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Callahan
BradCallahan
Mr.Pichette
Philosophy
15December2014
OppositionstoChristianity
1.Religioushumanistsregardtheuniverseasselfexistingandnotcreated.(HM1,
affirm.1)
ItissaidinGenesis1:1InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavensandtheearth.This
isaclearoppositiontoChristianity.Humanistsdonotbelieveinanyhigheror
supernaturalpower.Theybelievethattheearthwasnotcreatedbyadivinepower,but
insteaditalwaysexisted.ThisopposeseverythingthatChristianitystandsfor.
2.Humanismbelievesthatmanisapartofnatureandthathehasemergedasthe
resultofacontinuousprocess.(HM1,affirm.2)
InGenesis9:6itstatesthat;"Whoevershedsman'sblood,Bymanhisbloodshallbe
shed,ForintheimageofGodHemademan.Godmademanintheimageofhimself.
Whenhumanistssaythatmanemergedasacontinuousprocess,itgoesincomplete
oppositionoftheBible.Humanistsbelieveinevolution.Thismeanstheythinkthatman
slowlyevolvedintowhatitistoday.Insteadofahigherpowercreatingmaninhisown
image.
3.Humanismassertsthatthenatureoftheuniversedepictedbymodernscience
makesunacceptableanysupernaturalorcosmicguaranteesofhumanvalues.(HM1,
affirm.5)

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Itissaidin1Corinthians3:1617;Doyounotknowthatyouare
GodstempleandthatGodsSpiritdwellsinyou?IfanyonedestroysGodstemple,God
willdestroyhim.ForGodstempleisholy,andyouarethattemple.Godclearlyshows
thatheupholdshighvalueforthehumanlife.Humanistsbelievethatwehavenovalues.
Ifonehasnovaluesthenwhatwouldtherebetolivefor.
4.Humanistsbelievethattraditionaltheism,especiallyfaithintheprayerhearing
God,assumedtoloveandcareforpersons,tohearandunderstandtheirprayers,
andtobeabletodosomethingaboutthem,isanunprovedandoutmodedfaith.
(HM2,para.3)
This,however,isaclearoppositiontowhatChristianitystandsfor.ItsaysinMatthew
21:22;Andwhateveryouaskinprayer,youwillreceive,ifyouhavefaith.Godstates
severaltimesthatprayerisapowerfultool.Humanistsdonotbelieveinadivinepower,
soprayer,forexample,wouldbecompletelyuseless.
5.Butwecandiscovernodivinepurposeorprovidenceforthehumanspecies.
(Hm2,affirm.1)
InMatthew28:1920itsaysthat;Gothereforeandmakedisciplesofallnations,
baptizingtheminthenameoftheFatherandoftheSonandoftheHolySpirit,teaching
themtoobserveallthatIhavecommandedyou.Andbehold,Iamwithyoualways,to
theendoftheage.ItisthedutyforallChristianstogooutandspreadthewordofJesus
toeveryone.Humanists,ontheotherhand,believethatthehumanspecieshasneither
purposenorprovidence.Bythehumanistsway,wehavenopurposetolive.
6.Nodeitywillsaveus;(HM2,affirm.1)

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Itissaidin2Thessalonians2:8;"AndthenshallthatWickedbe
revealed,whomtheLordshallconsumewiththespiritofhismouth,andshalldestroy
withthebrightnessofhiscoming:".TheChristianreligionknowsthatJesuswillcome
downtoearthanddefeatallevil.Inotherwordshewillsaveus.Humanistsbelievethat
therewillbenohigherpowertosaveus,insteaditdependsonthehumanspeciestodo
something.
7.Thereisnocredibleevidencethatlifesurvivesthedeathofthebody.(HM2,
affirm.2)
ItssaidinJohn11:25;Jesussaidtoher,Iamtheresurrectionandthelife.Whoever
believesinme,thoughhedie,yetshalllive.Christianitystatesthatwhoeverbelievein
Godwillspendeternityinparadisewithhim.Humanistsbelievethatthereisnoheaven
orafterlifewhatsoever.Withoutone,lifewouldhavenomorals.Wehavenoguidelines
toliveby.
8.Therighttobirthcontrol,abortion,anddivorceshouldberecognized.(HM2,
affirm.6)
TheBibleisinoppositionofallthreeofthesepropositions.Itissaidthatwearesuppose
topopulatetheearth.AbortionisdisobeyingoneoftheTenCommandments,whichGod
gaveustoliveby.Whichisyoushouldnotmurder.ADivorcewouldbebreakingthe
vowsthatweremadebetweenthetwo.Humanistsbelievethatweshouldallhavea
choiceinwhatwewant.Onceagainitwouldmeanwehavenomorals.
9.Italsoincludesarecognitionofanindividualsrighttodiewithdignity,
euthanasia,andtherighttosuicide.(HM2,affirm.7)

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ItissaidinEcclesiastes9:4thatAnyonewhoisamongtheliving
hashope.SuicideisagainsteverythingthatChristiansstandfor.Itisconsideredselfish.
HumanistdonotvaluethelifeofahumanasmuchasaChristianwould.
10.Itiseithermeaninglessorirrelevanttothequestionofthesurvivaland
fulfillmentofthehumanrace.(HM2,affirm.1)
Christianitybelievesthatwehavepurposeandmeaningtobeontheearth.Itisto
reproduceandspreadthewordacrosstheworld.ItissaidinPsalms96:3toDeclarehis
gloryamongthenations,hismarvelousdeedsamongallpeoples.IfHumanistsbelieve
thatthereisnopurposetolivelifethentherewouldbenomoralsorguidelinestoliveby.

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LogicalFlaws

1.Contradiction:Weassumethathumanismwilltakethepathofsocialandmental
hygieneanddiscouragesentimentalandunrealhopesandwishfulthinking,(HM1,
affirm.11).To:Humanistsdemandasharedlifeinasharedworld,(HM1,affirm.14).
Thisclaimcontradictsitselfandasksforwhatitsaidnottoencourage.
2.ArgumentfromSilence:Salvationism,basedonmereaffirmation,stillappearsas
harmful,divertingpeoplewithfalsehopesofheavenhereafter(HM2,para.3).Since
theycantprovethatHeavenisrealtheyassumethealternatechoiceiscorrect.
3.FaultyDilemma:Wemustlearntoliveopenlytogetherorweshallperishtogether,
(HM2,affirm.17).TheHumanistsareonlypresentingtwooptionswhentherearemore
optionsthatexist.
4.ArgumentfromSilence:Scienceandeconomicchangehavedisruptedtheoldbeliefs.
Religionstheworldoverareunderthenecessityofcomingtotermswithnewconditions
createdbyavastlyincreasedknowledgeandexperience(HM1,para.1).Here,the
Humanistsstatethatreligionsareconformingtothenewworldbutinreality,theyare
stayingthesame.Theyhaventprovedthatreligionsareunderthenecessityofcomingto

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termswiththenewworld.Thereforetheyareassumingitistruejust
becauseithasntbeenprovedfalse.
5.ArgumentfromSilence:...humanistsstillbelievethattraditionaltheism,especiallyin
theprayerhearingGod,assumedtoloveandcareforpersons,tohearandunderstand
theirprayers,andtobeabletodosomethingaboutthem,isanunprovedandoutmoded
faith(HM1,para.3)Here,theHumanistsstatethatprayerisuselessandoutmoded.They
assumethisbecausetheythinkitistruejustbecauseithasnotbeenprovenfalse.
6.Oversimplification:Ahumanistoutlookwilltapthecreativityofeachhumanbeing
andprovidetheprovisionandcourageforustoworktogether(HM2,para.6)The
Humanistsconclusiondoesnotfollowthepremise.Itisastatementwithoutevidence
thatresultsinaninaccurateabsurdity.
7.ArgumentfromSilence:Wefindinsufficientevidenceforbeliefintheexistenceofa
supernatural;(HM2,affirm.1).OnceagainweseethattheHumanistsarearguing
somethingtobetruebecausetheyhaventprovedthealternatefalse.
8.Generalization:Promisesofimmortalsalvationorfearofeternaldamnationareboth
illusoryandharmful.Theydistracthumansfrompresentconcerns,fromself
actualization,andfromrectifyingsocialinjustices(HM2,affirm.2).Thisisa
generalizationbecausethereisnoevidencethatsalvationorfearofeternaldamnation
distracthumanbeingsfromthosethreeissues.

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9.AppealtotheFuture:Manwilllearntofacethecrisesoflifein
termsofhisknowledgeoftheirnaturalnessandprobability(HM1,affirm.11).Whenthe
Humanistsstatemanwilllearntofacethecrisesoflife.Theyhavestatedaproposition
thatisntsupportedbyfactsbutinsteadusethefuturetoproveittrue.

10.ArgumentfromSilenceThereisnocredibleevidencethatlifesurvivesthedeathof
thebody(HM2,para.1)Humanistsstatethatsincetheydonthaveevidencethatthereis
lifeafterthenthereisntalifeafterdeath.

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5HardQuestions
1.HowdoyousaythatWebelieve,however,thattraditionaldogmaticorauthoritarian
religionsthatplacerevelation,God,ritual,orcreedabovehumanneedsandexperience
doadisservicetothehumanspecies,(HM2,affirm.1).Wheninrealityitisthe
opposite?Christianityhasbetteredtheworldinmanyways.Christianitystartedhospitals,
healthcare,educationforacommonman,andhaltedslavery.
Iwouldaskthisbecausewhattheysaidisincompletecontradictorytowhatthe
humanistsstated.
2.Yousaythat;Humanismcanprovidethepurposeandinspirationthatsomanyseek;it
cangiveapersonalmeaningandsignificancetohumanlife(HM2,para.6).Thensay
Wecandiscovernodivinepurposeorprovidenceforthehumanspecies.Whatgivesus
purposeandinspiration?WithoutthepowerofaDivine,wehavenomoralsorguidelines
toliveby.

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Iaskthisbecausethereisnorightorwrongifthereareno
guidelinestoliveby.Thereisnomeaningtoseekpurposewhenthereisnodivine
purposeorprovidenceforthehumanspecies.
3.YousaythatForthesereasons,wesubmitthisnewHumanistManifestoforthefuture
ofHumankind;forus,itisavisionofhope,adirectionforsatisfyingsurvival(HM2,
para.10).Ifthisistrue,thenthereisnohopeinfindingourdeathstheendofonessoul.
Whydoyousaythiswhileprovidingnothingbutfalsehope?
Iaskthisbecauseitstatesthatitgivesushopebutifyoulookdeeperyousee
thatthereisnohopethatisoffered.
4.YousayPromisesofimmortalsalvationorfearofeternaldamnationarebothillusory
andharmful(HM2,affirm.2).Howarepromisesofimmortalsalvationandfearof
eternaldamnationthesameasdyingandyoursouljustceasingtoexist?Bothofthese
optionsarefearedandequallyharmful.
Iaskthisbecausetheysaythatimmortalsalvationandeternaldamnationare
harmful,wheninthecontraryjustdyingandyourceasingtoexistisjustasharmful.
5.Yousay,Weaffirmthatmoralvaluesderivetheirsourcefromhuman
experience(HM2,affirm.3).Howdoyousaythiswhentherehastobeabeginningto
morals?Moralshadtooriginatesomewhere.
Iaskedthisbecausetherearenomoralvalueswithoutanultimatepower.There
isnothingtocompareonethingtoanothertofigureoutwhetheritismoralornot.You
donotknowifsomethingismorallycorrectwithoutinstructionsfromahigherdeity.

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ThreeCounterArguments
1. TheHumanistManifestohadmanyarguments,aswellasmanyflaws.The
biggestflawthatIfoundwasthelargeamountsofargumentsfromsilence.The
HumanistsstatedinseveralplacesintheManifestothatsincetheycannotprovea
premisefalsetheymustautomaticallyassumethatthealternateconclusionis
correctwithoutevidence.ThisisjustoneofthemanyArgumentsfromSilence;
Thereisnocredibleevidencethatlifesurvivesthedeathofthebody(HM2,
para.1).Sincetheydonthaveanyevidencethatlifecannotsurvivethedeathof
thebodytheychoosetobelievethatitistrue.Thisisjustoneofthemanyflaws
thatwerefoundintheManifesto.
2. TheManifestosaysAhumanistoutlookwilltapthecreativityofeachhuman
beingandprovidetheprovisionandcourageforustoworktogether(HM2,
para.6).Thisisaboldstatementfornotgivinganyevidenceofhowitwill

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happen.ThisfallacyiscalledOversimplification.Itreduced
theargumentintoaninaccurateabsurdity.Itgivesnoevidenceandisbasicallyan
assumptioncreatedtofoolthosewhodonttakeasecondlookatit.
3. AnotherthingthatthehumanistssaidisthePromisesofimmortalsalvationor
fearofeternaldamnationarebothillusoryandharmful.Theydistracthumans
frompresentconcerns,fromselfactualization,andfromrectifyingsocial
injustices(HM2,affirm.2).Thisisageneralizationandcannotprovethatit
distractshumansfrompersonalconcerns.Anotherflawthatinthisthateternal
damnationandimmortalsalvationbringthesamefearintosomeoneasifthere
werenodamnationorsalvationbutinsteadaceaseinexistencecompletely.
Conclusion
Ultimately,theHumanistManifestoisapropositionfulloffallacies.The
manifestowouldbeeasilybelievableifthosewhoreaditwereunawareoftheknowledge
necessarytounderstand.Alloftheirargumentswereconvincing,butatasecondglance
youcantellthattherearediscrepanciesandcontradictionsthroughout.Ithinkthatthe
peoplewhowrotethisaimedtotheaudiencewhowereunawareofwhattheywere
saying,soitwouldsoundmoreconvincing.ByreadingtheManifesto,itgivesme
confidencetogothroughlifeandnotbelievewhatissaidtomerightawaybuttoinstead
takeasecondglanceandfindthetruth.