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GABRIELA DUMBRAVĂ

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ. CURS PRACTIC


(Nivel mediu)
LESSON 1

His Favourite Cousin

Horace was very proud of his cousin, Mike Aspen, Hollywood’s brightest young star.
Whenever his cousin appeared on the screen, Horace would say, “Isn’t he wonderful? He’s my
cousin, you know ”.
What was worse, Horace was always cutting pictures of his cousin out of movie
magazines and putting them on the kitchen wall. His wife would say, “We used to have a nice
clean wall. Now all I can see is Mike, Mike, Mike!” Then she would walk angrily out of the
kitchen and slam the door behind her.
When Mike’s face used to appear on posters or billboards, Horace would proudly brag
about his cousin’s successful career. “He used to go to Midville High School, you know. We
would always play in the schoolyard together, and we were always getting into trouble together.
I remember how he was always stealing apples from the corner grocery store. He used to be like
a brother to me. We were always missing classes together. What a great guy, a truly great guy.
He was my favorite cousin.”
One day, though, everyone woke up to find the daily newspapers covered with the
headlines, MIKE ASPEN INVOLVED IN GANGLAND KILLING. Reporters went to Horace’s house to
interview him. “Did you and Mike Aspen really use to be like brothers? Is it true you were both
getting in trouble all the time? What kind of trouble? Did you really play in the school yard
together?”
“Mike Aspen . . . Mike Aspen . . . . , “ he said in a puzzled voice.
“Oh, yes! The actor.” Horace shook his head, “No relation to me. Never met the guy.”

• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions according to your understanding of the text:

1. Who was Mike Aspen?


2. Why was Horace proud of him?
3. What was Horace always doing?
4. Why was Horace’s wife angry?
5. What school did Horace and his cousin go to?
6. What were they always doing together?
7. What happened one day?
8. What did Horace tell the reporters?
9. Did he tell the truth?
10. What do you think about Horace’s attitude?

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• GRAMMAR

HABIT IN THE PAST (Exprimarea unei acţiuni obişnuite în trecut)

O acţiune care a avut loc în mod obişnuit în trecut se redă în limba engleză prin una
dintre următoarele trei construcţii gramaticale:

1. Used to
Used + infinitivul lung al verbului se foloseşte în următoarele situaţii:

a. Pentru a reda o acţiune cu caracter de rutină în trecut:

Exemplu: When I worked on the farm I used to get up at five in the


morning, and I used to eat an enormous breakfast before going out to work.

b. Un obicei din trecut care nu mai există în prezent:

Exemplu: I used to smoke a lot, but I don’t any more.


I used to visit my parents every weekend, but now I see them very rarely.

c. O stare de fapt valabilă numai pentru un interval de timp din trecut:

Exemplu: He used to have a beard, but he shaved it off.


She used to be a good tennis player when she was young.

2. Would (do)
Would + infinitivul scurt al verbului:

Exemplu: When I worked on the farm, I would get up at five o’clock.

3. Was / Were always (. . . ing)


Trecutul continuu însoţit de adverbul de timp always:
Exemplu: He was always following me around when we were kids.

Grammar Practice

1. Make sentences from each of the following. Choose used to, would always, or was
always.

1. Heather other people’s papers during the exams.


2. Carla tricks on her friends when she was a child.
3. Mark and Carl bad jokes at parties.
4. They mistakes when they were in college.
5. He me flowers when we were first married.
6. She lies when she was a child.

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7. They into trouble when they were kids.
8. She Beatles records when she lived in New York.
9. They backaches when they had that hard bed.
10. She the wrong bus when she was in New York.

II. Complete the following with used to and the negative-interrogative.

Example: you on Queen Street ?


Didn’t you use to live on Queen Street ?

1. she school in Boston ?


2. your brother at the British Institute ?
3. she your best friend ?
4. your sister in an apartment in Chicago ?
5. your parents their vacations in Florida ?
6. that man football for the Toronto Tigers ?
7. they a big house in the country ?
8. you a red sports car ?

• VOCABULARY

WHATEVER, WHEREVER, WHENEVER (orice, oriunde, oricând)

Exercise

Change the following sentences using whatever, wherever, whenever.

Example: Doris went somewhere; her friend went too.


Wherever Doris went, her friend went too.

1. I started to say something; he always interrupted me.


__________________________________________
2. Billy did something; his little brother always did the same.
__________________________________________
3. She went somewhere; she always took her dog.
__________________________________________
4. He came to visit us; he always talked about his problems.
__________________________________________
5. He went somewhere; he always took his family.
_________________________________________
6. Jane said something; her little boy always said the same thing.
___________________________________________________
7. I watched TV; I always had a headache.
________________________________________
8. David went jogging; his dog always followed him.
_______________________________________
9. I asked him something; he always refused me.
________________________________________
10. He came to visit me; he always brought me flowers.
________________________________________

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LESSON 2

Confidence Man

“I’ve never been so humiliated in my life!” shouted Dorothy angrily.


“Why didn’t you stand up to that jerk? Tell me ,” she continued, “have you ever lost your
temper or been in a fight? I’ll bet you’ve never hit anybody in your whole life!”
“How would you like to be the first?” Clyde said to himself, knowing that Dorothy
couldn’t hear him. She was walking rapidly away in the direction of the parking lot.
The next day at work, Clyde couldn’t help thinking about the incident. They had been
relaxing on the beach when Dorothy decided she was hungry. At the refreshment stand, a big
muscular man had pushed in front of them and stepped on Dorothy’s foot. Clyde had made a
weak protest, but the man had only laughed in his face.
His thoughts were suddenly interrupted when the manager shouted, “Clyde! Have you
waited on that customer yet? I’ve got a business to run here, so wake up, will you? And what
about the inventory list? Have you taken it to Mr. Watson yet?” Not even waiting for a reply, the
manager hurried back to his office. “I’m tired of this!” Clyde whispered, knowing his boss
couldn’t hear him.
That evening Clyde was reading the newspaper when he saw an advertisement: DO YOU
LACK SELF-CONFIDENCE? HAVE YOU EVER FELT UNPOPULAR AND LEFT OUT OF A GROUP? IF YOU
HAVEN’T ENROLLED YET ENROLL NOW IN DOCTOR IVO’S CONFIDENCE COURSE. AFTER A FEW EASY
LESSONS YOU’LL BE A DIFFERENT PERSON.
“That’s just what I need,” Clyde thought. “I’ll enroll tomorrow.”
After finishing the course, Clyde really did feel like a new person. When Dorothy finally
called him, he decided to show off his new personality. “Clyde! I haven’t heard from you in
ages! Why don’t we go and see the new movie at the Roxy ?” “I’ve already seen it,” Clyde said
confidently. “I took Linda to see it last night, as a matter of fact.”
Dorothy was shocked. “You’ve already seen it, have you?” she said furiously. “Yes, I
have,” said Clyde calmly. “If I have time I might give you a call next week, but I haven’t made
up my mind yet,” he said, hanging up the phone.
The next day at work his boss started shouting at him as usual, but this time Clyde
answered, “Listen, Mr. Bumstern, I’ve already written that report and given it to Mr. Watson. In
fact, it’s only eleven o’clock, and I’ve already sold two hundred dollars’ worth of merchandise,
so why don’t you shout at somebody else for a change?”
Two months later, Clyde was sitting in the company lunchroom with his friends, telling
jokes and flirting with all the girls. “Mr. Bumstern told us that you’ve already broken last year’s
sales record,” said Frank, a fellow worker, “and this fiscal year hasn’t even ended yet!” “Have
you ever thought of selling your secret of success to the rest of us?” asked Miriam, the cashier.
Clyde smiled and told his story – is feelings of rejection, and the confidence he gained
with Doctor Ivo. “Ivo, Ivo,” repeated Miriam; “I’ve never heard of him.” “I have”, said Frank.
“Haven’t you seen the article about him in the newspaper yet, Clyde?” He pulled out The Daily
Mail and pointed to the article: CON MAN WALLACE IVO CONVINCTED OF FRAUD. Clyde read the
article with a sick feeling in his stomach.
“Forget that dumb article and tell us a joke,” said Miriam. Everyone smiled and waited
eagerly for Clyde to tell them one of his funny stories. “I can’t . . . uh . . . I mean . . . I’ve
never . . . I can’t remember . . . I mean I’ve never been able to tell good jokes.” He got up and
left the table.
Not long afterwards, Clyde lost his job. He hadn’t made a single sale in three months.
“you’re a funny guy,” said Mr. Bumstern when he fired him. “I’ve never met anyone like you.

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What you need is a confidence course. Have you ever thought of taking one?” “No, sir, I never
have. “Clyde smiled sadly, picked up his briefcase, and walked out into the rain.

• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions according to you understanding of the text:

1. Why was Dorothy angry?


2. Where were they when she got hungry?
3. What happened at the refreshment stand?
4. What did the big man do?
5. How did Clyde protest?
6. What did he read in the newspaper?
7. How did he feel after finishing the confidence course?
8. What did he read in The Daily Mail?
9. How did he feel after reading the article?
10. What happened afterwards?

• GRAMMAR

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (I)

Mod de formare. Acest timp verbal se formează cu ajutorul auxiliarului have/has


la care se adaugă participiul trecut al verbului.
Exemplu: I have worked a lot today.
He has read many books in English.
Interogativul se formează prin inversiune: Have you worked a lot?
Has he read many books?
Negativul se exprimnă cu ajutorul formei de negativ a auxiliarului:
I haven’t worked a lot today.
He hasn’t read many English books.
Utilizare
EVER, NEVER, ALREADY, YET
Aceste adverbe de timp se folosesc împreună cu Present Perfect Simple pentru a
indica o acţiune al cărei moment de desfăşurare nu este precizat.
I. Ever / Never
A. Ever (vreodată) se foloseşte la interogativ şi se aşează înaintea participiului
trecut al verbului:

Exemple: Have you ever seen an elephant?


Has Joan ever eaten Italian food?

B. Never (niciodată) se foloseşte la negativ, fiind aşezat tot după participiul


trecut.

Exemple: I’ve never seen such a beautiful apartment.


He’s never driven a car.

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II. Already(deja) se foloseşte la afirmativ.

Exemple: I’ve already called the police.


They’ve already chosen the winner.
He’s already made three mistakes.

III. Yet se foloseşte în următoarele contexte:


A. la interogativ, când este aşezat la sfârşitul propoziţiei şi sensul lui este
deja.

Exemple: Has he bought a new car yet ?


Have you packed your bags yet ?

B. la negativ, situaţie în care va apărea tot la sfârşitul propoziţiei, dar sensul


lui va fi încă .

Exemple: We haven’t made any definite plans yet.


The train hasn’t left yet.

Grammar Practice

I. Complete the following using ever and an appropriate verb.

Example: she the measles ?


Has she ever had the measles ?

1. you in a jet plane ?


2. John a love poem ?
3. they a play by G. B. Shaw ?
4. I a lie ?
5. you such a beautiful girl ?
6. he Chinese food ?
7. Mary in jail ?
8. they to the President before ?
9. we Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony ?
10. you a cold in the summer ?

II. Ask a question with When . . and answer it using already. Pay close attention to the
following example :

Example: your sister / her exam


When will your sister take her exam ?
She’s already taken it.

1. you / call the police


_______________________? ___________________
2. they / choose a new car
_______________________? ___________________
3. Peter / begin his French course

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_________________________? ___________________
4. she / read that book
__________________________? ____________________
5. you / speak to Martha
__________________________? _____________________
6. he / have his operation
__________________________? ____________________
7. Laura / feed the baby
__________________________? ____________________
8. Tom / pay his bills
__________________________? _____________________
9. Janet / do the dishes
__________________________? ____________________
10. Peter and Liz / give a party
__________________________? _____________________

III. Complete the following sentences with the negative and yet. Use the words in parentheses.

Example: I would like to read this letter, but I . . . (find my glasses)


I would like to read this letter, but I haven’t found my glasses yet.

1. I bought a new tie other day, but I (wear it)


______________________________________________
2. I’ve been on a diet for two weeks, but I (lose any weight)
______________________________________________
3. I took fifty dollars out of the bank last week but I (spend it)
_____________________________________________
4. I bought a new book the other day, but I (read it)
_____________________________________________
5. He’s been a bus driver for twenty years but (have an accident)
____________________________________________
6. He promised her a diamond ring last month but he (give her one)
___________________________________________
7. Mr. Weeks bought a new car last week, but (drive it)
____________________________________________
8. The baby has been in bed for an hour, but he (fall asleep)
_____________________________________________
9. My sister’s birthday is tomorrow, but I (buy her a present)
_____________________________________________
10. He gave me a box of chocolates, but I (eat them all)

____________________________________________

IV. Complete the following sentences using a verb in the Present Perfect Simple + never.
Follow the example.

Example: We such a delicious salad.


We have never eaten such a delicious salad.

1. They such beautiful music.


2. You such a terrible lie before.

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3. Margaret to such a luxurious restaurant.
4. Jack such a bad movie.
5. They such a long letter before.
6. We such a bad book.
7. Mary and Wayne such a long trip before
8. She in such a fast train before.
9. He to such a big city before.
10. You on such a soft bed before.

• VOCABULARY

WHAT DOES HE/ SHE LOOK LIKE? este întrebarea pe care o adresăm unui interlocutor atunci
când vrem să obţinem o descriere fizică a cuiva. Echivalentul românesc este CUM ARATĂ…?

Exemplu: What does he look like?


He is tall and thin:

WHAT IS HE/SHE LIKE? Este o întrebare prin care solicităm informaţii referitoare la
personalitatea cuiva (CUM ESTE....?)

Exemplu: What is she like?


She is kind and calm.

Exercise

Use the following characteristics to answer the questions what does he/ she look like? or what is
he/ she like?
- handsome, intelligent, ambitious, fat, hard – working, careless, untidy, dark – haired, blue eyed,
athletic, cheerful, optimistic, insensitive.

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LESSON 3

Faces in Focus

DAVID SNOW : Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. Tonight on Faces in Focus my lovely
co-host, Wendy Storm, and I would like to welcome five fantastic record breakers!
WENDY: Yes, these fine people are all trying to break very different kinds of records. Let’s
talk to our first guest. Mr. Fred Appleby – well known to tennis fans everywhere.
DAVID: Fred, you’ve been a tennis champ for a long time, but this year has been a special
one for you, hasn’t it?
FRED: Yes, David. I’ve played in forty tournaments so far this year, and I’ve won all of
them.
WENDY: You’ve also broken the money – making record, haven’t you?
FRED: Yes, Wendy, I’ve won three million dollars this year.
DAVID: And how much did you win last year, Fred?
FRED: Well, last year I won only a million dollars. Quite a big improvement, wouldn’t you
say?
WENDY: Yes – but you know you’re not the only one with a lot of endurance, Fred. Jack
Lawson here has had a tough year too. I understand you’re trying to break the world’s record for
long distance walking, Jack?
JACK: That’s right, Wendy.
DAVID: How many miles have you walked so far this year?
JACK: Well, I’ve walked about 2,000 miles so far, and there are still three months to go
before the end of the year.
DAVID: How many different places have you been to during the course of your walks,
Jack?
JACK: I’ve been to seven different European countries, and I’ve walked across fifteen
states in the U.S. But it’s been really hard!
WENDY: What do you mean, Jack?
JACK: So far this year I’ve been to the hospital seven times with foot trouble. I’ve been
attacked by thieves, chased by dogs, insulted by the press, and . . . well, I’ve lost about twenty-
pounds, too.
DAVID: Well, here’s a man who probably hasn’t lost any weight, right Ray? It’s Ray
Campbell, pancake champ!
RAY: That’s right, David. Excuse me for talking with my mouth full, but I can’t afford to
lose any time.
DAVID: Ray is trying to break the twenty-four-hour pancake-eating record. How many
pancakes have you eaten so far today?
RAY: About 400. I tried to break the record last year, too but I only managed to eat 350.
WENDY: How much weight do you think you’ve gained in the last few hours?
RAY: Well, I’ve eaten 400 pancakes, ten pounds of butter, and two gallons of syrup. So,
I’ve probably gained about twenty-five pounds today. Excuse me while I take another bite.
WENDY: That’s quite all right, Ray. And now, Florence Castro. What record are you trying
to break, Florence?
FLORENCE: I’m hoping to break the uninterrupted gum-chewing record. I’ve been chewing
gum without stopping for eight months.
DAVID: Even in your sleep?

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FLORENCE: Yes, David, I even chew in my sleep. It becomes a reflex action after a while.
I figure I’ve chewed about 550 packs of gum this year. I’ve spent hundreds of dollars on gum,
and also on vitamins to supplement my diet.
WENDY: How many times have you been to the dentist this year, Florence?
FLORENCE: I haven’t been to the dentist at all this year. I’d be afraid to see the bill.
DAVID: Amazing! And now for our last guest, Ted Doolittle. Ted is trying to break the
most unusual record of all, a truly fantastic attempt that requires courage and stamina. It’s just
amazing!
WENDY: It certainly is! Many have tried before and failed. Tell us about your record, Ted.
TED: Well, despite inflation and the high cost of living, I’ve gone ten years without
giving my employees a raise.

• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions according to your understanding of the text:

1. What is the title of the TV show?


2. Who are the host and the co – host?
3. How many guests do they have?
4. What is the name of the first guest and what is he?
5. How much money has he won?
6. Who is the second guest and what record is he trying to break?
7. What about the third guest?
8. How many pancakes has he eaten?
9. Who is the fourth guest and what record is she trying to break?
10. What record has the fifth guest managed to break?

• GRAMMAR

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (II)


Present Perfect se mai foloseşte şi împreună cu adverbele de timp today, this
week, this month, this year pentru a reda o acţiune care se încadrează într- o
perioadă de timp neîncheiată.

Exemple: I’ve eaten only one meal today.


She hasn’t spent much money this week.
Have they been to the casino this month?

Grammar Practice

I. Complete the following question beginning with How much or How many.
Answer the questions using the information in parentheses.

Example: money / save / this year ($ 500.00)


How much money have you saved this year ?
I’ve saved $ 500.00
lies / tell / today ? (0)
How many lies have you told today ?
I haven’t told any lies.

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1. milk / have today ? (4 glasses)
_________________________ ___________________
2. books / read this month ? (2)
_________________________ ___________________
3. cigarettes / smoke today ? (0)
_________________________ ___________________
4. classes / miss this week ? (1)
_________________________ ___________________
5. letters / write this week ? (3)
________________________ ___________________
6. money / earn this year ? (a lot)
________________________ ___________________
7. pills / take today ? (0)
_________________________ ___________________
8. miles / walk this week ? (6)
_________________________ ___________________
9. fruit / eat today ? (2 bananas)
_________________________ ___________________
10. weight / lose this month ? (0)
_________________________ ___________________

II. Complete the following questions using How many times + be. Answer the questions in the
negative + at all.

Example: you / to the movies this week ?


How many times have you been to the movies this week ?
I haven’t been to the movies at all this week.

1. they / to the dentist this month ?


_______________________________?
_______________________________
2. she / in the hospital this year ?
______________________________?
______________________________
3. Mrs. Davis / to the supermarket today ?
______________________________?
______________________________
4. Bob / to New York this year ?
_____________________________?
____________________________
5. you / to the doctor this month ?
_____________________________?
_____________________________

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III. Complete the following questions and answers.

Example: yesterday she / write two postcards today / any


Yesterday she wrote two postcards, but today she hasn’t written any.
yesterday they / buy three newspaper today they have bought only one.
Yesterday they bought three newspapers, but today they have bought only one.

1. last month I / lose two pounds this month / only one


_______________________________________________________
2. last week she / spend two hundred dollars this week / only fifty dollars
______________________________________________________________
3. last month they / give three parties this month / any
__________________________________________________________
4. yesterday she / drink four cups of tea today / only one
__________________________________________________________
5. last week he / teach seven lessons this week / only three
______________________________________________________
6. yesterday he / steal two wallets today / only one
_____________________________________________________
7. last month they / win four games this month / any
_____________________________________________________
8. last year he / have three car accidents this year / any
____________________________________________________
9. yesterday I / eat three apples today / only one
_____________________________________________________
10. last month I / borrow a lot of money this month any
_____________________________________________________

• VOCABULARY

WHETHER… OR NOT (dacă... sau nu) este o expresie care se foloseşte, ca şi în limba română,
pentru a sublinia existenţa a două alternative posibile.
De reţinut că whether poate fi folosit ca înlocuitor al lui if în orice context, cu excepţia
subordonatelor condiţionale.

Exercise
Answer the questions below using the expression it depends on whether (or not).

Example: Are you planning to buy a new car? (raise)


It depends on whether or not my boss raises my salary.

1. Are you planning to go to the beach tomorrow? (rain)


__________________________________
2. Are they planning to visit their parents in London? (have a vacation)
__________________________________________
3. Is Jane planning to buy a new TV? (have enough money)
_________________________________________
4. Are you planning to take tennis lessons? (have enough time)
________________________________________

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5. Is she planning to ask her boss for a raise? (be in a good mood)
________________________________________
6. Are you planning to go to college? (pass my final exams)
_______________________________________
7. Is he planning to move to Chicago? (find a better job there)
______________________________________
8. Are you planning to see the movie tonight? (find tickets)
______________________________________
9. Is she planning to get married? (ask her)
______________________________________
10. Are you planning to buy that new dress? (can save enough money)
______________________________________

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LESSON 4

Getting Ahead

Gerald had been a door-to-door salesman for the Ace Vacuum Cleaner Company for ten
years. He was good at his job and his boss had even asked him to work in the sales office part-
time. But the company was very small, and Gerald knew that he could never be much more than
a vacuum cleaner salesman and part-time office worker for the rest of his life.
He was reading the newspaper one evening when he saw an ad: “Wanted-Home Utilities
Market Prospector. Dynamic young man with at least ten years’ sales experience; some office
experience preferable.”
Gerald showed his wife the ad. “I’ve had ten years’ sales experience,” he said
enthusiastically, “and I’ve also worked in the company’s sales office. I’m going to answer this
ad!”
“Not only that, “said his wife, Agnes, “but you’ve trained hundreds of new salesmen,
you’ve reorganized the whole accounting department and you’ve spent hours working overtime
without extra pay. I think it’s time for a change.”
For the next few days he could think of nothing else. He would no longer be just a simple
door-to-door salesman. He would have an important position with an impressive name-Home
Utilities Market Prospector! When he received an answer to his application a week later, Gerald
was overjoyed. “They want to interview me for the job,” he said to Agnes eagerly. He put on his
best suit, shined his shoes, and hurried downtown to an address on March Street. The personnel
director seemed friendly and asked Gerald several questions about his professional life:
“How many different jobs have you had, Mr. Smith?”
“Well, I’ve only had one-with the Ace Vacuum Cleaner Company. I’ve been with them
for ten years now.”
“And how much sales experience have you had?”
“I’ve had ten years’ sales experience. I’ve mainly worked as a salesman for the company,
but I haven’t been able to move up or get a better position there.”
“And how’s your general health? Have you had any serious illnesses?”
“I’ve been sick now and then, but nothing serious. In fact, I’ve never been in the hospital,
and I’ve only missed two or three days of work.”
The personnel director smiled at Gerald and said, “I think you’re just the man we’ve been
looking for. You can start next week.” Gerald’s eyes lit up, and a smile of pleasure crossed his
face at the thought of starting his new job. Agnes would be so pleased. Finally, after all these
years, he was getting ahead.
As he was leaving, he realized that he hadn’t asked the personnel manager for details
about his new job. “Oh, by the way, I forgot to ask you. What exactly does a home utilities
market prospector do?” Gerald’s heart was beating in anticipation. “Oh, didn’t you know?” said
the director, “I thought everybody did. A home utilities market prospector sells things door-to-
door. In your case it’ll be vacuum cleaner.”

14
• COMPREHENSION
Answer the following questions according to your understanding of the text:
1. What is Gerald? What does he sell?
2. What company does he work for?
3. What did he see in the newspaper one night?
4. What kind of man was wanted for the job?
5. What was the name of the job?
6. Why was he so happy?
7. When did he receive an answer to his application?
8. How many different jobs has he had?
9. Has he ever been ill?
10. What was the big final surprise?

• GRAMMAR

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (III)


Present Perfect Simple se utilizează şi în contexte care nu menţionează intervalul de timp în
care se încadrează acţiunea.

Exemple: I’ve met a lot of important people.


How many jobs have you had ?
Clyde hasn’t had much luck.

Grammar Practice

I. Wendy Storm has had a very busy life. Tell about what she’s done in her lifetime,
using the cues provided.

Examples: a toy factory.


She has worked in a toy factory.

1. for several newspapers.


2. lingerie in a department store.
3. a model
4. English to foreign students.
5. around the world several times.
6. several films.
7. on TV shows.
8. divorced five times.
9. several cosmetic operations.
10. three books about her life.

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II. Contradict each of the following statements using the Present Perfect in the first part
and the Simple Past in the second. Follow the examples given below.

Example: Do you know that Mark has never heard a Beethoven symphony ?
But he has. He heard the Ninth Symphony just yesterday.

1. Do you know that I’ve never drunk sherry ?


But . a glass of sherry just yesterday.
2. Do you know that Harry has never seen a film by Fellini ?
But . La Strada just last week.
3. Do you know that Luisa has never read a play by Shakespeare ?
But . Hamlet just last month.
4. Do you know that Mike and Helen have never eaten a hamburger ?
But . four hamburgers just last week.
5. Do you know that Marco has never taken a math course ?
But . one just last semester.
6. Do you know that Bill and Andrea have never been to Europe ?
But . Luxembourg just last week.
7. Do you know that Marcia has never gone camping ?
But . just yesterday.
8. Do you know that you’ve never talked to my brother ?
But . on the phone just a minute ago.
9. Do you know that you’ve never told me you loved me ?
But . just last night.
10. Do you know that Jack and Susan have never been to the dirty ?
But . just this afternoon.

III. Complete the following sentences using the Present Perfect or the Simple Past tense.

1. I (visit) Bangkok three times. The last time I it was in


1975.
2. How many books (write), Mr. Trumbolt ? When you
your last book ?
3. She (have) an interesting life. She (be) an actress,
fashion model, and she even (take) flying lessons.
4. I’m afraid I (have-negative) much sales experience. However, I
(work) as a salesman for a few months.
5. DOCTOR: you (have) any serious illnesses ?
PATIENT: I typhoid fever when I was a child.
6. John (work) for several newspapers, but he
never (write) sports articles.
7. I’m sorry, but we’re looking for someone who (drive) a truck
before.
8. I (be) in India in 1976. How long there ?

16
9. He thinks he’s important because he __________ (work with) a lot of famous
people.
10. Of course I like camping! I _________ (go) camping with some friends just
last week. We _______ (have) a marvelous time !

• VOCABULARY

WON’T BE ABLE TO este echivalentul lui CAN’T la viitor.


Exemplu: I can’t do it now and I won’t be able to do it next week either.
(Nu pot s – o fac acum şi nu voi putea nici săptămâna viitoare.)

Exercise

Draw conclusions from the following statements beginning with I guess and using won’t be able
to + a suitable verb.
Example: He broke his leg last week.
I guess he won’t be able to go to work for three weeks.

1. She lost her driving licence last week.


_________________________________
2. I left all my books at school.
_________________________________
3. Their telephone is broken.
_________________________________
4. I lost the theatre tickets.
_________________________________
5. He left Mary’s address at home.
_________________________________
6. Someone just sat on my glasses.
_________________________________
7. They can’t find their passports anywhere.
_________________________________
8. The last two pages of that book are missing.
_________________________________
9. It just started raining.
_________________________________
10. I can’t find my keys.
_________________________________

17
LESSON 5

Myrtle Meets a Movie Star

HEADWAITER: How many in your party, sir?


HARRY: Just my wife and myself.
MYRTLE: Yes. We’d like a table for two–in the middle of the restaurant so we can see everyone
who comes in. You see, I’ve been dying to come to Hollywood ever since I was a young girl.
I’ve heard a lot of stars come here–
HARRY: Myrtle, I’m sure this gentleman is not interested in your life story.
MYRTLE: –and today is our wedding anniversary–we’ve been married for thirty years. Isn’t that
just wonderful?
HEADWAITER: That’s simply fascinating, Madam. This is your table, sir. Have a nice meal.
WAITER: Would you like to order now? I recommend the pepper steak it’s–
MYRTLE: Waiter, I suppose you’ve seen thousands of movie stars. How long have you been
working here?
WAITER: I’ve been working here for twenty-five years, and I’ve seen all the greats–Gable,
Cooper, Monroe, Wayne, Newman–I’ve been serving stars ever since I was a young man.
MYRTLE: How long have you been living in Hollywood?
HARRY: We’ll have the pepper steak, please.

FOUR HOURS LATER


HARRY: Myrtle, you must admit I’ve been patient this time. We’ve been sitting here for four
hours and not one star has come in.
MYRTLE: Just drink your coffee, Harry. I’m not leaving until I see a movie star!
HARRY: But I’ve been drinking coffee for three hours . . .
MYRTLE: Harry! I don’t believe it! Robert Redford and his wife are coming this way! I’ve been
waiting for this moment for years! (she gets up) Oh, Mr. Redford! This is wonderful! I’ve been
a fan of yours ever since I saw you in Butch Cassidy.
MAN: I’m not Robert Redford, ma’am. Scrubb’s the name. Huey Scrubb.
MYRTLE: I know you’re Robert Redford. I’ve seen all your movies! My daughter has had a picture
of you on her wall for years! You’re Robert Redford!
WOMAN: I beg your pardon but I’ve been married to this man for fifteen years, and I can assure
you he’s Huey Scrubb. Will you excuse us? We’ve been walking around all day, and we’d like
something to eat.
MYRTLE: (raising her voice) You’re Robert Redford! Please give me your autograph.
MAN: Huey Scrubb’s my name!
WOMAN: Waiter! This woman’s been bothering us! She says my husband is Robert Redford.
Could you please tell her to stop annoying us?
HEADWAITER: We’ve had Robert Redford in here hundreds of times, and this is not him!
HARRY: I’ve been patient with you, Myrtle, but this time you’ve gone too far!
MYRTLE: I’ve been waiting for a chance like this for years . . . and now he won’t give me his
autograph.
WAITER: (to man) Give her your autograph. Maybe this way she’ll leave you alone.
MAN: OK (writes) “To my favourite fan, from Robert Redford” (gives piece of paper to Myrtle)

18
MYRTLE: Thanks. Hey, wait! This is not Robert Redford’s signature. Of all the nerve! You’re an
impostor! How long have you been going around telling people you’re Robert Redford?
HEADWAITER: I’ve been working here for thirty years, and I’ve had all kinds of trouble with
customers, but never like this!
WAITER: It’s that poor guy I feel sorry for. He’s had the same trouble for thirty years.

• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions according to your understanding of the text:


1. What kind of table does Myrtle want and why?
2. Why has she been dying to come to Hollywood?
3. What do Harry and Myrtle celebrate?
4. How long have they been married?
5. How long have they been sitting at the table when Huey Scrubb appears?
6. Who does she think he is?
7. What does she want from him?
8. Who does Scrubb’s wife call?
9. What does she say?
10. What does the waiter say?

• GRAMMAR
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Mod de formare
Present Perfect Continuous se formează cu auxiliarul have / has + been + verb la care se
adaugă terminaţia -ing.
Utilizare
Acest timp verbal se foloseşte pentru a exprima o acţiune începută într – un moment
trecut care se extinde şi în prezent.
Exemplu: I have been living here since 1985.
He has been reading for three hours.
Prin urmare, întrebarea cu care se asociază, în mod logic, acest timp este How long? , iar
răspunsurile vor conţine for + o anumită durată (two weeks, three days, six years) sau since +
momentul din trecut când a început acţiunea (since morning, since 1980, since January).

Exemplu: How long have you been studying English ?


I’ve been studying it for two years.
since 1982.

Observaţie: În cazul verbelor care nu suportă formă continuă , cum ar fi be, have, know,
like, (vezi şi lecţia The Present Continuous Tense),Present Perfect Continuous se va înlocui cu
Present Perfect Simple, chiar dacă acţiunea continuă şi în prezent.

Exemple: How long have you been a doctor ?


I’ve been a doctor for ten years.
since 1974.

19
How long have you had your car?
I have had it for ten years.

Grammar Practice

I. Give affirmative answers to the following questions using the words in parentheses. Use for,
since or all + a time period.

Example: Is she still typing those letters ? (two hours)


Yes. She has been typing them for two hours.
Is it raining ? (one o’clock)
Yes. It has been raining since one o’clock.
Are they still trying to call New York ? (all morning)
Yes. They have been trying all morning.

1. Is he really the president of Apex Inc.? (1976)


___________________________________
2. Are you feeling sick ? (all week)
____________________________________
3. Is Paul still studying ? (one o’clock)
____________________________________
4. Is he still wearing that same shirt ? (two days)
____________________________________
5. Are the children still sleeping ? (four o’clock)
____________________________________
6. Are they still arguing ? (all evening)
____________________________________
7. Are they married ? (several years)
_____________________________________
8. Is he still waiting for the phone call ? (two o’clock this afternoon)
_____________________________________
9. Is that woman still talking on the phone ? (an hour and a half)
_____________________________________
10. Is your brother still working on his car ? (two days)
_____________________________________

II. Complete the following using the Present Perfect Continuous, an appropriate verb, and for or
since.

Example: He TV an hour.
He has been watching TV for an hour.

1. Denise in Boston 1967.


2. They for the Ford Motor Company seven years.
3. The secretary those letters an hour and a half.
4. We swimming lessons last summer.
5. They in the doctor’s office two hours.
6. She for her exams last month.
7. Harry on the phone three o’clock.

20
8. He cough medicine a long time.
9. Janet for the French test a week.
10. She basketball eight o’clock.

III. Complete the following questions using How long . . . and a logical verb in the Present
Perfect Continuous tense.

Example : you / piano lessons ?


How long have you been taking piano lessons ?

1. you / your vacations in Miami ?


____________________________?
2. they / out together ?
____________________________?
3. Janis in that apartment
____________________________?
4. he / Shine hair cream
____________________________?
5. Bob / glasses ?
____________________________?
6. he / in that factory ?
___________________________?
7.they / love letters to each other ?
___________________________?
8. you / your clothes in that department store ?
__________________________________?
9. you / concerts/ ?
____________________________?

10. he / for his final exams ?


____________________________?

• VOCABULARY

EVER SINCE (de când) este o expresie prin cre vorbitorul accentuează importanţa unui
eveniment sau durata unei perioade.

Exemple: I have liked Beethoven ever since I heard the Fifth Symphony. (accentuarea
importanţei evenimentului); I have been sitting here ever since you left. (accentuarea
duratei)

Exercise

Combine the following sentences using ever since, according to the model:

Example: She became a movie star. Then she started wearing diamond rings.
She has been wearing diamond rings ever since she became a movie star.
.

21
1. I saw that film. Right then I decided I wanted to become an actor.
___________________________________________
2. He got to Chicago last month. He is still looking for a job.
___________________________________________
3. When he became famous, he started driving expensive cars.
________________________________________________
4. I started singing when I was a child.
____________________________________
5. Tom came back from the war. Then they got married.
_________________________________________
6. I read a book about the pyramids of Egypt. Now I’m interested in archaeology.
______________________________________________________
7. He swam in that cold river. Now he is coughing.
____________________________________
8. He saved my life. Then we became best friends.
______________________________________
9. They told me I had a terrible voice. That’s why I’m taking singing lessons.
_____________________________________________________
10. Her boss told her she was fired. She is still crying.
________________________________________

22
PROGRESS TEST I

I. Complete the following sentences using used to + a suitable verb:

1. When we lived in the country, we __________________ at six o’clock every morning.


2. He ________________ a blue sports car, but he sold it.
3. Mary ________________ at the University of Wisconsin, but she doesn’t any more.
4. Harry ______________ a very good swimmer, but he isn’t any more.
5. When we were kids, we _______________ our homework together.
6. Aunt Harriet _______________ jokes whenever she went to a party.
7. They ________________ into trouble when they were teenagers.
8. She __________________ expensive clothes when she worked at that company.
9. My sister ______________ late for her classes when she was a student.
10. They ________________ champagne every evening when they were rich.

II. Fill in the blanks with the Present Perfect Simple of the verbs in brackets:

1. Would you like to join us for lunch? No thanks, I ________ already ______________.
(eat)
2. She is getting married next week, but she ________________her wedding dress yet.
(buy)
3. ________ you ever _____________ your wife’s birthday? (forget)
4. ________ your father __________ the newspaper yet?
5. I gave her some beautiful gloves, but she still ________________ them. (not wear)
6. It’s too late! I ________ already __________ the letter. (send)
7. Can you believe it? He _________ never __________ to a concert in his life! (be)
8. _________ they ever __________ Martini? (drink)
9. He is leaving for Paris tomorrow, but he _______________ packing yet. (not finish)
10. I _________ never _________ to Scotland, but I’d like to go there some day. (be)

III. Fill in the blanks with the Simple Past or Present Perfect Simple of the verbs in brackets:

1. She _____________ three books last month, but she _____________ this month. ( not
read)
2. How many times _______ he __________ late for work this week? (be)
3. He _____________ two aspirins so far today, but he ______________ any yesterday.
(take, not take)
4. ________ they __________ a lot of money this month? (spend)
5. How many times _________ you _________ your teeth yesterday? (brush)
6. I _____________ (negative) to the movies at all this month. (go)
7. Bob ____________ three exams so far this week. (fail)
8. I _______________ to the doctor twice last year. (go)
9. He _____________ any work so far today, and he _____________ any work yesterday
either. (not do)
10. Professor Wilson ______________two lessons yesterday. (teach)

23
IV. Complete the following sentences using the Present Perfect Simple or Continuous of the
verbs in brackets:

1. How long _________ they ______________for the bus? (wait)


2. __________ he ______________ French for a long time? (teach)
3. He’s a good friend of mine. I ________________ him for ten years. (know)
4. Phyllis ________________ sick since she had dinner at that new restaurant. (be)
5. How long _____________ your brother _____________ a psychiatrist? (see)
6. I have to do something! I ______________ a stomach ache for three days. (have)
7. ___________ they _____________ married for a long time? (be)
8. Nancy ________________ by plane for eight hours and she is very bored. (travel)
9. How long ___________ she _________________ as a secretary? (work)

24
LESSON 6

Faulks’ Inn

He looked at his watch, but it was still very early. He poured himself another drink and yawned.
“This is going to be a long night,” he thought to himself.

* * *
It had all started as a joke. Connell had arrived at Faulks’ Inn on Wednesday. It seemed
like such a peaceful old place that he decided to stay until the weekend. On the first evening of
his arrival, Connell was having a drink with some of the other guest when they began asking the
owner about the history of the place. He told them the following story:
In the 1800’s something very strange had happened at the inn. The owner’s daughter,
Jullie Faulks, had mysteriously disappeared from one of the large rooms on the second floor.
Everyone had been shocked by this strange disappearance, but no one had ever discovered where
she had gone.
Ever since the night of the mystery, guests complained of hearing strange noises coming
from the room where the girl had last been seen. Several people had also seen lights and floating
white objects.
When Connell and the others heard that no one had stayed in the room since 1860, they
began to laugh and laugh and make jokes, especially Connell. “Superstitious nonsense!” he
laughed. “People get so frightened that their minds begin to play tricks on them.”
“Everyone is at least a little superstitious,” said one of the guests.
“Not me!” said Connell. “Just to show you how ridiculous this story is, I’ll stay in that
room tonight.

* * *
“Your friends downstairs would like to know if you’d like a cup of coffee, sir.” Connell
was awakened by a young woman carrying a tray.
“Yes,” he replied. “All this nonsense about ghosts has made me quite sleepy.”
“She smiled as she poured the coffee. “If you need anything else, just ring.”
The next day at breakfast, Connell told the other guests about the wonderful night he had
spent, and how he had never slept better in his life.
“So, nothing disturbed you?” the owner asked.
“Nothing. After the maid left, I fell asleep again.”
“What maid?” the owner asked. “My wife and I are the only ones who take care of the
place now.”
“She looked just like the girl in that picture,” said Connell, pointing to a portrait above
the fireplace.
“Well, Mr. Connell, you may want to change your beliefs. That’s a portrait of Julie
Faulks painted in 1859.”

25
• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions according to your understanding of the text:

1. When did Connel arrive at Faulks’ Inn?


2. For how long did he decide to stay? Why?
3. What had happened with the owner’s daughter?
4. Why did the guests complain?
5. What had some people seen?
6. Why did Connel refuse to believe the story?
7. How did he decide to prove that the story was ridiculous?
8. Who visited him in his room?
9. What did she do?
10. What did Connel find out in the morning?

• GRAMMAR
THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE

Mod de formare
Past Perfect Simple se formează cu ajutorul auxiliarului have la trecut (had) + participiul
trecut al verbului (verb regulat + ed/ forma a treia a verbelor neregulate).

AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE

I had already gone. Had I ever been there ? I hadn’t thought of it before.
You you You
etc. etc. etc.

Utilizare
Acest timp verbal se foloseşte pentru a exprima o acţiune care a avut loc în trecut, fiind
anterioară unei alte acţiuni trecute. Adverbul de timp specific unor astfel de contexte este before.

Exemplu: When I entered the room, I saw that someone had been there before me.

Past Perfect Simple se foloseşte adesea împreună cu adverbele de timp just, already,
ever şi never, care se vor aşeza între auxiliar şi participiul trecut al verbului.

Exemple: When the police arrived, the thieves had already left.
She had just arrived when the phone started ringing.
They were very nervous because they had never travelled in a jet before.

26
Grammar Practice

I. Complete the following by supplying the missing verb in the Past Perfect.

Examples: She three letters before I got there.


She had written three letters before I got there.

1. They asleep before their son arrived.


2. The other guests all the food before we got there.
3. A thief Mrs. Bodley’s money before she left the store.
4. They dinner before we arrived.
5. Someone a rock through the window before the police arrived.
6. They their homework before their parents came home.
7. The train ten minutes before the taxi arrived at the station.
8. She two sedatives before the doctor arrived.
9. He three glasses of wine before his guests arrived.
10. He all the dishes before his wife got home.

II. Give answers to the following questions using had never . . . before.

Examples: Did your friend enjoy seeing the ballet?


Yes! She had never seen a ballet before.

1. Did they enjoy eating that Indian food?


___________________________________
2. Did you enjoy riding that horse yesterday?
___________________________________
3. Did Lucy like having tea with the Smiths?
____________________________________
4. Did the children enjoy going to the circus?
____________________________________
5. Did the Mercers enjoy giving that cocktail party?
___________________________________
6. Did you enjoy driving John’s sports car?
_________________________________
7. Did Grace enjoy taking Portuguese lessons?
_________________________________
8. Did Evelzn enjoy writing that report?
___________________________________
9. Did she enjoy speaking to the President?
__________________________________
10. Did Bob enjoy flying in that helicopter yesterday?
__________________________________

27
III. Complete the following using the Past Perfect tense.

1. By the time I arrived, they already dinner. (eat)


2. Barbara just the house when the phone (leave)
started to ring.
3. Longhorn Trumbolt, the author, three books before (write)
he was twenty-one years old.
4. I really enjoyed the masquerade party. I never (be)
to one before.
5. When their visitors finally arrived, Mr. And Mrs. Mc Master (go)
already to bed.
6. By the time the police arrived, the thieves already (steal)
the money.
7. Jim enjoyed his trip to Paris. He never in a jet (fly)
plane before.
8. Kate just two sedatives when the doctor arrived. (take)
9. Professor Collins at three American universities before (teach)
accepting a position at the University of Lisbon.
10. By the time finally finished talking, most of the audience (fall)
asleep.

• VOCABULARY

Might as well

Expresia might as well se foloseşte pentru a sublinia alegerea celei mai avantajoase
soluţii pentru o anumită problemă .
Exemplu: He might as well buy the small car, since he doesn’t have enough money for
the big one.
De sesizat nuanţa de regret a afirmaţiei I might as well stay at home and do the
housework since I don’t have money to go out sau nepăsarea redată de afirmaţia As far as
I am concerned, you might as well leave.

Exercise

Comment on the following situations using might as well:

Example: He has just missed the train to Chicago. There is a bus leaving for Chicago in an hour.
He might as well take the bus.

1. Jane has forgotten to buy a new dress for the party. Luckily, her old dress is very
nice.
______________________________________

2. They would like to eat at the restaurant but there are free seats only in the snack bar
across the street.
______________________________________

28
3. I have been waiting to see the doctor for an hour and I’m terribly bored. There are a
few magazines on the table in the waiting room.
______________________________________

4. Harry’s engine doesn’t start this morning. He is lucky that he lives near to his office.
______________________________________

5. We are going to a party. There is a bottle of wine in the refrigerator.


______________________________________

6. She wanted to send her mother a telegram for her birthday but it would be only two
dollars cheaper than a phone call.
______________________________________

7. I was going to throw away a pair of old shoes but I noticed that they are in fashion
again.
_______________________________________

8. I’m so angry with them that I don’t care if they leave the town forever.
_______________________________________

9. She wants to go to the cinema, but nothing good is playing. She has just remembered
that there is a film on TV.
_____________________________________

10. It’s almost midnight and Helen cannot sleep. She has brought some office papers to
study.
____________________________________

29
LESSON 7

The Bank Job

HANK: Now, remember, gang, if we’re not careful, the bank camera will take our picture.
Also, the alarm will go off, and, the whole neighbourhood will wake up.
RICK: Not only that! As soon as it goes off, the whole New York Police Department will
be here in three minutes!
JANET: Well, maybe we shouldn’t go in through the front door as we planned. Let’s try
the side window.
MICKEY: But hold on a minute! As soon as we break in through the side window, the
camera will take our pictures.
ANGELA: If we have our masks on we won’t be recognized.
HANK: Okay, so our big problem is to disconnect the alarm. That’s what we ought to do
first. If we don’t do that, we won’t be able to do anything else.
RICK: I’m really scared, though. If the alarm goes off, the police will arrive right away.
JANET: And if the getaway car isn’t waiting outside, they’ll catch every one of us.
MICKEY: Yeah, and if they catch us, we won’t get out of jail for at least ten years.
ANGELA: Hey! If they put me in jail for ten years, by the time I get out I’ll be forty!
(ALL) : Me too!
JANET: Why don’t we all look for jobs instead?

• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions:

1. Who are the five characters in the story?


2. What do they want to do?
3. What does the first character tell the others to remember?
4. What does Janet suggest?
5. What does Angela say?
6. What is their big problem, according to Hank?
7. Who is really scared? Why?
8. What does Mickey realize?
9. Why is Angela panicking?
10. What do they decide to do in the end?

30
• GRAMMAR
THE FIRST CONDITIONAL CLAUSE (Subordonata condiţionlă de tipul I)

O frază care conţine o subordonată condiţională de tipul I exprimă o relaţie cauză – efect:
Exemplu:
If it rains tomorrow, they will stay in doors.
(cauză) (efect)
(Dacă va ploua mâine, ei vor sta în casă.)
If he doesn’t leave early, he will miss the bus.
(cauză) (efect)
(Dacă nu va pleca devreme, va pierde autobuzul.)

După cum se observă din exemplele de mai sus, spre deosebire de limba română (unde
utilizăm viitorul atât în subordonată, cât şi în propoziţia principală), în limba engleză
subordonata condiţională (introdusă prin if) conţine în mod obligatoriu un verb la Present
Simple, iar propoziţia principală – un verb la Future Simple.

.
Grammar Practice

I. Match the if clause on the left with a clause on the right. There are several possible
combinations. First find the most logical match for each if clause.

1. If my mother / in / low comes to visit I’ll move to another city


________________________________________________________
2. If I can’t find an apartment here she’ll bite the mailman
_______________________________________________________
3. If my wife has twins I’ll take her to the zoo
_______________________________________________________
4. If my boss doesn’t give me a raise I’ll go out and celebrate
_______________________________________________________
5. If Uncle Harry leaves me his fortune I’ll quit my job
______________________________________________________
6. If my dog gets free I’ll look for somebody else to marry
______________________________________________________
7. If my little cousin comes to visit I’ll go crazy
______________________________________________________
8. If you don’t marry me I’ll call an ambulance
_____________________________________________________
9. If Tom gets sick again I’ll call a mechanic
____________________________________________________
10. If my car breaks down again I’ll join the navy
____________________________________________________

31
II. Complete the following sentences with appropriate clauses.

1. If , we won’t go to the beach.


2. If he loses his job, .
3. As soon as the baby is born, .
4. If , I’ll call the police.
5. She when she goes to Japan next month.
6. He as soon as he finishes his work.
7. I’ll go to the doctor next week if .
8. If the train arrives late, .
9. He’ll lose his job if he .
10. If you don’t study, .

• VOCABULARY
What if . . .

Expresia What if + Present Simple se foloseşte atunci când vorbitorul vrea să atragă atenţia
asupra unei posibile probleme. Echivalenul în limba română este dar dacă…..?

Exemple: What if we miss the bus? (Dar dacă pierdem autobuzul?)


What if the weather gets worse? (Dar dacă vremea se înrăutăţeşte?)

Exercise

Answer the following What if questions using the cues provided.

Example: What if it rains ? (we the beach on Sunday)


If it rains we won’t go to the beach on Sunday.
What if they don’t bring enough sandwiches ? (we fruit)
If they don’t bring enough sandwiches, we’ll eat fruit.

1. What if we fail the exam ? (we it again in June)


__________________________________________________
2. What if he has an accident ? (we him to the hospital)
___________________________________________________
3. What if they run out of gas ? (they to the nearest gas station)
________________________________________________________
4. What if they cancel our flight ? (we the train)
_________________________________________________
5. What if the restaurant is closed ? (I somewhere else)
_________________________________________________
6. What if they raise the price of gas ? (we a smaller car next year)
_________________________________________________

32
7. What if he doesn’t like river ? (he a steak)
_________________________________________________
8. What if they don’t come on time ? (we to the theatre without them)
______________________________________________________
9. What if the dress doesn’t fit her ? (she another one)
________________________________________________
10. What if he doesn’t hear his alarm clock ? (he late for work)
___________________________________________

33
LESSON 8

The Reunion

ELEANOR: What’s wrong with you tonight, Peggy? You don’t look like you’re having a
good time. Don’t you think this class reunion is fun?
PEGGY: I don’t know . . . I just feel . . . I mean… Oh, what’s the use of keeping it to
myself!
BARRY: Come on, Peggy. You know you’d feel better if you told us.
PEGGY: OK. Let me ask you this. If you didn’t have much money and you wanted to
impress a rich man, would you tell him that you had a great job and lots of money?
NANCY: No, because if I did, he would find out sooner or later.
PEGGY: If you lived in a small apartment in the poor part of town, would you tell him you
lived in a mansion?
GREG: If a girl told me lies like that, I’d never believe her again.
PEGGY: Well, do you remember Jack Torrence who went to Australia to make his fortune?
I’ve been writing to him for three years and . . .
TERRY: Don’t tell me you’ve been lying to him all this time in your letters!
PEGGY: Well, I suppose I have been exaggerating a little. And now this millionaire is
going to walk through the door any minute, and I don’t know what to do.
PAT: Well, if I were you, I’d keep on lying until I thought he was ready to accept the truth.
BARRY: That’s no solution. If I were Peggy, I’d tell him right away.
NANCY: If he were my boyfriend and thought I had a lot of money, I’d rent a luxury
apartment for a few days, and hope we left for Australia before my money ran out.
GREG: And what would you do if you ran out of money before you left for Australia?
NANCY: I’d borrow some more.
ELEANOR: But if he discovered the truth, he would probably never speak to you again.
TERRY: If I were you, I’d just forget about marrying him, Peggy.
PAT: Oh, look! Here comes Jack now! Doesn’t he look great–like a million bucks!
GREG: Oh, shut up, Pat. Well, go over and talk to him, Peggy–and tell him the truth.

(Peggy goes over to greet Jack)

JACK: You look wonderful, Peggy. It’s so good to see you after all this time.
PEGGY: Jack, I have something to tell you . . .
JACK: Wait, Peggy. Let me ask you this first, before you say anything. Would you still
love me if I told you I’d lied about all the money I’d made in Australia?
PEGGY: (smiles with relief) Well, Jack, let’s sit down. Something tells me we have a lot to
talk about.

34
• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions:

1. Who are the characters of the story?


2. On what occasion do they meet?
3. Why isn’t Peggy having a good time?
4. What lies has she told?
5. Who is Jack Torrence?
6. For how long has she been writing to him?
7. What does Peggy think about Jack?
8. What solution does Pat suggest?
9. What about Greg?
10. What is the big final surprise?

• GRAMMAR

THE SECOND CONDITIONAL CLAUSE (Subordonata condiţională de tipul II)

Subordonata condiţională de tipul II este folosită în fraze care se referă la o posibilă


relaţie cauză – effect, inexistentă în momentul vorbirii.

Exemplu: If I had enough money, I would buy a new car.


(causes ) (effect ).
(Dacă aş avea destui bani, mi – aş cumpăra o maşină nouă.)
I wouldn’t talk to her if I were you.
(effect) (cause ).
(Nu aş vorbi cu ea dacă aş fi în locul tău.)
După cum se observă, în limba engleză, Condiţionalul prezent (would + infinitivul scurt
al verbului) din propoziţia principală este înlocuit de Simple Past în subordonata condiţională
(după if).
Observaţie: În subordonata condiţională, forma de trecut a verbului to be va fi were
pentru toate persoanele

Exemple:

AFIRMATIV

If I were rich, I would travel more.


you you
she she
he he
we we
they they

We would buy a house if we were rich.

35
INTEROGATIV

Would I quit working if won the lottery ?


Where would you go if you had the money?
What would he do if he were in your place ?

NEGATIV

I wouldn’t go if I didn’t have the money.


They wouldn’t tell him that if they weren’t sure.

Grammar Practice

I. Make statements beginning with If I were you . . using the following cues.

Example: so much noise If I were you, I wouldn’t make so much noise.

1. the police ____________________________________


2. that car ____________________________________
3. so much money _______________________________
4. that French course ______________________________
5. his advice __________________________________
6. that medicine ________________________________
7. my job ___________________________________
8. that movie ________________________________
9. that letter _________________________________
10. a vacation _____________________________________

II. Ask questions with Would you ……if ……….? for the following statements.

Example: Laurie went to a party, even though she didn’t like the hostess.
Would you go to a party if you didn’t like the hostess?

1. He invited a girl to dinner, even though he didn’t know her name.


______________________________________________ ?
2. She married a rich man, even though she didn’t love him.
______________________________________________ ?
3. He ordered a large meal, even though he didn’t have any money.
_______________________________________________?
4. I wore that ugly shirt, even though I didn’t like it.
______________________________________________?

36
5. He drove a car, even though he didn’t have a license.
_____________________________________________?

III. Complete the following sentences. Depending on the cues given, each clause may be either
negative or affirmative.

Examples: A poor man says: If a lot of money, I around the world.


If I had a lot of money, I’d travel around the world.
A light sleeper says: If I such o noisy neighbourhood, I better
at night.
If I didn’t live in such a noisy neighbourhood, I’d sleep better at night.

1. A fat man says : If so much, I so fat.


2. A busy woman says: If more time, I the movies.
3. A bad student says: If more, I better grades.
4. An ugly girl says: If prettier, I as a model.
5. A tired woman says: If more rest, I better.
6. A chain smoker says: If so much, I such a bad smoker.
7. A short man says: If so short, I basket ball.
8. A lonely man says: If a girl friend, I so lonely.
9. A fat man says: If more exercise, I so fat.
10. A coffee drinker says: If so much coffee, I trouble sleeping.

• VOCABULARY
You had better (not) . . . ar fi mai bine să(nu)….

Cu ajutorul acestei formule vorbitorul oferă un sfat interlocutorului sau îl previne în


legătură cu o posibilă problemă.
Exemplu: You never know when it will rain, so you had better take your umbrella with you.

Exercise
Complete the following sentences using the expression had better:

1. The flights usually fill up fast in August, so___________________________. .


2. You might get airsick on the plane, so _______________________________.
3. Summer nights are cool in England, so ________________________________.
4. It’s dangerous to carry cash around, so ______________________________.
5. You live quite far from the centre, so _____________________________.
6. The text is full of new words, so _________________________________.
7. You may not find that medicine in Europe, so ___________________________.
8. You’ll want to take pictures of all the places you visit, so _____________________.
9. Your feet will hurt after all the sight – seeing, so __________________________.
10. It’s easy to get lost in Munich, so _______________________.

37
LESSON 9

The Phone Man

It’s almost midnight and Janice is desperately calling one of her friends.
Janice: Hello, Ann, it’s me, Janice…..
Ann: Janice! What on earth happened? Do you have any idea what time it is?
Janice: Oh, Ann! Something terrible happened. I’ve been robbed.
Ann: What do you mean? Did anyone break into your house?
Janice: No, Ann. If someone had broken into my house I would have called the police, but…
Ann: But what? What are you talking about?
Janice: Oh, God! I’m so ashamed! Imagine I let him into the house!
Ann: What? How could you do such a stupid thing?
Janice: You see, at about ten o’clock a guy rang at my door and said he was from the phone
company and had to check something… and I opened the door.
Ann: Didn’t you think that if he had worked for the phone company he wouldn’t have come at
that time?!
Janice: But he seemed so nice…..
Ann: If he had been so nice he wouldn’t have robbed you! By the way, what did he steal?
Janice: Actually that’s the worst thing of all: he got away with Martin’s car!
Ann: Oh, my God! Did he force you to give him the keys? Why didn’t you scream?
Janice: Be sure I would have screamed if he had tried to force me to do anything, but he was so
nice that I even made him a cup of coffee. Then he asked me very politely to go upstairs to see if
the phone in the bedroom works and, in the meantime, he grabbed the keys from the table in the
hall and drove off. And now I don’t know what to do! Martin will kill me when he comes from
his business trip!
Ann: Janice, calm down and listen to me. You have to call the police.
Janice: And what do I tell them? That I actually let a stranger into my house late at night, I made
him coffee and I left him alone downstairs to take whatever he wanted?
Ann: It’s true that nothing would have happened if you hadn’t been so credulous, but this is the
only solution. Let’s hope they will find the car before your husband gets home.
Janice: Yes, you are right. You’ve been of great help, Ann. Thank you so much! Good night!
Ann: Good night, Janice! And, if a detective comes to your house, make sure he is real, OK?

• COMPREHENSION
Answer the following questions:

1. Who are the two characters of this dialogue?


2. What time did Janice call her friend?
3. What had happened?
4. Why didn’t she call the police?
5. What did the man tell her?
6. What did he steal and how?
7. Who was Martin and where was he?

38
8. What did Ann advise Janice to do?
9. What did she say about Janice?
10. What did Ann suggest in the end?

• GRAMMAR

THE THIRD CONDITIONAL CLAUSE (Subordonata condiţională de tipul III)

Acest tip de condiţională se foloseşte pentru a exprima o relaţie cauză – efect ireală. Prin
urmare, acţiunea exprimată de verbul din propoziţia principală nu a avut loc deoarece condiţia
exprimată de condiţională nu a fost îndeplinită.
Exemplu: If you had been more careful, you wouldn’t have made so many mistakes.
(Dacă ai fi fost mai atent, nu ai fi făcut atâtea greşeli) – de unde se subînţelege că de
fapt ai făcut greşeli deoarece condiţia de a fi atent nu a fost îndeplinită.
După cum arată exemplul de mai sus, în propoziţia condiţională se foloseşte Past
Perfect, iar în propoziţia principală - Past Conditional (would + have + Past Participle).

Grammar Practice

I. Complete the following sentences using the verbs in brackets:


Example: If she ___________earlier, she would have met them. (arrive)
If she had arrived earlier, she would have met them.

1. If you ___________there, you would have heard what he said. (be)


2. If he ___________harder, he would have been promoted. (work)
3. If they __________us, we would have helped them. (ask)
4. If it ___________so heavily, they would have left earlier. (not rain)
5. If Mum ___________about your marks, she would have been very angry. (find out)
6. If you ___________a taxi, you would have missed the plane. (not take)
7. If it __________so late, I would have paid them a visit. (not be)
8. If somebody __________him first aid, he wouldn’t have died. (give)
9. If I _____________enough time, I would have finished my essay. (have)
10. If she ___________ the truth, she would have told you. (know)

II. Complete the following sentences using the verbs in brackets:


Examples: If you had worn a jacket, you___________________ so cold. (not be)
If you had worn a jacket, you wouldn’t have been so cold.
If they had known you were ill, they ________________to see you. (come)
If they had known you were ill, they would have come to see you.

1. If I had heard the alarm clock, I _________________late for work. (not be)
2. If he had been at home, he ___________________the phone. (answer)
3. If they had seen the thief, they __________________the police. (call)
4. If she had refused to join us, we __________________to convince her. (try)
5. If he hadn’t helped you, you ___________________to finish in time. (not be able)
6. If we hadn’t had a map, we ____________________ our way. (lose)
7. If he had trained more, he __________________ the race. (win)
8. If I had known it was his birthday, I _____________________ him a card. (send)

39
9. If you had read the novel, you __________________ the characters. (remember)
10. If the weather had been bad, they __________________ to the beach. (not go)

III. Comment on the following situations by using the third conditional clause. Pay attention to
the model.
Model: She didn’t study enough, so she failed the exam.
If she had studied enough, she wouldn’t have failed the exam.

1. He went to bed very late, so he had trouble waking up in the morning.


_______________________________________________________
2. The kids lied to their mother; she was angry with them.
______________________________________________________
3. It was very late, so the shops were already closed.
_____________________________________________________
4. He did his homework in a hurry; it was full of mistakes.
____________________________________________________
5. I ate too many sweets, so I put on weight.
_____________________________________________
6. She didn’t find them at home; she went to the hotel.
________________________________________________
7. The house was too old; they didn’t buy it.
____________________________________________
8. She forgot to give me her phone number; I didn’t call her.
_________________________________________________
9. I didn’t read the newspaper yesterday; I didn’t know about the accident.
_______________________________________________
10. They were out of town at that time; they didn’t go to the concert.
_______________________________________________

• VOCABULARY

WHAT ON EARTH…..este o expresie prin care vorbitorul îşi exprimă nedumerirea (What on
earth is going on here?), îngrijorarea (Where on earth are we going to live now?) sau indignarea
(How on earth did you manage to make such a mess in your room?). Echivalentul românesc al
expresiei este Ce/ cum/ de ce/unde Dumnezeu.....?

HOW COULD YOU……este expresia care redă indignarea vorbitorului faţă de o anumită situaţie
sau un gest al interlocutorului: How could you be so impolite?; How could they lie to her for
such a long time? Traducerea în limba română a acestei expresii este Cum ai putut…..?

Exercise
Express your indignation or amazement using the expressions above, according to the model:

Model: I don’t know what he did.


What on earth did he do?
He lied to his best friend.
How could he lie to his best friend?

40
1. Nobody knows how he survived that plane crash.
___________________________________________?
2. He forgot to return us the money.
__________________________________________?
3. They spoke very rudely to their parents.
_________________________________________?
4. I will never understand why you opened the door to that man.
________________________________________________?
5. She abandoned her children and left abroad.
_________________________________________?
6. I don’t have any idea where she can be.
_____________________________________?
7. Nobody understands what she did with all that money.
________________________________________?
8. It was not nice of you to tell her she was fat.
____________________________________?
9. They refused to give that poor woman something to eat.
__________________________________________?
10. I really don’t know how you are going to explain this to your boss.
_____________________________________________________?

41
LESSON 10

The Hitchhiker

John Henderson was driving home late last night from an exhausting business trip. He had put
off visiting the company’s new headquarters in order to get home before midnight, and now he
was having trouble staying awake. He turned up the radio and tried to concentrate on the news –
something about a robbery – but his eyes kept on closing. His wife was back home in Dayton,
and he missed having her company on this long trip.
It was then he noticed the hitchhiker at the side of the road. Without even thinking about
what he was doing, he slowed down and stopped the car. He couldn’t help feeling sorry for the
young man who looked so wet and miserable in the rain. “Get in,” he said.
John remembered having to hitchhike home from the university before he had a car. He
couldn’t stand sitting at the side of the road for hours, waiting for rides.
The hitchhiker got in and immediately John was sorry that he had picked him up. The
young man had a strange face and very penetrating eyes. His clothes were old and dirty, and his
long hair needed cutting. The hitchhiker lit a cigarette and said that he was going to Woodsville
but when John asked him other questions, the young man avoided giving him any personal
information and changed the subject.
John began to sweat and his thoughts turned nervously to his wallet and all the money he
was carrying. He desperately tried to remember what the newscaster had he said earlier about a
robbery. Don’t be ridiculous! He thought himself. Stop imagining things! This guy isn’t a
criminal. What’s the use of panicking?
Even though he had quit smoking three months before, John felt like having a cigarette.
He asked his passenger for one but before lightning it he had to wait for his hands to stop
shaking. At the next small town John stopped the car and said, “I just can’t seem to stay awake. I
think I’ll try and find a hotel and spend the night here.” He apologized nervously to the
hitchhiker for not being able to drive him to Woodsville.
The young man slowly reached into his pocket. “This is it!” thought John. “ I’m a dead
man.” At that very moment he considered shouting for help, but instead of a gun or a knife, the
hitchhiker pulled out several wrinkled bills and offered them to John. “Oh no. I don’t want your
money. Just get out. Okay?”
The young man looked puzzled, but insisted on giving John the money - $500. “My
father is John Baresford, the oil millionaire, you see,” he said. “Thanks for taking me this far.”
John waited until his passenger had disappeared from sight, then he stepped on the gas
and drove out of town. He was looking forward to getting home. Martha will never believe this!
He thought to himself.

42
• COMPREHENSION

Answer the following questions:

1. Where was John Henderson coming from?


2. What did he do to stay awake?
3. What was on the radio?
4. What did he see at the side of the road?
5. Why did he stop?
6. Why was he sorry as soon as he had picked him up?
7. How long before had he quit smoking?
8. What pretext did he find to stop in the small town?
9. What did the young man do at that moment?
10. Who was the young man?

• GRAMMAR
GERUND CONSTRUCTIONS (Construcţii gerunziale)

Gerunziul se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei –ing la Infinitivul scurt al verbelor.

Exemple : to sing - singing


to take - taking

În limba engleză există unele verbe, construcţii şi expresii care sunt obligatoriu urmate de
gerunziu, cum ar fi:
Verbe: Stop, finish, quit, start, begin, like, love, enjoy, hate, detest, dislike, avoid, miss,
deny, remember, admit, consider
Verbe cu prepoziţie: give up, keep on, look forward to, put off, apologize for, think of,
insist on, feel like, accuse (someone) from, thank (someone) for
Expresii: can’t hel, can’t stand, what’s use of, have trouble / difficulty (in).

Exemple: John detests working for the telephone company.


hates
dislikes
enjoys
loves
likes

My uncle gave up smoking last month.


quit
stopped
began
started

43
I. Expand the following cues by providing the appropriate verb.

Example: He likes to the movies on Sundays.


He likes going to the movies on Sundays.

1. They enjoy a cocktail before dinner.


2. We like late on Sunday morning.
3. They can’t stand to pop music.
4. I love fresh milk for breakfast.
5. Marvin hates to strangers.
6. We dislike in such a polluted city.
7. Anne enjoys long letters.
8. I don’t enjoy a bath in cold water.
9. She dislikes by plane.
10. He hates at the phone company.

II. Combine the following sentences using the verb in parentheses and when.

Example: She screamed. She saw a face at the window. (start)


She started screaming when she saw a face at the window.

1. He smoked a lot. He got bronchitis. (quit)


____________________________________________
2. She cried. Her mother came into the room. (stop)
____________________________________________
3. He gambled a lot. He got married. (give up)
____________________________________________
4. They had eaten. We came in. (finish)
____________________________________________
5. Jane played tennis. She lost the championship (give up)
____________________________________________
6. He saw Betty every weekend. He met Helen. (stop)
____________________________________________
7. He drank too much His on died. (start)
____________________________________________
8. She tried to be a model. They told her she was too short. (give up)
____________________________________________
9. They laughed. I told them that joke. (begin)
____________________________________________
10. She had painted the house. Her husband came home. (finish)
____________________________________________

44
III. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate verb in the gerund form.

1. She apologized for , but her friends wouldn’t forgive her.


2. I’ve always had trouble .
3. It’s such a great day ! I certainly don’t feel like .

4. I tried to control myself, but I just couldn’t help .


5. Let me know when your brother gets here. I’m looking forward to .
6. He put off for so long that now he’s in the hospital.
7. I told him I was feeling fine, but I just couldn’t help .
8. Seatbelts in cars prevent a lot of people from .
9. Although the police questioned him for two days, he denied .
10. I shouted at her to stop, but she kept on .

• VOCABULARY

WOULD YOU MIND (NOT)…….Vb + ing


Această expresie se foloseşte pentru a solicita ceva în mod politicos (vă deranjează să..../ vreţi să
fiţi atât de amabil să...?)

Exercise
Make up polite requests according to the model,using the following cues:

Model: wait here Would you mind waiting here?

1. open the window ________________________________?


2. answer the phone ________________________________?
3. lend him your car _________________________________?
4. repeat you address _________________________________?
5. call tomorrow _________________________________?
6. come later ________________________________?
7. speak louder _______________________________?
8. try again _____________________________?
9. return the book next week ____________________________?
10. give them a message ______________________________?

45
PROGRESS TEST II

I. Complete the following sentences using the Past Perfect of the verbs in brackets:

1. By the time I arrived, they __________ already ____________ dinner. (have)


2. Barbara _________ just ___________ the house when the phone started ringing. (leave)
3. The novelist ________________ three books before he was twenty – one. (write)
4. I really enjoyed the show. I __________ never __________ such a show before. (see)
5. When the guests arrived, we ___________ already _______ to bed. (go)
6. By the time the police arrived, the thieves ___________ already ____________ away
with the money. (run)
7. Jim enjoyed his trip to Paris. He __________ never ____________ in a jet plane before.
(fly)
8. Kate __________ just ____________ two sedatives when the doctor arrived. (take)
9. Professor Collins ________________ at three American universities before accepting a
position at the University of Lisbon. (teach)
10. By the time she finally finished talking, most of the audience _____________ asleep.
(fall)

II. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate clause:

1. If______________________, we will be late for the show.


2. If he loses his job, _________________________.
3. If she has a boy, __________________________.
4. If ________________, I will call the police.
5. She ____________________ if she visits Japan.
6. He ____________________ if he finishes his project before the end of the month.
7. I’ll go to the doctor next week if ___________________________.
8. If the train arrives late, ____________________.
9. He’ll lose his job if _________________________.
10. If you don’t study, ________________________.

III. Complete the following sentences:

1. What would you do if someone _________________________?


2. I ________________________if I had had enough money.
3. His mother ____________________ if she knew the truth.
4. I would tell them everything if I ____________________.
5. He _______________________ if he had time.
6. If she hadn’t eaten so much, she______________________.
7. If I saw a crime, I ________________________.
8. If you _____________________, where would you like to live?
9. If he had been honest with us, we __________________________.
10. You wouldn’t have managed if he ____________________.

46
IV. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate verb in the Gerund:

1. She apologized for _______________ so late.


2. I’ve always had trouble ________________ very early in the morning.
3. It’s such a great day! I don’t feel like _______________ at home.
4. I tried to control myself, but I couldn’t help ________________.
5. Let me know when they get here. I’m looking forward to _______________.
6. He put off __________________ for so long that now he is in the hospital.
7. I told her I was feeling fine, but she insisted on ___________________.
8. Seatbelts in cars prevent a lot of people from ____________________.
9. Although the police questioned them for two days, they denied ________________.
10. I shouted at them to stop, but they kept on _____________________.

47
Minimal List of Irregular Verbs

Long Infinitive Simple Past Past Participle Translation


to be was/ were been a fi
to become became become a deveni
to beat beat beaten a bate
to begin began begun a începe
to bite bit bitten a muşca
to blow blew blown a sufla
to break broke broken a sparge
to bring brought brought a aduce
to buy bought bought a cumpăra
to catch caught caught a prinde
to choose chose chosen a alege
to come came come a veni
to cut cut cut a tăia
to do did done a face
to drink drank drunk a bea
to drive drove driven a conduce
to eat ate eaten a mânca
to fall fell fallen a cădea
to feel felt felt a (se) simţi
to find found found a găsi
to forget forgot forgotten a uita
to forgive forgave forgiven a ierta
to get got got(ten) a obţine
to give gave given a da
to go went gone a merge
to grow grew grown a creşte
to have had had a avea
to hear heard heard a auzi
to hide hid hidden a (se) ascunde
to hurt hurt hurt a răni
to keep kept kept a ţine, a păstra
to leave left left a pleca
to lend lent lent a împrumuta
to lose lost lost a pierde
to make made made a face
to put put put a pune
to read read read a citi
to run ran run a fugi
to say said said a zice
to see saw seen a vedea
to sell sold sold a vinde
to send sent sent a trimite
to shut shut shut a închide
to sleep slept slept a dormi
to sing sang sung a cânta
to sit sat sat a sta (aşezat)

48
to spend spent spent a petrece (timpul)
a cheltui
to stand stood stood a sta
(în picioare)
to steal stole stolen a fura
to take took taken a lua
to teach taught taught a învăţa (pe
cineva)
to think thought thought a (se) gândi
a crede
to throw threw thrown a arunca
to understand understood understood a înţelege
to wear wore worn a purta

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BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Eckersley, C. E., ESSENTIAL ENGLISH FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS, Editura


Vox, Bucureşti, 1998;
2. Fassman, Paula
Suzanne Sezmour Tavares GALLERY, Oxford University Press, 1998;
3. Gălăţeanu, Georgiana, SINTEZE DE GRAMATICĂ ENGLEZĂ, EDP, Bucureşti, 1982;

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