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Unit 5Trigonometric

Identities and
Equations
Basic Trig Identities

Some Vocabulary
1. Identity: a statement of equality
between two expressions that is
true for all values of the variable(s)
2. Trigonometric Identity: an identity
involving trig expressions

Recall from earlier! OR


copy!
Reciprocal Identities

Copy! Quotient Identities


sin x
tan x
cos x

Why?

cos x
cot x
sin x

Do you remember the Unit


Circle?
What is the equation for the unit circle?

x 2 + y2 =
1

What does x = ? What does y = ?


(in terms of trig
functions)
2
2

sin + cos = 1

Pythagorean
Identity!

So now we take the Pythagorean


Identity
sin2 + cos2 = 1
and discover a new one!

Hint: Try dividing everything by cos2


sin2 + cos2 =
1 .
2
22
cos
cos
tan + 1 = sec2
Quotie cos2
nt
Identit
y

another
Pythagorean
Identity

Reciproc
al
Identity

Now repeat the process by dividing by


sin2
and discover another one!
Hint: Try dividing everything by sin2
sin2 + cos2 =
1 .
2
22
sin

sin
1 + cot =
sin22
Quotie csc
nt
Identit
y

a third
Pythagorean
Identity

Reciproc
al
Identity

RECIPROCAL IDENTITIES
1
sin x
csc x

1
cos x
sec x

1
tan x
cot x

1
csc x
sin x

1
sec x
cos x

1
cot x
tan x

QUOTIENT IDENTITIES

sin x
tan x
cos x

cos x
cot x
sin x

PYTHAGOREAN IDENTITIES
1 cot 2 x csc 2 x
sin 2 x cos 2 x 1

tan 2 x 1 sec 2 x

Identities Summarized!
You'll need to have these memorized or be able to derive them for this course.

One way to use identities is to simplify expressions involving trigonometric


functions. Often a good strategy for doing this is to write all trig functions in
terms of sines and cosines and then simplify.

Example 1!
substitute using
each identity

sin x
tan x
cos x

tan x csc x
Simplify:
sec x
simplify

sin x 1

cos x sin x
1
cos x

1
cos x
1
cos x

1
csc x
sin x
1
sec x
cos x

Your turn! Simplify each!

sec x
csc x

Guided Practice
Handout # 1
#s 1, 2, 4, & 8

Day 2: Another way to use identities is to write one function in terms


of another function. Lets see an example of this:

Write the following expression


in terms of only one trig function:
cos x sin x 1
2

= 1 sin 2 x sin x 1
= sin 2 x sin x 2
sin 2 x cos 2 x 1

This expression involves both


sine and cosine. The
Fundamental Identity makes a
connection between sine and
cosine so we can use that and
solve for cosine squared and
substitute.

cos 2 x 1 sin 2 x

A third way to use identities is to find function values. Lets


see an example of this:

Write the following expression


in terms of only one trig function:
cos x sin x 1
2

= 1 sin 2 x sin x 1
= sin 2 x sin x 2
sin 2 x cos 2 x 1

This expression involves both


sine and cosine. The
Fundamental Identity makes a
connection between sine and
cosine so we can use that and
solve for cosine squared and
substitute.

cos 2 x 1 sin 2 x

Opposite Angle Identities


sometimes these are called even/odd identities