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ACOELOMATE ANIMALS

PHYLUM PORIFERA

Poorly-defined tissue layers

Lack basal lamina

Silica spicules
Choanocyte collar cells
Protospongia hicksi 520 MYA (Early/Middle Cambrian)
Proterospongia?

Colonial choanoflagellate

Colonial organisms?
Local example: Spongilla lactustris

Cosmopolitan or encrusting

Chlorella symbiont

Gemmules

Chitinous & filled with archaeocytes!

The common ancestor was probably a colonial flagellated protist;


Similar to existing colonial choanoflagellates and sponges.
Cells in the colony began to specialize for different functions.

Distinct layers of cells form in early (embryonic) development:


Diploblastic animals have 2 cell layersectoderm and endoderm.
Triploblastic have 3 cell layersecto-, endo-, and mesoderm

Evolution of a body cavity:


Acoelomate
Pseudocoelomate
Coelomate

PHYLUM CNIDARIA
Diploblasts two true dermal layers!

Separates body compartments of different chemical compositions

Independent internal regulation

Cnidae

Nematocysts

Chemical & mechanical stimuli

Cnidocil trigger

HYDRA

Freshwater, individuals
Polyp = mature morphology
Reduction in water temperature slows growth, but increases size
H. viridis high carotenoids due to prey

PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

Flatworms!
One-way digestive tract
Bilaterally symmetric
Mating

PLANARIANS

Dugesia tigrina
Eyespots & vision
Regenerative biology

ROTIFERA / GASTROTRICHA