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4/10/2015

The Senses!
Smelling

Sight
Taste

Touch
Hearing
Proprioception / Relative position

Vestibulation / Balance

Because sensing what is around you is half the fun!

Purpose of Sensory Organs


Allows the body to receive information from the outside world
Have specialized receptors for specific stimuli
All information transmitted is to the brain

4/10/2015

Purpose of Sensory Organs


Key sensory organs
1. Skin Touch
2. Tongue Taste
3. Nose Smell
4. Ears Hearing and Balance
5. Eyes Seeing

The Skin
Largest organ of the body (16% body mass)
Function:
1. Protect body
Defense against pathogens
Waterproofing

2. Allow for sensation of touch (temperature, pain, pressure and


touch)
3. Waste removal
Sweating has waste in it

4. Temperature regulation
Sweating cools you down

4/10/2015

Did you know?!?


Adults have approximately 3.6 kilograms of skin on them
Thats approx. 32 iPhone 5s stacked on top of each other

Skin. Health and the Human Body. Retrieved April 6, 2015, from
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-body/skin-article.html

The Skin
Shape: Three layers, one on top of the other
Outer layer: Epidermis (epi = over)
Dead skin cells; protect living cells underneath

4/10/2015

The Skin
Shape: Three layers, one on top of the other
Middle layer: Dermis
Living cells
Key structures in the dermis
1.
2.
3.
4.

Blood vessels
Sensory receptors
Glands
Hair

The Skin
Shape: Three layers, one on top of the other
Inner layer: Hypodermis (hypo= low)
Living cells
Contains fat cells that has two roles
1.
2.

Helps insulate body


Emergency energy reserve

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The Skin- Cross section


Hair

Epidermis
Blood vessels
Sensory Receptor

Dermis
Hypodermis
Fat cells
Nerve

The Skin- Types of Sensory Receptors

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The Skin- How it interprets stimuli


Sensory receptors on skin sense stimuli
Sensory receptors transform stimuli into nerve impulse
Impulse sent to brain

Did you know?!?


Not all areas of the skin have an equal amount of sensory
receptors! Homunculus

4/10/2015

The Tongue
Muscle in mouth; key in digestion
Function:
1. Allow for food to be swallowed
2. Sense taste
3. Create sounds

Did you know?!?


Taste and flavor are not same!
Flavor combination of taste and smell
Taste chemical stimulation of the tongue

4/10/2015

Tongue
Tastes humans can detect
1. Sweet
2. Sour
3. Salty
4. Bitter
5. Umami (savory; cheese, soy sauce, cured meat)

The Tongue Cross Section


Papillae

Taste bud

4/10/2015

The Tongue- How it interprets stimuli


Taste buds are found on structures called papillae
They are the bumps on the tongue

Saliva mixed with chemicals from food flow through the taste pore
Taste buds sense the chemicals, transforming the chemical stimulus
to nerve impulse
Impulse sent to brain

Did you know?!?


Besides the five basic tastes, your tongue can sense
Spiciness
Coolness
Numbness (numbing and hot; Asian foods)
Puckering (astringency)
Metallicness
Calcium
Temperature

4/10/2015

The Nose
Organ ; key in respiration
Function:
1. Allow for gas to be exchanged
2. Sense smell
Key receptor in nose
Olfactory bulb (on tip of olfactory nerve)

Did you know?!?


90% of the sensation of taste is due to smelling the food you
ingest?!?!

10

4/10/2015

The Nose Cross Section

The Nose- How it interprets stimuli


Odorants (chemicals carried by gas) enter the nose
Cilia (hairs) on olfactory bulb pick up odorant, transforming the
chemical stimulus to nerve impulse
Impulse sent by olfactory nerve to brain

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