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Lab Report: Blood Type Testing

Date: 19-03-2015

Cherngchay Tacho (First) 11-4


Kantaporn Kachonseree (Namwarn) 11-8

Introduction

Nohumanbeingonearthcansurvivewithoutblood.Bloodisvitalfluidthat
circulatesaroundheart,arteriesandveinsinahumanbody.
Thevolumeofbloodina
humanbodyisapproximately7percentofbodyweight.
Withoutblood,humanscannot
keeptheirbodieswarm,fightinfectionorgetridofthewaste.Incaseofaninjury,itis
notnecessaryforpatientstoreceiveonlytheirownspecificblood,buttheycanalso
receivebloodtypesthatarecompatiblefortransfusion.Itiscrucialtogetonlyblood
typethatthebodiescanaccept,orelseitcanbethreateningtopatient'slifebecause
eachbloodtypecontainsvariousantigensandantibodies.

Bloodreferstomultipleallelictraitsinwhichthegeneexistsinseveralallelic
A
B
formsincludingI
(Aantigenonredbloodcells),I
(Bantigenonredbloodcells),andi

(NeitherAnorBantigenonredbloodcells).Allhumansandmanyotherprimatescan
betypedfortheABObloodgroup.Eachparentwillgiveoneallelestoanoffspring
A
A A B
B B A
B
whichresultinthepossiblecombinationsofI
I
,I
i,I
I
,I
i,I
I
,andii.
Forthis

multialleletrait,bloodtypesAandBarecodominantandtypeOisrecessive.Youcan
A
A
A
havetypeObloodonlyifyouarehomozygousfortheOallele.
I
I
and
I
i
yieldblood
B
typeA,while
IB

I
and
IB

i
resultinbloodtypeB.Ifpeoplehavean
IA

anda
IB
allele,their

bloodtypesareAB,becauseAandBarebothexpressedfullyandequallyorthisis
calledcodominance.

Tableofantigenandantibodiesshowantigenineachbloodtypes.
ABO

Antigen

Antigen

Antibody

Antibody

BloodType

antiA

antiB

yes

no

no

yes

no

yes

yes

no

AB

yes

yes

no

no

no

no

yes

yes

TherearetwoantigensincludingantigenAandantigenB,andtwoantibodies
includingantibodyAandantibodyBthataremostlyresponsiblefortheABOtypes.An
antibodyisaproteinproducedbythebody'simmunesystem.Itsmainfunctionisto
detectanddefendagainstharmfulsubstances,calledantigens.Bacteria,viruses,and
othergermshaveantigenproteinsontheirsurfacewhichtheimmunesystem
recognisesasforeigners.Whenapatienthascertaininfection,Blymphocytesmakelots
ofantibodieswhichattachtoandoftendestroytheinfectinggerms.

Purpose

Todeterminedifferentbloodtypesofeachstudentbymixingsamplebloodwith
antigenA,antigenBandantigenAB

Topredictthepossibleallelesofourparentsandtheiroffsprings

Tofurtherunderstandabouthowpunnettsquaresworkandcreateourownone

Materials
MicroscopeSlides[x2]

LancetDevice

Antibodies(A,B,andAB)

Ethanol

Markers

CottonBall

Lancets

Toothpicks[x3]

Methods
1. Onbothendsofthemicroscopeslides,drawafourofonediameter
circles.
2. MarkCforControl,AforAntiA,BforAntiB,andABAntiABbeside
eachcircle.
3. Waitforthethebloodsample(processmustbedonebythequalified
person).
4. Droponedropofbloodineachcircleontheslides.
5. DontdropantibodyintheControlcircle.
6. Droponedropofantibodyoneachslide.Makesuretheantibodyandthe
antigenarethesame(ex.dropantibodyAinAntiAcircle).
7. Mixtheantibodyandbloodtogetherbyusingtoothpicks(usedifferent
toothpickforeachcircle).
8. Waitfor10seconds,observeandcollectthedata.

Result
Figure1NamwarnbloodsamplesmixingwithantibodyA,BandAB

BloodTableshowsresultsafteraddingAntibodies

State:Coagulation/Nocoagulation

Control

NoCoagulation

AntiA

NoCoagulation

AntiB

Coagulation

AntiAB

Coagulation

NamwarnbloodindicategroupB
*AntiA,AntiBandAntiABaredroppedinthebloodsampleasshowninthe
pictureabove.Theresultdisplayedthecoagulationwhichcanbefoundmainlyincircle
BandcircleABafterdroppingAntiBandAntiABineachcirclerespectively.Therefore,
accordingtotheresult,itcanbeconcludedthatthebloodsampletypeisB.

Discussion

1.)Statethebloodtypeofyourmomanddadandexplainthedifferentscenarios
ofalleleinheritancethatledtoyourbloodtype.

CherngchayTacho(First)ssituation(Nonbloodedtested)
:

Thebloodtypeof
Firsts
motherisOtherefore,theonlypossibleallelesisii
(twoOrecessivealleles).The

bloodtypeof
Firsts
fatherisA,soitcomesupwith2
A A

A
possibleallelesareI
I
(twoAalleles)
andI
i(oneAalleleswithOalleles)but
Firsts

sisterhasObloodtypethatcomefrom
Firsts
mother.Picturesbelowarepunnett
squareshowingthepossibleallelesofoffspringsandimpossibleallelesof
Firsts
father.

Punnettsquare:
(Possibility:
A
I
ibloodtype:50%

iibloodtype:50%)

Mother/Father

A
I

A
I
i

ii

A
I
i

ii

A
ThefirstpunnettsquareshowscrossingbetweenAbloodtypeof
First
father(I
i)

thathaveoneAalleleswithOallelescrosswithObloodtypeof
First
mother(ii)that
havetwoOrecessivealleles.Thispunnettsquareshowthat
First
parentbeableto
producejustAbloodtypeoffspringandObloodtypeoffspring,punnettsquareshow
ratioof50%chancethatoffspringabletohaveAbloodtypeorObloodtype.

(Possibility:
A
I
ibloodtype:100%)

Mother/Father

A
I

A
I

A
I
i

A
I
i

A
I
i

A
I
i

Thesecondpunnettsquareshowsthatitisimpossiblethat
Firsts
fatherwith
A
A
AbloodtypehavingtwoAdominantalleles(I
I
)andcrossingwith
First
motherthat

hasObloodtypewithtwoOrecessiveallelesresultinginObloodtypeoffspringthat
are
First
sister.Theonlypossibleoffspringforthiscrossingwillbe100%Abloodtype
A
thathaveoneAalleleswithOalleles(I
i).

-
KantapornKachonseree(Namwarn)ssituation:
Since

thebloodtypeof
Namwarns
motherisAB,heronlyfeasiblegenotypeis
A
B
I
I
(codominanceofAandB).However,thebloodtypeof
Namwarns
fatherisB,it

B
B
B
thuscomesupwith2possibleallelesincludingI
I
(twoBalleles)andI
i(oneBalleles

withOalleles).Accordingtolabexperiment,itcanbeindicatedthat
Namwarns
blood
typeisBinaddition,
Namwarns
sisterbloodtypeisA,sowecanconcludethat
B
Namwarns
fatherpossibleallelesisI
i.

Punnettsquare:
(Possibility:
A
B
I
I
bloodtype:25%
B
B
I
I
bloodtype:25%
A
I
ibloodtype:25%
B
I
ibloodtype25%)

Mother/Father

B
I

A
I

A
B
I
I

A
I
i

B
I

B
B
I
I

B
I
i

ThefirstpunnettsquareshowscrossingbetweenBbloodtypeof
Namwarns
B
father(I
i)thathaveonlyoneBalleleswithOallelescrosswithABbloodtypeof
A
B
Namwarns
mother(I
I
)thathavecodominantalleles.Itcanbeconcludedthat

Namwarns
parentsareabletoproduceoffspringsthathavebloodtypesofAB,B(two
BallelesandoneBalleleswithOalleles)andA(oneAalleleswithOalleles).
B
B B
Namwarns
bloodtypecanbeeitherI
I
orIibasedonthispunnettsquare.To
B
summarize,
Namwarns
fatherbloodtypeallelesisI
ibecause
Namwarns
sisterblood

typeisA.

(Possibility:
A
B
I
I
bloodtype:50%
B
B
I
I
bloodtype:50%)

Mother/Father

B
I

B
I

A
I

A
B
I
I

A
B
I
I

B
I

B
B
I
I

B
B
I
I

Thesecondpunnettsquareshowstheimpossibilityof
Namwarns
fathertohav
BbloodtypewithtwoBalleles,because
Namwarns
sisterbloodtypeisA.Thereisno
A
A
A
B
B
chanceforhertohaveI
iorI
I
if
Namwarns
fatherhasI
I
alleles.

2.)Explainwhybloodcoagulateswithsomeantibodiesbutnotwithother
antibodies.

Fromtheexperiment,wecanseethat
Namwarns
bloodcoagulateswith
antibodiesBincircleBandABbecauseherbloodtypeisBwhichcontainsantibodies
B.

Firstly,knowingsomebasicbackgroundsaboutantigenandantibodieswould
makebetterunderstandinginansweringthisquestion.Antibodiesare
smallproteins
thatcirculateinthebloodstream.Theyarepartoftheimmune(defence)systemandare
sometimescalledimmunoglobulinsantibodiesattachingtoproteinsandotherchemicals
inthebody,whichtheyrecognisetobeforeign(notnormallyfoundinthebody).The
foreignproteinsandchemicalsthatantibodiesattachtoarecalledantigens.Human
bloodtypeisdeterminedbyAorBantigenthatarecarryingbyourredbloodcells.
Theseantigensareinheritedfrommomordad,dependingonwhichalleleisdominant.


Bloodcontainsantigensthatcanbepairedupwiththeirspecifictypesof
antibodiesresultingintheformingofcoagulation.ForexampleapersonwithAblood
typehasantigenAwhichformscoagulationwithantibodiesAandantibodiesAB.Italso
formscoagulationwithantigenABbecauseitiscodominancewhichdisplaystwo
dominantallelesofAandB.ForapersonwhohasBandABbloodtypethewaythatit
willcoagulatewillbethesamebutwithdifferentantibodiesbutforOt
hecoagulationwill
notoccurbecauseObloodtypedonothaveanyantigen.

Fromtheexperiment,
Namwarns
bloodtypeisBwhichmeansthat
Namwarns
red

bloodcellssurfacecontainsantigensB,antigensontheirsurfacethatmatchwith
identicaltypeantibodieswillcoagulate.Thisisthereasonthat
Namwarns
bloodalso
coagulatedinABcircletoo.

Conclusion

Afterconductingthebloodtypetestinglab,welearntabouthoweach
antibodies,whicharecontainedvaryingineachbloodtype,interactwiththeirspecific
antigens.Moreover,weareabletoinvestigateourgenotypeofourparentsbloodtype,
andunderstandhowdoesbloodtestingwork.

ThisexperimentprovedthattheMandelasgenetictheoryistrue.Usingthe
punnettsquaretopredictthepossibleoffspringsofourparents,wecanensure
genotypicbloodtypesofusandoursiblings.

Therewasnoerrorinthislab.Theresultwasinourexpectationexceptthe
coagulationofBbloodtypeinantigenAB.Thispartwasbeyondourexpectation
A
B
becausewejustlearntthatABbloodtypecontainedbothI
andI
whichcanresultin

coagulationtoo.

Reference

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