepersonalinterestsandexperiences.Theystarttouseandlinksomefamiliarwordsand
imagestoconstructameaningfulcommunication.
LevelD:BuildingIndependence
Withteachersupportandcurriculumscaffolding,studentsatthislevelparticipatecooperativelyingrouplearningactivities.
Theyexpresstheirfeelings,needsandchoicesinincreasinglyappropriatewaysandcombineandsequencekeywordsand
imagestocommunicatepersonalinterestsandtorecountsignificantexperiences.Theyindicatebeginningunderstandingof
socialrulesandexpectationsandarebeginningtoreflectontheirownbehaviour.
SpecificleveldescriptionsforAusVELSHistoryareintegratedwiththeAusVELScurriculum,i.e.,see

http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/TheHumanitiesHistory/Curriculum/F10.

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Formoreadviceinregardtocurriculumprovisionandstudentswithdisabilities,pleaseseetheAusVELSStudents

withDisabilitiesGuidelines(PDF).AdditionaladviceandsupportisalsoavailablefromtheDEECDAbilitiesBased
LearningandEducationSupport(ABLES)website.

Englishasanadditionallanguage
ManystudentsinAustralianschoolsarelearnersofEnglishasanadditionallanguage(EAL).LearnersofEALarestudents
whosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanStandardAustralianEnglishandwhorequireadditionalsupporttoassist
themtodevelopEnglishlanguageproficiency.WhilemanyEALlearnersdowellinschool,thereisasignificantgroupof
theselearnerswholeaveschoolwithoutachievingtheirpotential.
EALstudentscomefromdiversebackgroundsandmayinclude:
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childrenwhosefirstlanguageisalanguageotherthanEnglish

AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderstudentswhosefirstlanguageisanIndigenouslanguage,includingtraditional
languages,creolesandrelatedvarieties,orAboriginalEnglish.

EALlearnersenterAustralianschoolsatdifferentagesandatdifferentstagesofEnglishlanguagelearningandhavevarious
educationalbackgroundsintheirfirstlanguages.Forsome,schoolistheonlyplacetheyuseEnglish.
TheaimsofAusVELSHistoryareultimatelythesameforallstudents.However,EALlearnersaresimultaneouslylearninga
newlanguageandtheknowledge,understandingandskillsofthehistorycurriculumthroughthatnewlanguage.They
requireadditionaltimeandsupport,alongwithinformedteachingthatexplicitlyaddressestheirlanguageneeds,and
assessmentsthattakeintoaccounttheirdevelopinglanguageproficiency.
AnationalEALdocumentisbeingproducedthatsupportstheAusVELScurriculum.Itprovidesadescriptionofhowlanguage
proficiencydevelops,andisavaluablereferenceforallteachers.Itallowshistoryteacherstoidentifythelanguagelevelsof
theEALlearnersintheirclassroomsandtoaddresstheirspecificlearningrequirementswhenteaching,ensuringequityof
accesstothehistorylearningareaforall.
Intheinterim,adviceabouthowtousethecurriculumwithEALstudentsisavailablehere.

Crosscurriculumpriorities
TherearethreecrosscurriculumprioritiesinAusVELSHistory:
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AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures

AsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsia

Sustainability.

Thecrosscurriculumprioritiesareembeddedinthecurriculumandwillhaveastrongbutvaryingpresencedependingon
theirrelevancetoeachofthelearningareas.

AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunitiesarestrong,richanddiverse.AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderIdentityis
centraltothispriorityandisintrinsicallylinkedtoliving,learningAboriginalandTorresStraitIslandercommunities,deep
knowledgetraditionsandholisticworldview.

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AconceptualframeworkbasedonAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoplesuniquesenseofIdentityhasbeen
developedasastructuraltoolfortheembeddingofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultureswithin
AusVELSHistory.ThissenseofIdentityisapproachedthroughtheinterconnectedaspectsofCountry/Place,Peopleand
Culture.Embracingtheseelementsenhancesallareasofthecurriculum.
TheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpriorityprovidesopportunitiesforalllearnerstodeepentheirknowledgeofAustralia
byengagingwiththeworldsoldestcontinuouslivingcultures.Thisknowledgeandunderstandingwillenrichtheirabilityto
participatepositivelyintheongoingdevelopmentofAustralia.
AusVELSHistoryvaluesAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderhistoriesandcultures.ItcelebratesAboriginalandTorresStrait
IslanderhistoriesaspartofthesharedhistorybelongingtoallAustralians.
StudentswillexaminehistoricalperspectivesfromanAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderviewpoint.Theywilllearnabout
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoplespriortocolonisationbytheBritish,theensuingcontactanditsimpacts.They
willexaminekeypoliciesandpoliticalmovementsoverthelasttwocenturies.Studentswilldevelopanawarenessofthe
significantrolesofAboriginalandTorresStraitislanderpeopleinAustraliansociety.

AsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsia
AusVELSHistory,thepriorityofAsiaandAustraliasengagementwithAsiaprovidesrichandengagingcontentandcontexts
fordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskills.
AusVELSHistoryenablesstudentstodevelopanunderstandingofhistoriesofthediversepeoplesofAsiaandtheir
contributionstotheregionandtheworld,andanappreciationoftheimportanceoftheregionforAustraliaandtheworld.This
happensasstudentslearnabouttheimportanceofthetraditions,beliefsandcelebrationsofpeoplesfromtheAsiaregion
andthroughthestudyofancientsocieties,trade,conflicts,progressivemovementsandmigrationtoAustraliabypeoplefrom
Asia.
Inthislearningarea,studentsrecognisethedynamicnatureofsociopoliticalrelationshipswithintheregionovertime,and
therolethatindividuals,governmentsandotherorganisationsplayinshapingrelationshipsbetweenpeoplesandcountries.
TheydevelopanappreciationofthehistoryofAustraliaAsiaengagementandhowthisinfluencescontemporary
relationshipswithinAustraliansocietyandrelationshipsbetweenAustraliaandthecountriesofAsia.Studentsalso
understandtheongoingroleplayedbyAustraliaandindividualAustralians,includingAustraliansofAsianheritage,inmajor
eventsanddevelopmentsintheAsiaregion.

Sustainability
InAusVELSHistory,thepriorityofsustainabilityprovidesacontextfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,
understandingandskills.Itassistsstudentsinunderstandingtheforcesthatinfluencecontinuityandchange.
AusVELSHistory providescontentthatsupportsthedevelopmentofstudentsworldviews,particularlyinrelationto
judgmentsaboutpastsocialandeconomicsystems,andaccesstoanduseoftheEarthsresources.Itprovides
opportunitiesforstudentstodevelopanhistoricalperspectiveonsustainability.Makingdecisionsaboutsustainabilitytohelp
shapeabetterfuturerequiresanunderstandingofhowthepastrelatestothepresent,andneedstobeinformedby
historicaltrendsandexperiences.
Inthislearningarea,studentsdevelopunderstanding,forexample,ofthechangesinenvironmentsovertime,theroleplayed
byindividualsandcommunitiesinprotectingenvironments,theemergenceoffarmingandsettledcommunities,the
developmentoftheIndustrialRevolutionandthegrowthofpopulation,theoveruseofnaturalresourcesandtheriseof
environmentalmovements.

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Level7
TheAncientWorld
TheLevel7curriculumprovidesastudyofhistoryfromthetimeoftheearliesthumancommunitiestotheendofthe
ancientperiod,approximately60000BC(BCE)c.650AD(CE).Itwasaperioddefinedbythedevelopmentofcultural
practicesandorganisedsocieties.Thestudyoftheancientworldincludesthediscoveries(theremainsofthepastand
whatweknow)andthemysteries(whatwedonotknow)aboutthisperiodofhistory,inarangeofsocietiesincluding
Australia,Egypt,Greece,Rome,ChinaandIndia.
Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence,
continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay
beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor
historicalinquiries.
Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills.
Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwayandinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific
localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions.
Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions
throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
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Howdoweknowabouttheancientpast?

Whyandwheredidtheearliestsocietiesdevelop?

Whatemergedasthedefiningcharacteristicsofancientsocieties?

Whathavebeenthelegaciesofancientsocieties?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding
Overview
Thefollowingcontentistobetaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtin
depth.Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies
importantfeaturesoftheperiod,approximately60000BC(BCE)c.650AD(CE),aspartofanexpansivechronology
thathelpsstudentsunderstandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroader
contextfortheteachingofdepthstudycontentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram.
Thismeansthatoverviewcontentcanbeusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethe
linkstoandbetweenthedepthstudiesandtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod.
Overviewcontentfortheancientworld(Egypt,Mesopotamia,Persia,Greece,Rome,India,ChinaandtheMaya)
includesthefollowing:
thetheorythatpeoplemovedoutofAfricaaround60000BC(BCE)andmigratedtootherpartsoftheworld,including
Australia.
l

usingamaptodescribethepatternofmovementofhumansoutofAfricaandacrossothercontinentsovertime,
andlookingatthetypesofevidenceofthesemovements(forexamplestonetools,humanremainsandcave
paintings)

theevidencefortheemergenceandestablishmentofancientsocieties(includingart,iconography,writingtoolsand

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pottery)
l

exploringanearlyexampleofart(forexamplethe17000BCEgreatbullpaintingsfromtheLascauxCavein
France)anddiscussingwhytheymayhavebeenpainted

discussingtheevolvingnatureoftheevidenceinthisperiod,whichshowsincreasinglysophisticatedformsof
technology(forexamplethetransitionfrommakingtoolsoutofstone,boneandwoodtometalworking)

identifyingsourcesofevidencefortheemergenceoforganisedstates(forexampletheCuneiformscriptphonetic
writingoftheSumeriansc.3500BCEtheancientlawcodeofHammurabiclaytabletsfromancientBabylon
c.1790BCEartefactsfoundinthetombsatUrSumerc.2500BCE,whichindicatethepresenceofeitherroyalty
orpriestessespotteryshardsandfragmentsdiscoveredinPalestinemadeofmudfromtheRiverNileinEgypt
asevidenceoftrade

keyfeaturesofancientsocieties(farming,trade,socialclasses,religion,ruleoflaw)


exploringwhytheshiftfromhuntingandforagingtocultivation(andthedomesticationofanimals)ledtothe
developmentofpermanentsettlements

identifyingthemajorcivilisationsoftheancientworld(namelyEgypt,Mesopotamia,Persia,Greece,Rome,India,
ChinaandtheMaya)whereandwhentheyexisted,andtheevidenceforcontactbetweenthem

locatingthemajorcivilisationsoftheancientworldonaworldmapandusingatimelinetoidentifythelongevityof
eachancientcivilisation

identifyingthemajorreligions/philosophiesthatemergedbytheendoftheperiod(Hinduism,Judaism,
Buddhism,Confucianism,Christianity,Islam),andtheirkeybeliefs(throughgroupwork)

Depthstudies
Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocus
onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A
depthstudyelectivewillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepth
studyelectiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand
learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwiththeoverviewcontentand/orwithotherdepthstudy
electives.
1Investigatingtheancientpast

Elaborations

Studentsbuildonandconsolidatetheirunderstandingofhistoricalinquiryfrompreviouslevelsindepth,usinga
rangeofsourcesforthestudyoftheancientpast.
Investigatingtheancientpast
Howhistoriansandarchaeologistsinvestigate

identifyingdifferentapproachestohistoricalinvestigationsuch
astheuseofexcavationandstratigraphy,oralhistoryanduse
ofdataderivedfromradiocarbondating

listingarangeofsources(botharchaeologicalandwritten)
requiredinanhistoricalinvestigationtodeveloparesponseto
thequestion(s)beingasked

history,includingexcavationandarchival
research(ACDSEH001)
Therangeofsourcesthatcanbeusedinan
historicalinvestigation,including
archaeologicalandwrittensources
(ACDSEH029)

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Themethodsandsourcesusedtoinvestigate

evaluatingvariousmethodsforinvestigatingtheancientpast,
forexamplestratigraphytodatediscoveriesDNAtestingto
identifypastindividualsfromtheirremains(suchasEgyptian
mummies)aswellascommondiseases

usingacrosssectionaldrawingoftheearthssurfacefroman
archaeologicalexcavationtoidentifytheevidencelocatedat
variouslayers(stratigraphy)andwhatitrevealsaboutchange
overtime(forexampleacharcoallayercontaininghuman
remainsandweaponsmayindicatethecaptureand
destructionofanancientsettlementsuchasTroy)

investigatingthediscoveryofMungoWomanin1969andthe
useofradiocarbondatingtodrawconclusionsaboutthe
longevityofhumanoccupationatLakeMungo

generatingarangeofquestionstoinvestigateasource(for
exampleashellmiddeninancientAustraliawhereitwas
found,howlongitwasusedfor,whatitrevealsabout
technologyandtheuseofenvironmentalresources)

investigatingworldheritagecriteriaforthelistingofsignificant
ancientsites,usinganexampleofanancientsitesuchas
Pompeii

explainingtheUNESCOledrescuemissiontosavethe
templesofAbuSimbel

atleastONEhistoricalcontroversyormystery
thathaschallengedhistoriansor
archaeologists,suchasintheanalysisof
unidentifiedhumanremains(ACDSEH030)

ThenatureofthesourcesforancientAustralia
andwhattheyrevealaboutAustraliaspastin
theancientperiod,suchastheuseof
resources(ACDSEH031)

Theimportanceofconservingtheremainsof
theancientpast,includingtheheritageof
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderPeoples.
(ACDSEH148)

2TheMediterraneanworld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEoftheseMediterraneansocietiesindepth:EgyptorGreeceorRome.
Egypt
ThephysicalfeaturesofancientEgypt(suchas

describingtheimportanceoftheRiverNiletoEgyptiansociety
(forexampleinundationandfarming,theworshipofHapi(god
oftheNile),andtheuseoftheNileasameansof
transportation)

creatingagraphicrepresentationofthesocialstructureof
Egyptiansociety

outliningtherightsofwomen(forexampleintheareasof
marriage,familylife,workandeducation)andtheir
responsibilities(thatis,generallylimitedtothehomeand
family)

investigatingsignificantbeliefsassociatedwithdeathand
funerarycustoms(forexamplebeliefinanafterlife)and
practices(forexampleburialintombsandtechniquesof
mummification)

generatingalternativeexplanationsforthebuildingofthe
pyramidsatGiza

theRiverNile)andhowtheyinfluencedthe
civilisationthatdevelopedthere(ACDSEH002)

RolesofkeygroupsinancientEgyptiansociety
(suchasthenobility,bureaucracy,women,
slaves),includingtheinfluenceoflawand
religion(ACDSEH032)

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
theancientEgyptians,withaparticular
emphasisonONEofthefollowingareas:
everydaylife,warfare,ordeathandfunerary
customs(ACDSEH033)

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Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother

explainingthenatureofcontactwithothersocieties(for
exampletradewithCyprus,CreteandGreece)andconflict(for
exampletheBattleofKadeshintheNewKingdomthat
concludedwithRamesesIIspeacetreatywiththeHittites)

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof
asignificanthistoricalfigurefromancientEgypt,andhowthey
wereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

describingtheimpactoftheseaandmountainrangesof
AncientGreeceonthedevelopmentofselfgoverningcitystates

examiningevidenceofthesocialstructureofAthenianor
Spartansociety(forexampletherolesofcitizens,women,
slavesinAtheniansocietyandtherolesofSpartiates,Perioikoi
andHelotsinSpartansociety)

outliningtherightsofcitizensinancientAthens(forexamplethe
righttovote),theirresponsibilities(forexamplemilitaryservice,
attendingassemblymeetings)andtheinventionoffreedom

investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesofthe
ancientGreeks(forexampletheOlympicGamesortheDelphic
Oracle)

investigatingsignificantbeliefsandvaluesassociatedwith
warfare(forexampleheroicidealsasrevealedintheIliad)and
militarypractices(forexamplearmyorganisation,thehoplite
phalanxandnavalwarfare)

explainingthenatureofcontactwithothersocieties(for
examplethecommoditiesthatformedthetradewithEgypt,
GreekcolonisationoftheMediterranean),andconflict(for
examplethePersianWarsandtheBattleofSalamis,the
empireofAlexandertheGreatandthereachofGreekculture)

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof
asignificanthistoricalfigurefromancientGreece,andhowthey
wereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas
theconquestofotherlands,theexpansionof
trade,andpeacetreaties(ACDSEH034)

Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient
EgyptianhistorysuchasHatshepsutor
RamesesII(ACDSEH129)
OR
Greece
ThephysicalfeaturesofancientGreece(such
asitsmountainouslandscape)andhowthey
influencedthecivilisationthatdevelopedthere
(ACDSEH003)
RolesofkeygroupsinAthenianand/orSpartan
society(suchascitizens,women,slaves),
includingtheinfluenceoflawandreligion
(ACDSEH035)

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
theancientGreeks,withaparticularemphasis
onONEofthefollowingareas:everydaylife,
warfare,ordeathandfunerarycustoms
(ACDSEH036)

Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother
societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas
theexpansionoftrade,colonisationandwar
(suchasthePeloponnesianandPersianwars)
(ACDSEH037)
Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient
GreekhistorysuchasLeonidasorPericles
(ACDSEH130)
OR
Rome

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ThephysicalfeaturesofancientRome(such

describingthemethodsusedbytheRomanstomanage
resources(forexamplethewatersupplythroughaqueducts
andplumbingsystems)

examiningtheevidenceofthesocialstructureofRoman
society(forexampletherolesofpatricians,plebeians,women
andslavesinthecityofRome)andtheideaofRepublican
virtueanditshistoricalresonance

describingthesignificanceofslaveryintheperiodofthe
RomanEmpire(forexampletheacquisitionofslavesthrough
warfare,theuseofslavesasgladiatorsandagricultural
labourers,andtheriseoffreedmen)

investigatingsignificantbeliefsassociatedwithdailylife(for
exampletheevidenceofhouseholdreligion)andpractices(for
exampletheuseofpublicamenitiessuchasbaths,andthe
formsofentertainmentintheatresandamphitheatres)

describingthefurthestextentoftheRomanEmpireandthe
influenceofforeigncultsonRomanreligiousbeliefsand
practices(forexamplethePantheonofGods(Greece),Isis
(Egypt)andMithras(Persia)

readingaccountsofcontactsbetweenRomeandAsian
societiesintheancientperiod(forexamplethevisitofChinese
andIndianenvoystoRomeinthetimeofAugustus,as
describedbytheRomanhistorianFlorus)

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof
asignificanthistoricalfigurefromancientRome,andhowthey
wereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

astheRiverTiber)andhowtheyinfluencedthe
civilisationthatdevelopedthere.(ACDSEH004)

RolesofkeygroupsinancientRomansociety
(suchaspatricians,plebeians,women,
slaves),includingtheinfluenceoflawand
religion.(ACDSEH038)

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
theancientRomans,withaparticular
emphasisonONEofthefollowingareas:
everydaylife,warfare,ordeathandfunerary
customs.(ACDSEH039)
Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother
societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas
theexpansionoftrade,theriseoftheRoman
empire(includingitsmaterialremains),andthe
spreadofreligiousbeliefs(ACDSEH040)

Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient
RomeshistorysuchasJuliusCaesaror
Augustus(ACDSEH131)
3TheAsianworld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEoftheseAsiansocietiesindepth:ChinaorIndia
India
ThephysicalfeaturesofIndia(suchasfertile

describinghowharmoniousrelationshipswiththenatural
worldwerereflectedinIndianbeliefsystems(forexample
Hinduism,BuddhismandJainism)

creatingagraphicrepresentationoftheextentofIndiaasa
politicalunitatthistime,includingforexampleitsdiverse
climaticandgeographicalfeatures,typesandlocationoffood
production,areasofhighandlowdensitypopulation

riverplains)andhowtheyinfluencedthe
civilisationthatdevelopedthere(ACDSEH006)

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RolesofkeygroupsinIndiansocietyinthis

creatingagraphicrepresentationofthesocialstructureof
Indiansociety

explainingthesocialstructureofIndia,includingtheroleof
Brahminspriests,teachersKshatriyaskings,warriors
Vaishyasmerchants,artisansShudraslabourers,
peasants

investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
Indiansocietyassociatedwithforexample,ritesofpassagefor
boysandmenritesofpassageforgirlsandwomenmarriage
rites(forexample,theroleofthefamily,religiousceremonies).

investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
Indiansocietyassociatedwithdeathandfunerarycustoms(for
examplecremation,theuseofprofessionalmourners,the
constructionofstupas)

examiningtheextentofIndiancontactwithothersocietiessuch
asthePersiansunderCyrus,theMacedoniansunder
AlexandertheextensivetradewiththeRomansandChinese
thematerialremainsoftheMauryanEmpiresuchasthePillars
ofAshokaandtheBarabarCavesthespreadofHinduismand
Buddhism

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof
asignificanthistoricalfigurefromIndiainthisperiod,andhow
theywereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

describingthesignificanceoftheYellowRivertoirrigationand
theimpactoffeaturessuchastheHimalayasoncontactswith
othersocieties,includingtrade

creatingagraphicrepresentationofthesocialstructureof
Chinesesociety

outliningtherightsandresponsibilitiesofwomen(forexample
intheareasofmarriage,familylife,workandeducation)

investigatingthesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
Chinesesocietyassociatedwithdailylife(forexampleirrigation
andthepracticeofagriculture,theteachingsofConfucius,the
evidenceofdailylifefromtheHantombs)

period(suchaskings,emperors,priests,
merchants,peasants),includingtheinfluence
oflawandreligion.(ACDSEH044)

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
Indiansociety,withaparticularemphasison
ONEofthefollowingareas:everydaylife,
warfare,ordeathandfunerarycustoms
(ACDSEH045)

Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother
societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas
theexpansionoftrade,theriseoftheMauryan
Empire(includingitsmaterialremains),and
thespreadofphilosophiesandbeliefs
(ACDSEH046)

TheroleofasignificantindividualinIndian
historysuchasChandraguptaMauryaor
Ashoka(ACDSEH133)

OR
China
ThephysicalfeaturesofChina(suchasthe
YellowRiver)andhowtheyinfluencedthe
civilisationthatdevelopedthere(ACDSEH005)

RolesofkeygroupsinChinesesocietyinthis
period(suchaskings,emperors,scholars,
craftsmen,women),includingtheinfluenceof
lawandreligion.(ACDSEH041)

Thesignificantbeliefs,valuesandpracticesof
Chinesesociety,withaparticularemphasison
ONEofthefollowingareas:everydaylife,
warfare,ordeathandfunerarycustoms
(ACDSEH042)

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Contactsandconflictswithinand/orwithother

explainingtheriseofimperialChina(forexampletheuseof
chariotwarfareandtheadoptionofmassinfantryarmies,the
buildingofthefirstphaseoftheGreatWallofChina,military
strategiesascodifiedinSunTzusTheArtofWar)

examiningthehistoricalcontext,earlylifeandachievementsof
asignificanthistoricalfigurefromChinainthisperiod,andhow
theywereperceivedbytheircontemporaries

societies,resultingindevelopmentssuchas
theexpansionoftrade,theriseofImperial
China(includingitsmaterialremains),andthe
spreadofphilosophiesandbeliefs
(ACDSEH043)

Theroleofasignificantindividualinancient
ChinesehistorysuchasConfuciusorQinShi
Huang(ACDSEH132)

HistoricalSkills
Chronology,termsandconcepts
Sequencehistoricalevents,developments

Elaborations
l

identifyingtheapproximatebeginningandenddatesofancient
societiesandtheperiodsoftimewhentheycoexisted

definingandusingtermssuchasBC(BeforeChrist),AD(Anno
Domini),BCE(BeforeCommonEra),andCE(CommonEra)prehistory
(beforetheperiodoftextualrecording)andhistory(theperiodbeginning
withnamedindividualsandtextualrecording)

definingandusingconceptssuchasslavery,divineright,source(where
ahistorianfindsinformation)andevidence(theinformationthatisused
bythehistorian)

andperiods(ACHHS205)
Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts
(ACHHS206)

Historicalquestionsandresearch
Identifyarangeofquestionsaboutthe

Elaborations
l

posingakeyquestionsuchas:HowwerethepyramidsatGizabuilt?
andunderstandingthattheremaynotbeadefinitiveansweridentifying
relatedquestionstoinformtheinquiryincluding:Whatevidenceis
there?Whattheorieshavebeendeveloped?

posingquestionsofsourcessuchas:Wheredoesitcomefrom?How
doweknow?Whatinformationdoesitprovide?Whatothersources
mightbeneeded?

identifyingstepsintheresearchprocess(forexampleidentifying
informationneeded,locatingthatinformation,recordingrelevant
informationfromsources)

compilingalistofdifferentsources(forexamplepapyrusscrolls,coins,
statues,humanremains)

usingwebsearchtechniquestorefineasearchforinformation/images
relatedtoahistoricsite(forexampleuseofplacenames,datesand
searchwordssuchasphotogallery)

identifyinginformationwithinasourcethatcanbeusedasevidenceto
supportaninterpretation

pasttoinformanhistoricalinquiry
(ACHHS207)

Identifyandlocaterelevantsources,using
ICTandothermethods(ACHHS208)

Analysisanduseofsources

Elaborations

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l

discussingthedifficultiesinidentifyingtheoriginandpurposeofsome
sources(forexampletheKimberleyBradshawpaintings)

respondingtoquestionsaboutphotographs,artefacts,stories,
buildingsandothersourcestoexplainthepastsuchas:Who
wrote/producedthis?When?Why?Whatdoesitshowaboutthe
past?

differentiatingbetweenprimarysources(thosefromthetimeofthe
event/person/sitebeinginvestigated)andsecondarysources(those
thatrepresentlaterinterpretations)

creatingcategories(thatis,concepts)withwhichtoorganise
informationobtainedfromsources

evidence(ACHHS210)

identifyingarangeofarchaeologicalsources(forexamplethephysical
remainsoftheColosseum,gladiatorialequipmentsuchashelmets,
mosaicsshowinggladiatorialcombat,writtenaccountsofwhat
happenedintheColosseum)

Drawconclusionsabouttheusefulnessof

recognisingthat,whileevidencemaybelimitedforaparticulargroupof
people,suchevidencecanprovideusefulinsightsintothepower
structuresofasociety

distinguishingbetweenafact(forexamplesomegladiatorswore
helmets)andanopinion(forexampleallgladiatorswerebrave)

usingstrategiestodetectwhetherastatementisfactoropinion,
includingwordchoicesthatmayindicateanopinionisbeingoffered(for
exampletheuseofconditionals'might','could',andotherwordssuch
as'believe','think','suggests')

Identifytheoriginandpurposeofprimary
andsecondarysources(ACHHS209)

Locate,compare,selectanduse
informationfromarangeofsourcesas

sources(ACHHS211)

Perspectivesandinterpretations
Identifyanddescribepointsofview,

Elaborations
l

identifyingthepossiblemeaningofimagesandsymbolsinprimary
sources

identifyingtheperspectiveinahistoricalsource,suchasthesayingof
Confuciusthat,womenandunderlingsareespeciallydifficulttohandle
anddiscussingthevaluesandattitudesofthesocietythatproducedit

attitudesandvaluesinprimaryand
secondarysources(ACHHS212)

Explanationandcommunication
Developtexts,particularlydescriptionsand

Elaborations
l

outliningthesignificanceofapastevent,providingreasonsfortheevent
andreferringtorelevantevidence

describingthesocialstructureoftheancientsociety,usingevidence
fromsourcessuchasartworkandwrittenaccounts

creatinganaudiovisualpresentation,usingICT,torecreateandshow
thespecificfeaturesofanancientbattle,temple,pyramidcomplexor
burialsite

explanationsthatuseevidencefroma
rangeofsourcesthatareacknowledged
(ACHHS213)

Usearangeofcommunicationforms
(oral,graphic,written)anddigital
technologies(ACHHS214)

Level7achievementstandard

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BytheendofLevel7,studentssuggestreasonsforchangeandcontinuityovertime.Theydescribetheeffectsofchangeon
societies,individualsandgroups.Theydescribeeventsanddevelopmentsfromtheperspectiveofdifferentpeoplewholived
atthetime.Studentsexplaintheroleofgroupsandthesignificanceofparticularindividualsinsociety.Theyidentifypast
eventsanddevelopmentsthathavebeeninterpretedindifferentways.
Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframework,usingdatingconventionstorepresentand
measuretime.Whenresearching,studentsdevelopquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyidentifyandselectarange
ofsourcesandlocate,compareanduseinformationtoanswerinquiryquestions.Theyexaminesourcestoexplainpointsof
view.Wheninterpretingsources,theyidentifytheiroriginandpurpose.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularlydescriptionsand
explanations.Indevelopingthesetextsandorganisingandpresentingtheirfindings,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts,
incorporaterelevantsources,andacknowledgetheirsourcesofinformation.

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Level8
TheAncienttotheModernWorld
TheLevel8curriculumprovidesstudyofhistoryfromtheendoftheancientperiodtothebeginningofthemodernperiod,
c.650AD(CE)1750.Thiswaswhenmajorcivilisationsaroundtheworldcameintocontactwitheachother.Social,
economic,religious,andpoliticalbeliefswereoftenchallengedandsignificantlychanged.Itwastheperiodwhenthe
modernworldbegantotakeshape.
Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence,
continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay
beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor
historicalinquiries.
Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills.
Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwayandinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific
localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions.
Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions
throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
l

Howdidsocietieschangefromtheendoftheancientperiodtothebeginningofthemodernage?

Whatkeybeliefsandvaluesemergedandhowdidtheyinfluencesocieties?

Whatwerethecausesandeffectsofcontactbetweensocietiesinthisperiod?

Whichsignificantpeople,groupsandideasfromthisperiodhaveinfluencedtheworldtoday?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding
Overview
Thefollowingcontentistaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtindepth.
Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies
importantfeaturesoftheperiod,c.650AD(CE)1750,aspartofanexpansivechronologythathelpsstudents
understandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingof
depthstudycontentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram.Thismeansthatoverview
contentcanbeusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethelinkstoandbetweenthe
depthstudiesandtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod.
Overviewcontentfortheancienttomodernworld(Byzantine,Celtic,AngloSaxon,Viking,Ottoman,Khmer,Mongols,
YuanandMingdynasties,Aztec,Inca)includesthefollowing:
thetransformationoftheRomanworldandthespreadofChristianityandIslam
l

recognisinghowrelationsbetweentheIslamicandWesternworldswerecharacterisedbybothpeaceful
coexistence(trade)andconflictduringthisperiod(theCrusades)

discussingBritainaftertheendoftheRomanoccupationtheAngloSaxonkingdomsOldEnglishandthe
foundationsofmodernEnglishBeowulfandarchaeologyAngloSaxoninstitutionsandtherootsofmedieval
parliament

keyfeaturesofthemedievalworld(feudalism,traderoutes,voyagesofdiscovery,contactandconflict)

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l


describingbeliefsabouttheworldandthevoyagesofdiscovery(EuropeanandAsian),thenatureofthevoyages
andtheredrawingofthemapoftheworld

locatingthemajortradingroutes(includingtheMediterraneantheSilkRoadthesearoutebetweenChina,India
andtheeastcoastofAfricaandtheColumbianExchange)onamapandidentifyingthenatureofthe
trade/contact(forexamplealongtheSilkRoadslaves,spices,silk,glassware,spreadofknowledgeand
diseases)

identifyingthemajorcivilisationsoftheperiod(Byzantine,Celtic,AngloSaxon,Viking,Ottoman,Khmer,Mongols,
YuanandMingdynasties,Aztec,Inca)whereandwhentheyexistedandtheirextent(forexampletheVikings
throughEurope,theMongolsacrossEurasia,andSpainintheAmericas)

explainingthesignificanceoflandownershipinthepracticeoffeudalismandthenatureoffeudalisminEurope
(forexampleknights)andJapan(forexamplesamurai)

theemergenceofideasabouttheworldandtheplaceofpeopleinitbytheendoftheperiod(suchasthe
Renaissance,theScientificRevolutionandtheEnlightenment).


discussingtheextentofknowledgeabouttheworldasindicatedthroughchangingworldmaps(forexamplethe
DaMingHunYiTuworldmap(1389CE)andtheNovaTotiusTerrarumOrbisbyHendrikHondius(1630)

Depthstudies
Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptofourelectivesthatfocus
onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A
depthstudywillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepthstudy
electiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand
learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwiththeoverviewcontentand/orwithotherdepthstudy
electives.
1TheWesternandIslamicWorld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEofthesesocieties/empiresfromtheWesternorIslamicworldindepth:theVikingsor
MedievalEuropeortheOttomanEmpireorRenaissanceItaly.
TheOttomanEmpire(c.1299c.1683)
ThewayoflifeintheOttomanEmpire(social,

describingthewayoflifeofpeopleintheOttomanEmpire
(forexampletheroleofthecoffeehouseandbazaaror
marketplace,thepowerandresponsibilityoftheSultanto
ensurethatjusticewasservedwithinsociety)

describingOttomanartandarchitecture(forexamplethe
SelimiyeMosqueinthecityofEdirneinTurkey,andIslamic
geometricdesign)

outliningthemilletsystemthatregardednonMuslim
peopleassubjects,butasnotbeingsubjecttoMuslimlaw

explainingthetoleranceoftheOttomanstowards
ChristiansandJews

cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures)andthe
rolesandrelationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety
(ACDSEH009)
Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural
achievementsthatreflectthepowerandinfluenceof
theOttomanEmpire,suchasthefallof
Constantinoplein1453AD(CE),artand
architecture.(ACDSEH053)
Relationshipswithsubjectpeoples,includingthe
policyofreligioustolerance(ACDSEH054)

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TheroleofsignificantindividualssuchasSelimIor

investigatingtheachievementsofindividuals(forexample
SelimIinestablishingtheempireandcapturing
JerusalemorSuleimantheMagnificentinexpandingthe
empiretoBelgradeinEurope)

describingthewayoflifeofpeopleinRenaissanceItaly(for
exampletheroleofmenintendingthefieldsormerchant
shops,theinfluenceofgovernmentinparticularcitystates,
forexampleNaplesamonarchy,Florencearepublic)

describingtheworkofLeonardoDaVinciforexamplehis
artworks(theMonaLisaandTheLastSupper)and
inventions(arudimentaryhelicopterandsolarpower)the
workofMichelangelo(forexampletheSistineChapel
paintings,David,Pieta)thethinkingofCopernicus(for
exampleastronomyseeingthesunasthecentreofthe
universe)andtheinventionoftheprintingpress

investigatinglearningintheRenaissanceperiod(for
examplehumanism,astrology,alchemy,theinfluenceof
ancientGreeceandRome)

explainingtheinfluenceoftheMedicifamilyinFlorenceas
bankersandmerchants,andtheirpatronageofthearts

investigatingtheachievementsofGalileo(forexample
improvementsinthetelescopeandhisastronomical
observations)

outliningthespreadofRenaissanceculturetoEngland(for
exampletheriseofliteraturethroughShakespeare)

locatingVikinglandsinScandinavia(Denmark,Norway
andSweden)

describingthewayoflifeoftheVikings(forexampleliving
inacoldandharshenvironmenttheimportanceoffarming
andraidsthesignificanceofhonourinVikingwarrior
society)

SuleimantheMagnificentinmaintainingthe
strengthandinfluenceoftheOttomanEmpire
(ACDSEH055)
OR
RenaissanceItaly(c.1400c.1600)
ThewayoflifeinRenaissanceItaly(social,cultural,
economicandpoliticalfeatures)andtherolesand
relationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety
(ACDSEH010)
Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural
achievementsthatreflecttheconcentrationof
wealthandpowerinthecitystates,suchasartand
learning(ACDSEH056)

RelationshipsbetweenrulersandruledinONE
ItaliancitystatesuchasFlorenceorNaples
(ACDSEH057)
Theroleandachievementsofsignificantindividuals
suchasLucreziaBorgia,Galileo,Leonardoda
Vinci,NiccoloMachiavelli(ACDSEH058)
ThespreadofRenaissanceculturetotherestof
Europe,anditslegacy(ACDSEH059)
OR
TheVikings(c.790c.1066)
ThewayoflifeinVikingsociety(social,cultural,
economicandpoliticalfeatures)andtherolesand
relationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety
(ACDSEH007)

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Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural

describingVikingcraftwithparticularemphasisonthe
productionofweapons(forexampleswords,battleaxes
andhelmets)

outliningthekeyroleofgodssuchasOdin,Thor,Freyand
FreyjainVikingreligionandtheadoptionofChristianity
duringtheVikingperiod

investigatingtheconstructionoflongboatsandtheirrolein
exploration,includinginnovationsinkeelandsaildesign.

describingevidenceofVikingtradebetweenRussia(Kiev)
andtheeast(throughConstantinople)

explainingtheattacksonmonasteries,forexample
Lindisfarne(793CE)andIona(795CE)andreviewingthe
writtenaccountsbymonksthatcontributedtotheVikings'
reputationforpillageandviolence

thesurvivalofaheroicIronAgesocietyinEarlyMedieval
Ireland,asdescribedinthevernacularepics,andits
transformationbythespreadofChristianitytheinfluenceof
theVikingstheAngloNormanconquest

investigatingtheremainsofVikingsettlements(for
exampleDublin(Ireland)andJorvik(York)

outliningEriktheRedsdevelopmentofVikingsettlements
inEasternandWesternGreenlandin985CE

comparingtheartefactsdiscoveredatLAnseaux

achievementsthatledtoVikingexpansion,
includingweaponsandshipbuilding,andtheextent
oftheirtrade(ACDSEH047)

Vikingconquestsandrelationshipswithsubject
peoples,includingtheperspectivesofmonks,
changesinthewayoflifeoftheEnglish,andthe
Normaninvasion(ACDSEH048)

Theroleofasignificantindividualintheexpansion
ofVikingsettlementandinfluence,suchasErikthe
RedorLeifEricson

MeadowsinNewfoundland(Canada)withVikingartefacts
(ACDSEH049)

aspossibleevidencethattheVikingshaddiscovered
America500yearsbeforeChristopherColumbus

OR
MedievalEurope(c.590c.1500)
ThewayoflifeinMedievalEurope(social,cultural,
economicandpoliticalfeatures)andtherolesand
relationshipsofdifferentgroupsinsociety

describingthestructureoffeudalsociety(forexamplethe
roleandresponsibilitiesoftheking,nobles,church,
knightsandpeasants)

(ACDSEH008)

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Significantdevelopmentsand/orcultural

describingthefeaturesofcastlesandchurchesofthe
period(forexampleWarwickCastleinEnglandandNotre
DameCathedralinParis)asexamplesoftheChurchs
powerintermsofitscontrolofwealthandlabour

outlininginventionsanddevelopmentsintheIslamicworld
(forexampletheastrolabe,publichospitalsandlibraries
andtheirsubsequentadoptionintheWesternworld)

recognisingthatthemedievalmanuscriptsofmonastic
scribescontributedtothesurvivalofmanyancientGreek
andRomanliterarytexts

examiningthereligiousnatureofilluminatedmanuscripts
andhowtheyweretheproductofacomplexandfrequently
costlyprocess

listeningtotheGregorianchantsofWesternChristianity
andexploringhowtheyreflectthenatureandpowerofthe
Churchinthisperiod

investigatingdifferenttypesofcrimeandpunishment(for
exampletrialbycombatasaprivilegegrantedtothe
nobilitybeinghung,drawnandquarteredasapunishment
forheinouscrimessuchastreason,andtheuseofthe
duckingstoolasapunishmentforwomen)andinwhat
waysthenatureofcrimeandpunishmentstayedthesame,
orchangedovertime

explainingwhyCharlemagnewasasignificantfigurein
MedievalEurope,suchashisexpansionoftheFrankish
kingdomandhissupportoftheChurch

achievements,suchaschangingrelationsbetween
IslamandtheWest(includingtheCrusades),
architecture,medievalmanuscriptsandmusic
(ACDSEH050)

ContinuityandchangeinsocietyinONEofthe
followingareas:crimeandpunishmentmilitaryand
defencesystemstowns,citiesandcommerce
(ACDSEH051)

ThedominanceoftheCatholicChurchandtherole
ofsignificantindividualssuchasCharlemagne
(ACDSEH052)
2TheAsiaPacificWorld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEoftheseAsiaPacificsocietiesindepth:theAngkor/KhmerEmpireorShogunateJapanor
thePolynesianexpansionacrossthePacific.N.B.Whereappropriate,thisdepthstudymayincludesomereference
beyondtheendoftheperiodc.1750.
Angkor/KhmerEmpire(c.802c.1431)
ThewayoflifeintheKhmerEmpire,including,

describingthewayoflifeintheKhmerEmpirethrough
stonecarvingsandthewritingsoftheChinese
AmbassadorZhouDaguan(forexampleinrelationto
fishing,tradinginmarkets,templeconstruction)

explaininghowbeingreveredasthegodkingordeva
rajaenabledtheKhmerkingstoruleovertheempirewith
absoluteauthority,therebyenhancingtheirabilityto
mobilisemanpowertodefendtheempireaswellasto
invadeneighbours

social,cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures
(includingtheroleoftheking).(ACDSEH011)

ThereasonsforAngkorsrisetoprominence,
includingwealthfromtradeandagriculture
(ACDSEH060)

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TheculturalachievementsoftheKhmercivilisation,

describingthemainfeaturesofthewatermanagement
systematAngkor(forexampletheextensiveuseof
reservoirsandcanals)

outliningtheoriesaboutthedeclineoftheKhmer
civilisation(forexamplethedevelopmentofanunstable
climatesuchasdroughtandmonsoons,theriseof
TheravadaBuddhismthearrivaloftheBlackDeathandthe
breakdownofAngkorswatermanagementsystem)

describingthewayoflifeinfeudalJapanunderthe
shoguns(forexamplebushidothechivalriccodeof
conductofthesamuraithatemphasisedfrugality,loyalty,
masteryofmartialarts,andhonour)

describingtherelationshipbetweentheemperor,shogun,
daimyo(lords)samurai(warriors),workers(forexample
farmers,artisansandtraders)

explainingreasonsforJapansclosuretoforeignersunder
theTokugawaShogunateandtheimpactofUS
CommodorePerrysvisitin1853

investigatingthedemandforavailablelandandthe
patternsoflanduseintheperiod

outliningtheattemptsbytheTokugawaShogunatetocurb
deforestation(forexampleimposingheavyregulationson
farmersmanagingtheharvestingoftreesandusingnew,
lighterandmoreefficientconstructiontechniques)

describinginternalpressuresinshogunateJapan(for
exampletheriseofacommercialclassattheexpenseof
thesamurai,peasantuprisingssuchasOsaka1837,and
famine)

describingtheincreasingexposuretoWesterntechnology
andideas(forexampletheestablishmentofanavalschool
withDutchinstructors,thetranslationofWesternbooks)

evaluatingthesignificanceoftheMeijiRestorationof1868
CEthatrestoredimperialruletoJapan

includingitssystemofwatermanagementandthe
buildingofthetemplesofAngkor(ACDSEH061)

TheoriesofthedeclineofAngkor,suchasthe
overuseofwaterresources,neglectofpublicworks
asaresultofongoingwar,andtheeffectsof
climatechange(ACDSEH062)

OR
JapanundertheShoguns(c.7941867)
ThewayoflifeinshogunateJapan,including
social,cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures
(includingthefeudalsystemandtheincreasing
poweroftheshogun)(ACDSEH012)

TheroleoftheTokugawaShogunateinreimposing
afeudalsystem(basedondaimyoandsamurai)
andtheincreasingcontroloftheShogunover
foreigntrade.(ACDSEH063)

TheuseofenvironmentalresourcesinShogunate
Japanandtheforestryandlandusepoliciesofthe
TokugawaShogunate(ACDSEH064)

TheoriesaboutthedeclineoftheShogunate,
includingmodernisationandwesternisation,
throughtheadoptionofWesternarmsand
technology(ACDSEH065)

OR
ThePolynesianexpansionacrossthePacific(c.7001756)

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TheoriesabouttheoriginandspreadofPolynesian

locatingPolynesiaonamap,tracingtheexpansionof
PolynesiansettlersthroughoutthePacific,andconsidering
howtheymadetheirjourneys

outliningdifferenttheoriesabouttheexpansion(for
examplewest/eastandeast/westmovement,the
expansionasaccidentalversusintentional)

describingthewayoflifeofEasterIslandsociety(Rapa
Nui)forexamplefishingbythemen,linksbetweenthe
householdandtheextendedclanthroughtheexchangeof
goods,wives,andlabourtheuseofstonetools

investigatingtheconstructionofthemoai(giantstatues)on
EasterIsland(RapaNui),thetechniquesusedtomake
andtransportthem,andtheoriesabouttheirmeaning(for
examplerepresentationsofdeadancestorsorchiefs)

researchingtheextinctionofthemoainNewZealandasa
resultofhuntingandhabitatdecline

explainingthesignificanceofRahuiasawayofprohibiting
thecollectionofresources,toensuretheirsustainability

evaluatingtheevidencefortheoriesaboutthedeforestation
ofEasterIsland(RapaNui)

settlersthroughoutthePacific(ACDSEH013)

ThewayoflifeinONEPolynesiansociety,including
social,cultural,economicandpoliticalfeatures,
suchastheroleofthearikiinMaoriandinRapa
Nuisociety(EasterIsland)(ACDSEH066)
TheculturalachievementsofONEPolynesian
society,suchastheTamokoandhangiinMaori
societyORthemoaiconstructedonEasterIsland
(ACDSEH067)
ThewayPolynesiansocietiesusedenvironmental
resources(sustainablyandunsustainably),
includingtheextinctionofthemoainNewZealand,
theuseofreligious/supernaturalthreatsto
conserveresources,andtheexploitationofEaster
Islandspalmtrees(ACDSEH068)

3Expandingcontacts

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateONEofthefollowinghistoricaldevelopmentsindepthtoexploretheinteractionofsocietiesin
thisperiod:theMongolexpansionortheBlackDeathinAfrica,AsiaandEuropeortheSpanishconquestoftheAztecs
andIncas.
MongolExpansion(c.1206c.1368)
ThenomadiclifestyleoftheMongolsandtheriseof

describingthenomadicnatureofMongollifeandtheriseof
Temujin(GenghisKhan)whounitedallMongoltribesin
1206CE

outliningGenghisKhansuseofdecimalorganisationin
hisarmyandhispoliciesforgoverninghisempire(for
examplecodifyinglaws,banningthekillingofanimalsin
thebreedingseason,supportingreligiousfreedom,and
expandingtrade)

mappingtheexpansionoftheMongolempireacrossAsia
andEurope

describingthewayoflifeinMongoliaanditsincorporation
intoChineselife(forexampleagriculturedomestication
ofanimalssuchashorses,camelsandcattlefooddried
meatandyoghurtandhousingyurts)

Temujin(GenghisKhan)(ACDSEH014)

TheorganisationoftheMongolarmyunder
GenghisKhanandthetreatmentofconquered
peoples,suchasthecodificationoflawsand
exemptionofteachers,lawyersandartistsfrom
taxes(ACDSEH077)

TheextentoftheMongolexpansionasoneofthe
largestlandempiresinhistory,includinglifein
Chinabefore,duringandaftertheMongolconquest
(ACDSEH078)

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TheconsequencesoftheMongolexpansion,

includingcontributionstoEuropeanknowledgeand
traderoutes(ACDSEH079)

explainingtheroleoftheMongolsinforgingconnections
betweenEuropeandAsiathroughconquest,settlement
andtrade(forexampletheuseofpapermoneyand
coinagethegrowingnumberofEuropeanmerchants
travellingtoChina)

OR
TheBlackDeathinAsia,EuropeandAfrica(14thcenturyplague)
Livingconditionsandreligiousbeliefsinthe14th

investigatinglivingconditionsinLondoninthefourteenth
century(forexamplethelackofsanitation,crowded
housing)theextentofmedicalknowledge(forexample
basedonHippocratestheory)andbeliefsaboutthepower
ofGod(forexamplethatdiseaseswereapunishmentof
God)

mappingthespreadoftheBlackDeath(Asia,Africa,
Europe)inthefourteenthcenturyCE

explainingreactionstotheBlackDeath,forexamplethe
emergenceofflagellants(thosewhowouldwhip
themselvestobefreeofsin)andthepersecutionofJewish
people

usingstudiesofchurchrecordsfromtheperiodtoidentify
theeffectoftheBlackDeathonhumanpopulationsandto
considerthereliabilityofthesestatistics

categorisingtheeffectsoftheBlackDeath,aseithershort
termorlongtermanddrawingconclusionsaboutthe
severityoftheBlackDeath

century,includinglifeexpectancy,medical
knowledgeandbeliefsaboutthepowerofGod
(ACDSEH015)

TheroleofexpandingtradebetweenEuropeand
AsiaintheBlackDeath,includingtheoriginand
spreadofthedisease(ACDSEH069)

ThecausesandsymptomsoftheBlackDeathand
theresponsesofdifferentgroupsinsocietytothe
spreadofthedisease,suchastheflagellantsand
monasteries(ACDSEH070)

TheeffectsoftheBlackDeathonAsian,European
andAfricanpopulations,andconflictingtheories
abouttheimpactoftheplague(ACDSEH071)

OtherimmediateandlongtermeffectsoftheBlack
Death,includinglabourshortages,peasant
uprisings,theweakeningoffeudalstructures,and
increasedsocialmobility(ACDSEH072)
OR

TheSpanishConquestoftheAmericas(c.1492c.1572)
PreColumbianlifeintheAmericas,includingsocial
organisation,citylifeandbeliefs.(ACDSEH016)

describingthesocialorganisationoftheAztecs(for
examplenobility,slaves)theirbeliefs(forexampleworship
ofanumberofgodsandtheneedtomakehuman
sacrificestoappeasethesegods)lifeinthecapitalcity
Tenochtitlan

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When,howandwhytheSpanisharrivedinthe

explainingthearrivalofSpanishconquistadoresinMexico
andPerufrom1510CE(Balboa)to1531(Pizarro),and
theirreasons(forexampleseekingwealth,claimingland
fortheirking,convertingthelocalpopulationsto
Christianity,senseofadventure)

describingencountersbetweenHernanCortesandthe
Aztecs,aswellasthesiegeofTenochtitlan

outliningtheimpactofSpanishconquestontheAmericas
(forexamplethespreadofdiseaseduetothelackof
immunitytheintroductionofcropssuchasmaize,beans,
potatoes,tobaccoandchocolatefromtheAmericasto
Europe)

explainingthelongertermeffectsofconquestand
colonisationontheindigenouspopulationsofthe
Americas(forexampletheunequaldistributionoflandand
wealth,andpoliticalinequality)

Americas,andwheretheywent,includingthe
varioussocietiesandgeographicalfeaturesthey
encountered(ACDSEH073)

ThenatureoftheinteractionbetweentheSpanish
andtheindigenouspopulations,withaparticular
focusoneithertheAztecsORIncas(ACDSEH074)
TheimpactoftheconquestontheAztecsORIncas
aswellasonthewiderworld,suchasthe
introductionofnewdiseases,horsesand
gunpowderintheAmericas,andnewfoodsand
increasedwealthinEurope(ACDSEH075)
Thelongertermeffectsofcolonisation,including
slavery,populationchangesandlackofcontrolover
resources(ACDSEH076)

HistoricalSkills
Chronology,termsandconcepts
Sequencehistoricalevents,developments

Elaborations
l

placinghistoricaleventsinsequenceinordertoidentifybroader
patternsofcontinuityandchange(forexamplethePolynesian
expansionacrossthePacificthestabilityoftheAngkor/KhmerEmpire
overmanycenturies)

understandingthedifferentmeaningsofparticulartermsand
conceptswhenviewedintheirhistoricalcontext,suchasfeudalismin
medievalEuropeandJapan

andperiods(ACHHS148)

Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts
(ACHHS149)

Historicalquestionsandresearch
Identifyarangeofquestionsaboutthepast

Elaborations
l

experimentingwithdifferentwords/phrases/historicalconcepts,when
draftingaquestion,todeveloparesearchfocus

posingakeyquestionsuchas:WhydidEasterisland(RapaNui)
societydecline?andidentifyingrelatedquestionstoinformtheinquiry
(forexampleWhatevidenceisthere?Whattheorieshavebeen
developed?)

compilingalistofdifferentsourcesneededinaninquiryandtheir
possiblelocations

toinformanhistoricalinquiry(ACHHS150)

Identifyandlocaterelevantsources,using
ICTandothermethods(ACHHS151)
Analysisanduseofsources

Elaborations

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l

explaininghowclueswithinasourcecanbeusedtoidentifywhereit
wasmadeorwhoitwasmadeby(forexampletheplacewhereitwas
found,thematerialsused,theconditionoftheobject,decorative
features)

Locate,compare,selectanduse

creatingcategoriestoorganisetheinformationobtainedfromsources

informationfromarangeofsourcesas

designingatabletolistsourcesandtheaspectsofthepastabout
whichtheyprovideinformation(forexamplesocialstructure,economy,
governance)

recognisingthat,whileevidencemaybelimitedforaparticulargroup
ofpeople,suchevidencecanprovideusefulinsightsintothepower
structuresofasociety

distinguishingbetweenfact(forexampleTheMoaiwereconstructed
onEasterIsland(RapaNui))andopinionorinterpretation(for
example.TheMoaionEasterIsland(RapaNui)arerepresentations
ofgods')

Identifytheoriginandpurposeofprimary
andsecondarysources(ACHHS152)

evidence(ACHHS153)

Drawconclusionsabouttheusefulnessof
sources(ACHHS154)

Perspectivesandinterpretations
Identifyanddescribepointsofview,

Elaborations
l

attitudesandvaluesinprimaryand
secondarysources(ACHHS155)
Explanationandcommunication
Developtexts,particularlydescriptionsand

Elaborations
l

usingscaffoldsillustratingthestructuralandlanguagefeaturesof
particulartexttypes(forexampledescriptionsandexplanations)in
ordertocreateatextthatcommunicatesspecificfindingsaboutthe
past

creatinganoralpresentation,supportedbyaudiovisualmaterial,to
recountthelifeofTemujin(GenghisKhan)andtoexplainhis
contributiontotheMongolworld

explanationsthatuseevidencefromarange
ofsourcesthatareacknowledged
(ACHHS156)
Usearangeofcommunicationforms(oral,
graphic,written)anddigitaltechnologies
(ACHHS157)

describingthevaluesandattitudesrevealedbyasource(suchasan
individualaccount)andusingadditionalsourcestoshowhowtheyare
broadlyrepresentativeofthevaluesandattitudesofthesociety

Level8achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel8,studentsrecogniseandexplainpatternsofchangeandcontinuityovertime.Theyexplainthecauses
andeffectsofeventsanddevelopments.Theyidentifythemotivesandactionsofpeopleatthetime.Studentsexplainthe
significanceofindividualsandgroupsandhowtheywereinfluencedbythebeliefsandvaluesoftheirsociety.Theydescribe
differentinterpretationsofthepast.
Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframeworkwithreferencetoperiodsoftime.When
researching,studentsdevelopquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyanalyse,selectandorganiseinformationfrom
primaryandsecondarysourcesanduseitasevidencetoanswerinquiryquestions.Studentsidentifyandexplaindifferent
pointsofviewinsources.Wheninterpretingsources,theyidentifytheiroriginandpurpose,anddistinguishbetweenfactand
opinion.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularlydescriptionsandexplanations,incorporatinganalysis.Indevelopingthesetexts,
andorganisingandpresentingtheirfindings,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts,evidenceidentifiedinsources,and
acknowledgetheirsourcesofinformation.

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Level9
TheMakingoftheModernWorld
TheLevel9curriculumprovidesastudyofthehistoryofthemakingofthemodernworldfrom1750to1918.Itwasa
periodofindustrialisationandrapidchangeinthewayspeoplelived,workedandthought.Itwasaneraofnationalism
andimperialism,andthecolonisationofAustraliawaspartoftheexpansionofEuropeanpower.Theperiodculminated
inWorldWarI19141918,thewartoendallwars.
Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence,
continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay
beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor
historicalinquiries.
Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills.
Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedwayandinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific
localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions.
Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions
throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
l

Whatwerethechangingfeaturesofthemovementsofpeoplefrom1750to1918?

Howdidnewideasandtechnologicaldevelopmentscontributetochangeinthisperiod?

Whatwastheorigin,development,significanceandlongtermimpactofimperialisminthisperiod?

WhatwasthesignificanceofWorldWarI?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding
Overview
Thefollowingcontentistaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtindepth.
Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies
importantfeaturesoftheperiod(17501918)aspartofanexpansivechronologythathelpsstudentsunderstand
broadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingofdepthstudy
contentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram.Thismeansthatoverviewcontentcan
beusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethelinkstoandbetweenthedepthstudies,
andtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod.
Overviewcontentforthemakingofthemodernworldincludesthefollowing:
thenatureandsignificanceoftheIndustrialRevolutionandhowitaffectedlivingandworkingconditions,including
withinAustralia
l

comparingtheusefulnessofartworksdepictinglifeintheperiodwiththefirstphotographs

investigatingthechangingnatureofthesourcesthatprovidearecordoflifeinthisperiod,suchaspaintings,
travellersjournalsandthedevelopmentofphotographyandfilmby1918

thenatureandextentofthemovementofpeoplesintheperiod(slaves,convictsandsettlers)
l

identifyingthenumberofslavestransportedandthenations/placesinvolved(forexamplePortugal,Britain,
France,Spain,NorthAmerica)

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theextentofEuropeanimperialexpansionanddifferentresponses,includingintheAsianregion


outliningthetechnologiesofmassproductionthatcontributedtotheIndustrialRevolutionandthechangesin
Australianlifethatoccurredasaresultofthesetechnologies

recognisinghowAsiansocietiesrespondedtoEuropeanimperialism,theextenttowhichtheywerechangedand
theinfluencetheyexercisedontherestoftheworld

identifyingAsiansocietiesthatwerecolonisedbytheEuropeans(suchasIndonesiabytheDutch),andthose
thatremainedindependent.

theemergenceandnatureofsignificanteconomic,socialandpoliticalideasintheperiod,includingnationalism
l

outliningthefeaturesthatreflecttheemergenceofabeliefinsocialandpoliticalequality,includingtherightto
vote,egalitarianismanduniversaleducationinAustralia

recognisinghoweventssuchastheFrenchRevolutionandAmericanindependencecontributedtoideasof
equality

theroleofClassicalmodelsandtheoriesontheinventionofdemocraticvalues

Depthstudies
Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocus
onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A
depthstudywillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepthstudy
electiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand
learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwithoverviewcontentand/orwithotherdepthstudyelectives.
1MakingaBetterWorld?

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatehowlifechangedintheperiodindepththroughthestudyofONEofthesemajordevelopments:
theIndustrialRevolutionorMovementofpeoplesorProgressiveideasandmovements.Thestudyincludesthe
causesandeffectsofthedevelopment,andtheAustralianexperience.
TheIndustrialRevolution(17501914)
ThetechnologicalinnovationsthatledtotheIndustrial

mappingtheBritishEmpirec.1800CEandtheraw
materialsitobtainedfromcolonies(forexamplesugar
fromJamaica,woolfromAustralia,andcottonfrom
India)

explainingchangesintechnology(forexamplesteam
drivenspinningmills,railwaysandsteamships)which
ledtofactoriesandcities

identifyingthespreadofinnovationssuchassteam
powerironandsteelproductiontransportand
chemicalsinEurope,USAandJapan

describingthegrowthofcitiesasmen,womenand
childrenmovedtothecitiestofindemployment

investigatingchangestothecitiesandlandscapein
EuropeancountriesandAustraliaastheIndustrial
Revolutioncontinuedtodevelop,usingphotos(for
examplethosethatweretakenastheEiffeltowerwas
beingconstructedusingiron)

Revolution,andotherconditionsthatinfluencedthe
industrialisationofBritain(theagriculturalrevolution,
accesstorawmaterials,wealthymiddleclass,cheap
labour,transportsystem,andexpandingempire)and
ofAustralia(ACDSEH017)

Thepopulationmovementsandchangingsettlement
patternsduringthisperiod(ACDSEH080)

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l

describingtheimpactofsteam,gasandelectricityon
peopleswayoflifeduringtheIndustrialRevolution

(ACDSEH081)

investigatingthechangesinworkingconditions(for
examplelongerworkinghoursforlowpayandtheuse
ofchildrenasacheapsourceoflabour)

TheshortandlongtermimpactsoftheIndustrial

describingtheimpactoffactories,minesandcitieson
theenvironment,andonpopulationgrowthand
distribution

outliningthegrowthoftradeunionsasaresponseto
theimpactsoftheIndustrialRevolution

explainingwhyanideaemergedandthebasisofthat
idea(forexampleegalitarianismbeingjudgedon
meritratherthanbybirthorpastdeeds)

investigatingthesupportforChartismamongthepoorer
classesasaresponsetodeterioratinglivingand
workingconditions

explaininghowreligiousgroupsrespondedtotheideas
inCharlesDarwins1859bookOntheOriginofSpecies

discussingtheriseofnationalistsentimentinAustralia
inthemidtolatenineteenthcentury

mappingthemovementofpeoplesinthetransatlantic
slavetradeorinconvicttransportationtoAustralia

explainingtheroleoftheIndustrialRevolutionin
creatingagrowingneedforlabourandtransportation

investigatingsourcesthatrecordthereactionsofnew
arrivalstoothercountriesinthisperiod(forexample
responsestothenaturalenvironmentandclimate)

Theexperiencesofmen,womenandchildrenduring
theIndustrialRevolution,andtheirchangingwayoflife

Revolution,includingglobalchangesinlandscapes,
transportandcommunication(ACDSEH082)

OR
Progressiveideasandmovements(17501918)
Theemergenceandnatureofkeyideasintheperiod,
withaparticularfocusonONEofthefollowing:
capitalism,socialism,egalitarianism,nationalism,
imperialism,Darwinism,Chartism(ACDSEH019)
ThereasonswhyONEkeyideaemergedand/or
developedafollowing,suchastheinfluenceofthe
IndustrialRevolutiononsocialism(ACDSEH086)
Theroleofanindividualorgroupinthepromotionof
ONEofthesekeyideas,andtheresponsestoitfrom,
forexample,workers,entrepreneurs,landowners,
religiousgroups(ACDSEH087)
TheshortandlongtermimpactsofONEofthese
ideasonAustraliaandtheworld(ACDSEH088)
OR
Movementofpeoples(17501901)
TheinfluenceoftheIndustrialRevolutiononthe
movementofpeoplesthroughouttheworld,including
thetransatlanticslavetradeandconvicttransportation
(ACDSEH018)
Theexperiencesofslaves,convictsandfreesettlers
upondeparture,theirjourneyabroad,andtheir
reactionsonarrival,includingtheAustralian
experience(ACDSEH083)

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Changesinthewayoflifeofagroup(s)ofpeoplewho

investigatingtheexperiencesofaspecificgroupof
arrivalstoAustralia(forexampleconvictsinSydney,
Hobart,BrisbaneorfreesettlersinMelbourne,
Adelaide,PerthorDarwin)

describingtheimpactofthisgroupontheAboriginal
andTorresStraitIslanderpeoplesoftheregion

evaluatingtheeffectsofthemovementofpeoplesonthe
indigenousandimmigrantpopulations

movedtoAustraliainthisperiod,suchasfreesettlers
onthefrontierinAustralia(ACDSEH084)

Theshortandlongtermimpactsofthemovementof
peoplesduringthisperiod(ACDSEH085)
2AustraliaandAsia

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatethehistoryofAustraliaORanAsiansocietyintheperiod17501918indepth.
Asiaandtheworld
Thekeyfeatures(social,cultural,economic,political)

identifyingtheterritorialextentofQingChina,therole
andinfluenceoftheEmperor,andthenatureof
literature,artandarchitectureatthetime

describingtheBritishRajandtheformsofBritish
influenceinIndia(forexamplethebuildingofroads,an
extensiverailwaynetwork,schoolsandChristian
missions)

investigatingtheconfrontationbetweenJapanand
Westernpowers(forexampletheRussoJapanesewar)
andtheemergenceofJapanasamajorworldpower

describingtheactivitiesofChristianmissionariesin
ChinaandtheoutcomesoftheBoxerRebellion

ofONEAsiansociety(suchasChina,Japan,India,
DutchEastIndies,India)atthestartoftheperiod
(ACDSEH093)

ChangeandcontinuityintheAsiansocietyduringthis
period,includinganyeffectsofcontact(intendedand
unintended)withEuropeanpower(s)(ACDSEH094)

ThepositionoftheAsiansocietyinrelationtoother
nationsintheworldaroundtheturnofthetwentieth
century(thatis1900),includingtheinfluenceofkey
ideassuchasnationalism(ACDSEH142)

ThesignificanceofONEkeyeventthatinvolvedthe
AsiansocietyandEuropeanpower(s),including
differentperspectivesoftheeventatthetime
(ACDSEH141)

Makinganation

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Theextensionofsettlement,includingtheeffectsof

explainingtheeffectsofcontact(forexamplethe
massacresofAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander
peopletheirkillingofsheepthespreadofEuropean
diseases)andcategorisingtheseeffectsaseither
intendedorunintended

investigatingtheforcibleremovalofchildrenfrom
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderfamiliesinthelate
nineteenthcentury/earlytwentiethcentury(leadingtothe
StolenGenerations),suchasthemotivationsforthe
removalofchildren,thepracticesandlawsthatwerein
place,andexperiencesofseparation.

outliningthemigrationofChinesetothegoldfieldsin
Australiainthenineteenthcenturyandattitudestowards
theChineseasrevealedincartoons(forexamplethe
MongolianOctopus)

identifyingthemainfeaturesofhousing,sanitation,
transport,educationandindustrythatinfluencedliving
andworkingconditionsinAustralia

describingtheimpactofthegoldrushes(hinterland)on
thedevelopmentofMarvellousMelbourne

explainingthefactorsthatcontributedtofederationand
thedevelopmentofdemocracyinAustralia,including
defenceconcerns,the1890sdepression,nationalist
ideals,egalitarianism,theWestminstersystem

investigatinghowthemajorsociallegislationofthenew
FederalGovernmentaffectedlivingandworking
conditionsinAustralia,forexampleinvalidandoldage
pensionsandthematernityallowancescheme

contact(intendedandunintended)betweenEuropean
settlersinAustraliaandAboriginalandTorresStrait
Islanderpeoples(ACDSEH020)

TheexperiencesofnonEuropeansinAustraliapriorto
the1900s(suchastheJapanese,Chinese,South
SeaIslanders,Afghans)(ACDSEH089)

LivingandworkingconditionsinAustraliaaroundthe
turnofthetwentiethcentury(thatis1900)
(ACDSEH090)

KeyeventsandideasinthedevelopmentofAustralian
selfgovernmentanddemocracy,includingwomen's
votingrights(ACDSEH091)

Legislation19011914,includingtheHarvester
Judgment,pensions,andtheImmigrationRestriction
Act(ACDSEH092)

3WorldWarI

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatekeyaspectsofWorldWarIandtheAustralianexperienceofthewar,includingthenatureand
significanceofthewarinworldandAustralianhistory.
WorldWarI(19141918)
AnoverviewofthecausesofWorldWarIandthe

reasonswhymenenlistedtofightinthewar
(ACDSEH021)

VCAA | AusVELS Curriculum | Date PDF created: Monday, 16 March 2015

investigatingtheriseofnationalistsentimentaswellas
thevaluesandattitudestowardswarintheperiod1750
1918(forexampleidealisticnotionsofwarsenseof
adventure)

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TheplaceswhereAustraliansfoughtandthenatureof

identifyingtheplaceswhereAustraliansfought,
includingFromelles,theSomme,Gallipoli,Sinaiand
Palestine

usingsourcestoinvestigatethefightingatGallipoli,the
difficultiesoftrenchwarfare,andtheuseoftanks,
aeroplanesandchemicalweapons(gas)

exploringtheexperiencesofAboriginalandTorresStrait
Islanderpeoplesduringthewar

graphingtheproportionofAustralianservicemenwho
diedduringWorldWarI,comparedtothatofother
countriesinvolvedinthewar

investigatingexamplesofthewarsimpacton
Australiaseconomyandsociety(forexamplethe
developmentofthesteelindustryinNewcastleandthe
implementationoftheWarPrecautionsAct)

identifyingthegroupswhoopposedconscription(for
exampletradeunionists,IrishCatholics)andthe
groundsfortheirobjections

studyingthefirstandsecondreferendaonconscription,
includingthedivisionwithintheLaborPartyoverthis
issue

explainingthetreatmentofpeopleofGermandescent
duringthewar(forexampletheirclassificationas
enemyaliensandplacementininternmentcamps,as
wellastheirdepictioningovernmentpropaganda)

investigatingtheidealsassociatedwiththeAnzac
traditionandhowandwhyWorldWarIis
commemoratedwithinAustraliansociety

warfareduringWorldWarI,includingtheGallipoli
campaign(ACDSEH095)

TheimpactofWorldWarI,withaparticularemphasis
onAustralia(suchastheuseofpropagandato
influencethecivilianpopulation,thechangingroleof
women,theconscriptiondebate)(ACDSEH096)

ThecommemorationofWorldWarI,includingdebates
aboutthenatureandsignificanceoftheAnzaclegend
(ACDSEH097)
HistoricalSkills
Chronology,termsandconcepts
Usechronologicalsequencingto

Elaborations
l

representingtherelationshipbetweeneventsindifferenttimesand
placesusinginteractivetimelines

placingkeyeventsinsequence(forexampletheBoerWar,18991902
WorldWarI,19141918),andidentifyingpartsoftheworldthatwere
involvedin,oraffectedby,thoseevents

discussingthecontestabilityofparticularhistoricaltermssuchas
'settlement','invasion'and'colonisation'inthecontextofAustralias
history

definingandusingconceptssuchasimperialism,nationalism,
evolution,evidence

demonstratetherelationshipbetween
eventsanddevelopmentsindifferent
periodsandplaces(ACHHS164)

Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts
(ACHHS165)

Historicalquestionsandresearch

Elaborations

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l

developingquestionsaboutaspectsofthepastthatrequirehistorical
argument

inquiry(ACHHS166)

assembling,aspartoftheplanningprocess,arangeofsourcesthat
wouldbeusefulforresearchingthecausesofWorldWarI

Evaluateandenhancethesequestions

developinganinquiryquestionsuchas:Whatweretheeffectsofthe
IndustrialRevolution?andrefiningitasfurtherfactorsareintroduced
intotheresearchprocess

locatinghistoricalsourcesfromarchives,museumsandonline
collections

Identifyandselectdifferentkindsof
questionsaboutthepasttoinformhistorical

(ACHHS167)

Identifyandlocaterelevantsources,using
ICTandothermethods(ACHHS168)
Analysisanduseofsources
Identifytheorigin,purposeandcontextof

Elaborations
l

explainingthecontextualsignificanceofasource,suchasFrank
HurleysWorldWarIphotos,andidentifyingthepurposeofHurleys
creationofcompositephotos

graphinghistoricaldatatoidentifypasttrendsandtodrawconclusions

primaryandsecondarysources
(ACHHS169)
Processandsynthesiseinformationfroma
rangeofsourcesforuseasevidenceinan

abouttheirsignificance(forexampletheproportionofAustralian

historicalargument(ACHHS170)

servicemenwhoreturnedfromWorldWarI,andthelostgenerations
intheyearsafterthewar)

Evaluatethereliabilityandusefulnessof

primaryandsecondarysources
(ACHHS171)

Perspectivesandinterpretations

understandingthatthereliabilityandusefulnessofasourcedepends
onthequestionsaskedofit(forexampleanaccountmaybeone
sided,howeveritmaystillbeusefulinrevealingpastprevailing
attitudes)

Elaborations
l

investigatingtheroleofhumanagencyinhistoricaleventsand
developments

analysingtheaccountsofpoetssuchasWilliamBlake(darkSatanic
mills)andnovelistssuchasCharlesDickens(OliverTwist,Bleak
House)assourcesofinformationonlivingconditionsinEngland
duringtheIndustrialRevolution

Identifyandanalysedifferenthistorical

recognisingthathistoricalinterpretationsmaybeprovisional

interpretations(includingtheirown)

examiningdifferentaccountsofeighteenthcenturyjourneytoAustralia
(forexampleshipslogs,diaries,recordedtestimoniesofconvictsand
officers,bothmaleandfemale),andexplainingthevariationsin
perspectivewhichcanleadtodifferenthistoricalinterpretations

Identifyandanalysetheperspectivesof
peoplefromthepast(ACHHS172)

(ACHHS173)

Explanationandcommunication
Developtexts,particularlydescriptionsand
discussionsthatuseevidencefromarange
ofsourcesthatarereferenced(ACHHS174)

Elaborations
l

developinganhistoricalargumentthatidentifiesdifferentpossibilities
ininterpretationandarguesaparticularpointofviewwithconsistent
referencetotheevidenceavailable

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Selectandusearangeofcommunication

usingonlineconferencingandotherformsofICTtodiscusshistorical
questionsandissues

creatingatravelbrochure(incorporatingwrittentextandgraphics)to
advertisetheachievementsandopportunitiesavailabletoan
immigranttonineteenthcenturyBrisbane

forms(oral,graphic,written)anddigital
technologies(ACHHS175)

Level9achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel9,studentsrefertokeyeventsandtheactionsofindividualsandgroupstoexplainpatternsofchangeand
continuityovertime.Theyanalysethecausesandeffectsofeventsanddevelopmentsandmakejudgmentsabouttheir
importance.Theyexplainthemotivesandactionsofpeopleatthetime.Studentsexplainthesignificanceoftheseeventsand
developmentsovertheshortandlongterm.Theyexplaindifferentinterpretationsofthepast.
Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframework,withreferencetoperiodsoftimeandtheir
duration.Whenresearching,studentsdevelopdifferentkindsofquestionstoframeanhistoricalinquiry.Theyinterpret,
process,analyseandorganiseinformationfromarangeofprimaryandsecondarysourcesanduseitasevidencetoanswer
inquiryquestions.Studentsexaminesourcestocomparedifferentpointsofview.Whenevaluatingthesesources,they
analyseoriginandpurpose,anddrawconclusionsabouttheirusefulness.Theydeveloptheirowninterpretationsaboutthe
past.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularlyexplanationsanddiscussions,incorporatinghistoricalinterpretations.Indeveloping
thesetexts,andorganisingandpresentingtheirconclusions,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts,evidenceidentifiedin
sources,andtheyreferencethesesources.

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Level10
TheModernWorldandAustralia
TheLevel10curriculumprovidesastudyofthehistoryofthemodernworldandAustraliafrom1918tothepresent,with
anemphasisonAustraliainitsglobalcontext.ThetwentiethcenturybecameacriticalperiodinAustraliassocial,
cultural,economicandpoliticaldevelopment.Thetransformationofthemodernworldduringatimeofpoliticalturmoil,
globalconflictandinternationalcooperationprovidesanecessarycontextforunderstandingAustraliasdevelopment,its
placewithintheAsiaPacificregion,anditsglobalstanding.
Thecontentprovidesopportunitiestodevelophistoricalunderstandingthroughkeyconcepts,includingevidence,
continuityandchange,causeandeffect,perspectives,empathy,significanceandcontestability.Theseconceptsmay
beinvestigatedwithinaparticularhistoricalcontexttofacilitateanunderstandingofthepastandtoprovideafocusfor
historicalinquiries.
Thehistorycontentatthislevelinvolvestwostrands:HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstandingandHistoricalSkills.
Thesestrandsareinterrelatedandshouldbetaughtinanintegratedway,andinwaysthatareappropriatetospecific
localcontexts.Theorderanddetailinwhichtheyaretaughtareprogrammingdecisions.
Aframeworkfordevelopingstudentshistoricalknowledge,understandingandskillsisprovidedbyinquiryquestions
throughtheuseandinterpretationofsources.Thekeyinquiryquestionsatthislevelare:
l

Howdidthenatureofglobalconflictchangeduringthetwentiethcentury?

WhatweretheconsequencesofWorldWarII?Howdidtheseconsequencesshapethemodernworld?

HowwasAustraliansocietyaffectedbyothersignificantglobaleventsandchangesinthisperiod?

HistoricalKnowledgeandUnderstanding
Overview
Thefollowingcontentistaughtaspartofanoverviewforthehistoricalperiod.Itisnotintendedtobetaughtindepth.
Anoverviewwillconstituteapproximately10%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Overviewcontentidentifies
importantfeaturesoftheperiod(1918tothepresent)aspartofanexpansivechronologythathelpsstudents
understandbroadpatternsofhistoricalchange.Assuch,theoverviewprovidesthebroadercontextfortheteachingof
depthstudycontentandcanbebuiltintovariouspartsofateachingandlearningprogram.Thismeansthatoverview
contentcanbeusedtogivestudentsanintroductiontothehistoricalperiodtomakethelinkstoandbetweenthe
depthstudies,andtoconsolidateunderstandingthroughareviewoftheperiod.
OverviewcontentfortheModernWorldandAustraliaincludesthefollowing:
theinterwaryearsbetweenWorldWarIandWorldWarII,includingtheTreatyofVersailles,theRoaringTwentiesand
theGreatDepression

recognisingthemainfeaturesoftheTreatyofVersailles,forexampleterritorialconcessionsrequiredbyGermany
andtheimpositionofwarreparations

outliningkeyfeaturesoftheinterwaryears(forexamplemassproductioninthe1920s,suchasthemanufacture
ofvehiclesintheUStheflappergenerationandtheJazzAgetheCrashof1929andtheconsequencesofthe
GreatDepression

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continuingeffortspostWorldWarIItoachievelastingpeaceandsecurityintheworld,includingAustralias
involvementinUNpeacekeeping
l

creatingachronologicalaccountofconflictsinwhichAustraliahasbeeninvolvedandtheresources(forexample
soldiers,equipment,intelligence)thatAustraliacommittedtoeachconflict

outliningthepurposeoftheUnitedNationsandthekeyplaceswhereAustraliahasbeeninvolvedinUN
peacekeeping,suchasEastTimor(TimorLeste).

themajormovementsforrightsandfreedomintheworldandtheachievementofindependencebyformercolonies


identifyingthemajormovementsforrightsandfreedomintheworld(includingtheUSCivilRightsmovement,
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslandermovements,womensmovements)
recognisingthecontinuingnatureofcivilrightsmovementsinthetwentiethcentury,suchasthestrugglefor
democracyinBurma

thenatureoftheColdWarandAustraliasinvolvementinColdWarandpostColdWarconflicts(Korea,Vietnam,The
GulfWars,Afghanistan),includingtherisinginfluenceofAsiannationssincetheendoftheColdWar


identifyingtheColdWarsuperpowersaswellasthesignificanceoftheCubanMissileCrisisandthefallofthe
BerlinWall
outliningthecompetingideologiesofcapitalismandcommunism,theUSastheworldslastremaining
superpower,andtherisinginfluenceofChinaandIndia(economicandpolitical)

developmentsintechnology,publichealth,longevityandstandardoflivingduringthetwentiethcentury,andconcern
fortheenvironmentandsustainability


brainstormingformsoftechnologythathaveaffectedwhatpeopleseeandhear,wheretheygo,andhowtheylive

tracingkeydevelopmentsintechnologysince1918thathavechangedtheworldinthefollowingareas:the
household(radio,television,appliances),travelandtrade(shipping,passengerjets),communications(invention
ofthemicrochip,satellites,digitaltechnologies)

recognisingthegrowthintheworldspopulationduringthetwentiethcentury,lifeexpectancychangesindifferent
partsoftheworld,andthedepletionofnaturalresources

Depthstudies
Therearethreedepthstudiesforthishistoricalperiod.Foreachdepthstudy,thereareuptothreeelectivesthatfocus
onaparticularsociety,event,movementordevelopment.ItisexpectedthatONEelectivewillbestudiedindetail.A
depthstudywillconstituteapproximately30%ofthetotalteachingtimeforthelevel.Thecontentineachdepthstudy
electiveisdesignedtoallowdetailedstudyofspecificaspectsofthishistoricalperiod.Aspartofateachingand
learningprogram,depthstudycontentcanbeintegratedwithoverviewcontentand/orintegratedwithotherdepth
studyelectives.
1WorldWarII

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigatewartimeexperiencesthroughastudyofWorldWarIIindepth.Thisincludesastudyofthe
causes,events,outcomeandbroaderimpactoftheconflictasanepisodeinworldhistory,andthenatureof
Australiasinvolvement.
WorldWarII(193945)

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AnoverviewofthecausesandcourseofWorldWar

outliningthecontributingfactorsofWorldWarII(for
exampletheoutcomesoftheTreatyofVersaillesandthe
LeagueofNationstheriseofHitlerandJapansimperial
ambitions)

identifyingkeyeventsintheEuropeantheatreofwar(for
exampleGermanysinvasionofPolandin1939the
Holocaustfrom194245theRussiansreachingBerlinin
1945

identifyingkeyeventsintheAsiaPacifictheatreofwar(for
exampletheJapaneseattackonPearlHarbourin1941
thefallofSingaporein1942theAmericanvictoryatthe
BattleofMidwayin1942)

investigatingthescaleandsignificanceoftheHolocaust,
usingprimarysources

explainingtheracetobuildtheatomicbomb(byGermany,
Japan,theUS)andwhytheatomicbombsweredropped
onHiroshimaandNagasaki

explainingthesignificanceofKokodaasthebattlethat
haltedtheJapaneseadvanceonPortMoresbyandhelped
fostertheAnzaclegend

investigatingtheimpactofWorldWarIIatalocaland
nationallevel(forexamplesignificanteventssuchasthe
bombingofDarwintheJapanesesubmarineattackon
SydneyandthesinkingofshipsofftheAustraliancoastthe
BattleofBrisbanetheCowrabreakoutandtheBrisbane
Line)

evaluatingtheimpactofWorldWarIIontheemergenceof
theUnitedStatesasamajorworldpowerandon
AustraliasalliancewiththeUS(forexamplethethreatof
Japan)

II(ACDSEH024)

AnexaminationofsignificanteventsofWorldWarII,
includingtheHolocaustanduseoftheatomic
bomb(ACDSEH107)

TheexperiencesofAustraliansduringWorldWarII
(suchasPrisonersofWar(POWs),theBattleof
Britain,Kokoda,theFallofSingapore)
(ACDSEH108)

TheimpactofWorldWarII,withaparticular
emphasisontheAustralianhomefront,including
thechangingrolesofwomenanduseofwartime
governmentcontrols(conscription,manpower
controls,rationingandcensorship)(ACDSEH109)

ThesignificanceofWorldWarIItoAustralias
internationalrelationshipsinthetwentiethcentury,
withparticularreferencetotheUnitedNations,
Britain,theUSAandAsia(ACDSEH110)

2Rightsandfreedoms

Elaborations

Studentsinvestigatestrugglesforhumanrightsindepth.Thiswillincludehowrightsandfreedomshavebeen
ignored,demandedorachievedinAustraliaandinthebroaderworldcontext.
Rightsandfreedoms(1945thepresent)
TheoriginsandsignificanceoftheUniversal
DeclarationofHumanRights,includingAustralias

describingthedraftingoftheUniversalDeclarationof
HumanRightsandthecontributionofAustraliasH.V.Evatt

involvementinthedevelopmentofthedeclaration
(ACDSEH023)

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BackgroundtothestruggleofAboriginalandTorres

describingaccountsofthepastexperiencesofAboriginal
andTorresStraitIslanderpeopleswhowereforcibly
removedfromtheirfamilies

outliningtheFreedomRidesintheUS,howtheyinspired
civilrightscampaignersinAustralia,andhowtheybecame
aturningpointintheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander
peoplesstruggleforrightsandfreedoms

describingtheaims,tacticsandoutcomesofaparticular
eventintheAboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples
struggleforrightsandfreedoms

investigatingtheroleofCharlesPerkinsintheFreedom
Rideof1965andtheefficacyoftelevisioninbringingthe
struggleforrightsandfreedomstonationalattention

identifyingareas(forexampleeducation,health,work)that
arethefocusforcontinuedcivilrightsactionforAboriginal
andTorresStraitIslanderpeoples

investigatingthelegacyofchildrensexperiencesin
care(theirplacementinorphanages,ChildrensHomes,
fostercareandotherformsofoutofhomecare),andthe
significanceoftheUnitedNationsConventiononthe
RightsoftheChild(1990)

StraitIslanderpeoplesforrightsandfreedoms
before1965,includingthe1938DayofMourning
andtheStolenGenerations(ACDSEH104)

TheUScivilrightsmovementanditsinfluenceon
Australia(ACDSEH105)

Thesignificanceofthefollowingforthecivilrightsof
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoples:1962
righttovotefederally1967Referendum
ReconciliationMabodecisionBringingThem
HomeReport(theStolenGenerations),theApology
(ACDSEH106)

Methodsusedbycivilrightsactiviststoachieve
changeforAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander
peoples,andtheroleofONEindividualorgroupin
thestruggle(ACDSEH134)

Thecontinuingnatureofeffortstosecurecivilrights
andfreedomsinAustraliaandthroughouttheworld,
suchastheDeclarationontheRightsof
IndigenousPeoples(2007)(ACDSEH143)

3Theglobalisingworld

Elaborations

StudentsinvestigateonemajorglobalinfluencethathasshapedAustraliansocietyindepth,includingthe
developmentoftheglobalinfluenceduringthetwentiethcentury.StudentsstudyONEoftheseelectives:Popular
cultureorTheenvironmentmovementorMigrationexperiences.
Popularculture(1945present)
ThenatureofpopularcultureinAustraliaattheend
ofWorldWarII,includingmusic,filmandsport

identifyingsportsthatwerepopularinAustraliasuchas
football,horseracing,cricket

(ACDSEH027)

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l

investigatingAmericasculturalinfluence,asseeninthe
arrivaloftelevisionfortheMelbourneOlympics(1956)and
BillHaleysAustraliantour(1957)

(ACDSEH121)

comparingandcontrastingviewsonthevaluesandbeliefs
ofrocknroll,filmandtelevisionacrosstime,ageand
gender(forexampleissuesofconservatismandrebellion,
thechallengetoestablishedideasandnationalidentity)

Thechangingnatureofthemusic,filmand

identifyingAmericanandAsianinfluencesonAustralian
popularculturesinceWorldWarII(forexamplethrough
mainstreamandHollywoodandBollywoodfilms)

investigatingthechangingcontributionoftheAustralian
rocknroll,filmandtelevisionindustriestoAustralian
cultureandidentitythroughthedevelopmentandexportof
music,filmandtelevision,forexampletheEasybeatsfrom
SydneyandGoBetweensfromBrisbane,Crocodile
Dundee(1986)

describingsignificantexamplesofcontinuityandchangein
beliefsandvalues,suchasdemocraticideals,religious
beliefs,egalitarianism

investigatingthenatureofthewavesofmigrationsuchas
thecountriesthatwerethesourceofmigrants,the
numbersofmigrantsfromthosecountries,andtrendsin
migrationsinceWorldWarIIsuchasincreasingmigration
fromtheAsianregiontoAustralia

describingthemainfeaturesofagovernmentpolicythat
affectedmigrationtoAustralia,suchastheImmigration
RestrictionAct1901anduseofthedictationtesttorestrict
theimmigrationofnonEuropeans

explainingthereasonsforchangesingovernmentpolicy,
forexampletheinfluenceofWhiteAustraliaideologyatthe
timeoftheintroductionoftheImmigrationRestrictionAct
1901theDisplacedPersonsSchemeintheaftermathof
WorldWarII

Developmentsinpopularcultureinpostwar
Australiaandtheirimpactonsociety,includingthe
introductionoftelevisionandrocknroll

televisionindustryinAustraliaduringthepostwar
period,includingtheinfluenceofoverseas
developments(suchasHollywood,Bollywoodand
theanimationfilmindustryinChinaandJapan)
(ACDSEH122)

Australiascontributiontointernationalpopular
culture(music,film,television,sport).
(ACDSEH123)

Continuityandchangeinbeliefsandvaluesthat
haveinfluencedtheAustralianwayoflife
(ACDSEH149)
OR
Migrationexperiences(1945present)
ThewavesofpostWorldWarIImigrationto
Australia,includingtheinfluenceofsignificantworld
events(ACDSEH144)

Theimpactofchanginggovernmentpolicieson
Australiasmigrationpatterns,includingabolitionof
theWhiteAustraliaPolicy,Populateor
Perish(ACDSEH145)

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TheimpactofatleastONEworldeventor

describingtheimpactoftheVietnamwaronVietnamand
howthecommunistvictoryinVietnam(1975)resultedin
thearrivalofrefugeesintoAustralia

investigatingpoliciesofmulticulturalismsincethe1970s
andtheconceptsofculturalheritageandassimilation

analysingpostWorldWarIIpopulationgrowthandthe
developmentofAustraliasculturallydiversesocietyusing
differenttypesofgraphs

outliningtheemergenceofconcernsaboutthe
preservationofnaturalareasforfuturegenerations(for
exampleasreflectedintheestablishmentofNational
ParksintheUnitedStates(YellowstoneNationalParkin
1872),Australia(RoyalNationalParkin1879),Canada
(RockyMountainsNationalParkin1885)andNewZealand
(TongariroNationalParkin1887)

investigatingtheimpactofearlytextsthatwarnedabout
environmentalchange(forexampleSilentSpringbyRachel
Carson,1962,DontItMakeYouWantToGoHomebyJoe
South,1970,MotherEarthNewsmagazinein1970,Mercy
MercyMe(TheEcology)lyricsbyMarvinGaye,1971)

recognisingthehistoricimpactofthepicturesofEarth
takenduringtheApollo8missionandhowtheyinfluenced
peoplesviewoftheworld

explainingthesignificanceofideasabouttheenvironment
(forexampleGaiatheinteractionofEarthandits
biospherelimitsofgrowththatunlimitedgrowthis
unsustainablesustainabilitythatbiologicalsystems
needtoremaindiverseandproductiveovertimeandrights
ofnaturerecognitionthathumansandtheirnatural
environmentarecloselyinterrelated)

investigatingarangeofenvironmentalimpacts(for
examplethefloodingofLakePedderinTasmania,
deforestationinIndonesia,thedeclineoftheAralSea,the
ExxonValdezoilspill,thewhalingindustry)

explainingthestruggleoverFrenchnuclearweapontesting
inthePacificfrom19661996(forexamplethesinkingof
theship,theRainbowWarrior,in1985)

developmentanditssignificanceforAustralia,such
astheVietnamWarandIndochineserefugees
(ACDSEH146)

ThecontributionofmigrationtoAustralias
changingidentityasanationandtoitsinternational
relationships(ACDSEH147)

OR
Theenvironmentmovement(1960spresent)
Thebackgroundtoenvironmentalawareness,
includingthenineteenthcenturyNationalParks
movementinAmericaandAustralia(ACDSEH028)

Theintensificationofenvironmentaleffectsinthe
twentiethcenturyasaresultofpopulationincrease,
urbanisation,increasingindustrialproductionand
trade(ACDSEH125)

Thegrowthandinfluenceoftheenvironment
movementwithinAustraliaandoverseas,and
developmentsinideasabouttheenvironment
(notionofGaia,limitstogrowth,conceptof
sustainability,conceptofrightsofnature)
(ACDSEH126)

Significanteventsandcampaignsthatcontributed
topopularawarenessofenvironmentalissues,
suchasthecampaigntopreventthedammingof
AustraliasGordonRiver,thenuclearaccidentat
ChernobylandtheJabilukaminecontroversyin
1998(ACDSEH127)

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Responsesofgovernments,includingthe

explainingtheresponsesofgovernmentsand
organisationstoenvironmentalthreats(forexampleNew
Zealandsantinuclearpolicy,theUnitedStates
ComprehensiveEnvironmentalResponse,Compensation
andLiabilityAct1980(CERCLA),AustraliasGreatBarrier
ReefOutlookReport(2009)

evaluatingtheeffectivenessofinternationalprotocolsand
treatiessuchasKyoto(1997),theUnitedNations
FrameworkConventiononClimateChange(since1992)
andtheWashingtonDeclaration(2007)

Australiangovernment,andinternational
organisationstoenvironmentalthreatssincethe
1960s(includingdeforestationandclimate
change).(ACDSEH128)

HistoricalSkills
Chronology,termsandconcepts
Usechronologicalsequencingto

Elaborations
l

placinginsequencethemaineventsoftheFreedomRidescampaignsin
theUnitedStatesandAustraliaandexplainingthelinksbetweenthetwo
campaigns

usinginteractivetimelinestoexplorethevariousmanifestationsoreffects
ofaneventindifferentgeographicallocations

definingandusingtermsandconceptssuchasliberation,humanrights,
popularcultureandcontestability

demonstratetherelationshipbetween
eventsanddevelopmentsindifferent
periodsandplaces(ACHHS182)

Usehistoricaltermsandconcepts
(ACHHS183)
Historicalquestionsandresearch
Identifyandselectdifferentkindsof

Elaborations
l

changingakeyquestionorrelatedquestionsinaninquirydependingon
thesuitabilityofthesourcesavailable

developingquestionsaboutaspectsofthepastthatrequirehistorical
argument

identifying,planningandinvestigating(individuallyandaspartofateam)
specifichistoricalquestionsorissues

changingakeyquestionorrelatedquestionsinaninquirydependingon
thesuitabilityofthesourcesavailable

locatingsourcesforrecordingoralhistories(forexampleVietnamWar
veterans,recentmigrants)

recognisingtheroleofICTinprovidingaccesstosourcesandtheneedto
askrelevantquestionsofthosesources(forexampleaGooglesearchfor
significanceofKokoda)

questionsaboutthepasttoinform
historicalinquiry(ACHHS184)

Evaluateandenhancethesequestions
(ACHHS185)
Identifyandlocaterelevantsources,
usingICTandothermethods
(ACHHS186)

Analysisanduseofsources
Identifytheorigin,purposeandcontext

Elaborations
l

usingdatafromimmigrationrecordsandprocessingitusingICTtoidentify
historicaltrendsovertime

explainingthecontextofasourcesuchastheBringingThemHomeReport
(1997)andthesignificanceofthatcontextinunderstandingresponsesto
thereport(withvaryingperspectives)

ofprimaryandsecondarysources
(ACHHS187)

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The Humanities - History


Processandsynthesiseinformation

combininghistoricaldatafromarangeofsourcestoidentifyandexplain
theimpactofWorldWarII

understandingthatthereliabilityandusefulnessofasourcedependson
thequestionsaskedofit(forexampleanaccountmaybeonesidedand
thereforeofuseinrevealingpastprevailingattitudes)

discussingthereliabilityandusefulnessofMartinLutherKings1963I
HaveADreamspeechasasourcetoassistinunderstandingtheaims
andmotivationsoftheUSCivilRightsmovement

fromarangeofsourcesforuseas
evidenceinanhistoricalargument
(ACHHS188)
Evaluatethereliabilityandusefulness
ofprimaryandsecondarysources
(ACHHS189)

Perspectivesandinterpretations
Identifyandanalysetheperspectivesof

Elaborations
l

analysingtheviewsofbothmenandwomenatdifferenttimesregarding
genderequalityinAustraliaandexplaininghowtheseviewsmightreflect
changingvaluesandattitudes

examiningdifferentaccountsofthefirst1957rocknrolltoursofAustralia
andidentifyingthedifferentperspectivesbasedonage

explainingtheenthusiasmofyoungpeopleforthetoursandtheopposition
ofoldergenerations,asreflectedinthesources

peoplefromthepast(ACHHS190)

Identifyandanalysedifferenthistorical
interpretations(includingtheirown)
(ACHHS191)

Explanationandcommunication

Elaborations
l

developinganhistoricalargumentthatidentifiesdifferentpossibilitiesin
interpretationandarguesaparticularpointofview,withconsistentand
specificreferencetotheevidenceavailable

referenced(ACHHS192)

explainingthesignificanceofthefallofSingapore(1942)inthechangesin
AustraliasmilitaryalliancesanduseoftroopsduringWorldWarII,usinga
rangeofsources(forexampleaccountsofprisonersofwar,commanders
suchasGeneralGordonBennett,politicianssuchasPrimeMinisterJohn
Curtin,andJapaneseandBritishsources)

Selectandusearangeof

designingaposterthatoutlinesthemainargumentsagainstFrench
nucleartestinginthePacificandexplainingthenatureandreliabilityofthe
sourcesusedtoconstructtheposter

Developtexts,particularlydescriptions
anddiscussionsthatuseevidence
fromarangeofsourcesthatare

communicationforms(oral,graphic,
written)anddigitaltechnologies
(ACHHS193)

Level10achievementstandard
BytheendofLevel10,studentsrefertokeyevents,theactionsofindividualsandgroups,andbeliefsandvaluestoexplain
patternsofchangeandcontinuityovertime.Theyanalysethecausesandeffectsofeventsanddevelopmentsandexplain
theirrelativeimportance.Theyexplainthecontextforpeoplesactionsinthepast.Studentsexplainthesignificanceofevents
anddevelopmentsfromarangeofperspectives.Theyexplaindifferentinterpretationsofthepastandrecognisetheevidence
usedtosupporttheseinterpretations.

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The Humanities - History


Studentssequenceeventsanddevelopmentswithinachronologicalframework,andidentifyrelationshipsbetweenevents
acrossdifferentplacesandperiodsoftime.Whenresearching,studentsdevelop,evaluateandmodifyquestionstoframean
historicalinquiry.Theyprocess,analyseandsynthesiseinformationfromarangeofprimaryandsecondarysourcesanduse
itasevidencetoanswerinquiryquestions.Studentsanalysesourcestoidentifymotivations,valuesandattitudes.When
evaluatingthesesources,theyanalyseanddrawconclusionsabouttheirusefulness,takingintoaccounttheirorigin,
purpose,andcontext.Theydevelopandjustifytheirowninterpretationsaboutthepast.Studentsdeveloptexts,particularly
explanationsanddiscussions,incorporatinghistoricalargument.Indevelopingthesetextsandorganisingandpresenting
theirarguments,theyusehistoricaltermsandconcepts,evidenceidentifiedinsources,andtheyreferencethesesources.

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