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Chapter 7:

Electricity

Part 3: Series and Parallel


Circuits

Series Circuits
s
r
o
t
s
i
s
e
r
e
r
o
m
r
o
o
w
t
When
Connected one
end after
another
To form a single path for
current flow

Series Circuits
m
o
r
f
e
c
n
e
r
e
f
i
d
l
a
i
t
n
Pote
d
e
r
a
h
s
s
i
y
r
e
t
t
a
b
e
h
t

Therefore each bulb glows


dimly

Series Circuits
s
i
b
l
u
b
h
c
a
e
f
o
w
o
f
Current
s am e

Therefore brightness of
each bulb is the same

Series Circuits
n
e
h
w
n
e
k
o
r
b
s
i
t
i
u
c
r
i
The c
ed
v
o
m
e
r
s
i
one bulb

And the other bulbs go out


as well

Parallel
Circuits

e
r
a
s
t
n
e
n
All compo
connected

With their
corresponding
ends
joined togethe
r
To form separate and
parallel paths for
current flow

Parallel
Circuits

Each bulb is connected


directly to the battery

Thus each bulb


glows
brightly

Because each bulb gets


the full potential
difference

Parallel
Circuits

Each bulb has


a higher
brightness

Than each bulb in a


series circuit

Parallel
Circuits

The circuit remains


unbroken

If one bulb is re
moved

So the other two bulbs


will remain to work

Compare the Circuits


Current
Series Circuit

Parallel
Circuit

A1

X
3

A1

A2

Current has only one path to


flow
Reading on A1 = Reading on
A2
Same current flows through
each resistors

A2

Current splits into different


paths
Reading on A = Reading on A1
+ A2
Main current is shared
between the two resistors

Compare the Circuits Potential


Difference
Series Circuit
X

V1

V2
V

Reading on V = Reading of V1
+ V2
Potential Difference is shared
by the two resistors

Parallel
Circuit
V1
X

V2
Reading on V1 = Reading on
V2
Potential difference is the
same across each resistor

Compare the
Circuits

Series Circuit

Parallel
Circuit

When one bulb has blown up

When one bulb has blown up

The other bulb would not be


able to light up

The other bulb can still light


up

Compare the
Circuits

Series Circuit

Parallel
Circuit

Dimmer bulbs

Brighter bulbs

Less voltage across each bulb

Higher voltage across each


bulb
Larger current pass through
each bulb

Less current pass through


each bulb

Determining Effective
Resistance

Series Circuit
I

I1

I2

I3

Parallel
Circuit

V1

V2

V3

R
1

I1

V1

R
2

I2
I

Current

Potential
Differenc
e
Resistan
ce

V2

R
3

I3

V3