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Sample Science Lesson

Carolyne Cohen
Lesson Name: Exploring Reversible and Irreversible Changes
Grade 2
Duration of Lesson: 1 hour
NGSS Performance Expectation:
2-PS1-4 Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or
cooling can be reversed and some cannot.
2.Structure and Properties of Matter
2.Structure and Properties of Matter
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
2-PS1-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable
properties. [Clarification Statement: Observations could include color, texture, hardness, and flexibility. Patterns could include the similar properties that
different materials share.]

2-PS1-2. Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are
best suited for an intended purpose.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties could include, strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, and
absorbency.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of quantitative measurements is limited to length.]

2-PS1-3. Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be
disassembled and made into a new object. [Clarification Statement: Examples of pieces could include blocks, building bricks, or other assorted
small objects.]

2-PS1-4. Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some
cannot. [Clarification Statement: Examples of reversible changes could include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures. Examples of
irreversible changes could include cooking an egg, freezing a plant leaf, and heating paper.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or
test solutions to problems in K2 builds on prior experiences and
progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which
provide data to support explanations or design solutions.
Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce
data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyzing data in K2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to
collecting, recording, and sharing observations.
Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it
works as intended. (2-PS1-2)
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in K2 builds on
prior experiences and progresses to the use of evidence and ideas
in constructing evidence-based accounts of natural phenomena and
designing solutions.
Make observations (firsthand or from media) to construct an
evidence-based account for natural phenomena. (2-PS1-3)
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in K2 builds on prior
experiences and progresses to comparing ideas and
representations about the natural and designed world(s).
Construct an argument with evidence to support a claim. (2PS1-4)

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be
either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter
can be described and classified by its observable
properties. (2-PS1-1)
Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2PS1-2),(2-PS1-3)
A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set
of pieces. (2-PS1-3)
PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that
can be observed. Sometimes these changes are
reversible, and sometimes they are not. (2-PS1-4)

Patterns in the natural and human
designed world can be observed. (2-PS1-1)
Cause and Effect
Events have causes that generate
observable patterns. (2-PS1-4)
Simple tests can be designed to gather
evidence to support or refute student ideas
about causes. (2-PS1-2)
Energy and Matter
Objects may break into smaller pieces and
be put together into larger pieces, or
change shapes. (2-PS1-3)

Connections to Engineering, Technology,

and Applications of Science
Influence of Engineering, Technology,
and Science on Society and the Natural
Every human-made product is designed by
applying some knowledge of the natural
world and is built using materials derived
from the natural world. (2-PS1-2)

--------------------------------------------------------Connections to Nature of Science

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain

Natural Phenomena
Scientists search for cause and effect relationships to explain
natural events. (2-PS1-4)
Connections to other DCIs in second grade: N/A
Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels: 4.ESS2.A (2-PS1-3); 5.PS1.A (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3); 5.PS1.B (2-PS1-4); 5.LS2.A (2-PS1-3)

Common Core State Standards Connections:



Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (2-PS1-4)
Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. (2-PS1-4)
Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. (2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-4)
Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g.,
because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. (2-PS1-4)
Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). (2-PS1-1),(2-PS12),(2-PS1-3)
Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3)

Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (2-PS1-2)

Model with mathematics. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2)
Use appropriate tools strategically. (2-PS1-2)
Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare
problems using information presented in a bar graph. (2-PS1-1),(2-PS1-2)

Learning Objective:
Students will be able to identify if changes are reversible or irreversible based on their
experimental observations.
*The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.
The section entitled Disciplinary Core Ideas is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated
and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

Resources, Materials, and Grouping:

1 soda can with metal tab
1 soda bottle with twist top
Ice cube in a tray
Every pair of students receives the following:
1 wad of clay

1 chenille stem
6 connecting cubes (connected together)
1 piece of paper
1 piece of chalk
Every student receives one of the following:
Graphic organizer to glue into journal
Science journals
Materials Management:
Prior to class, gather all the necessary materials and organize them at the back of the
room in boxes. Each box has materials for the 3 pairs at each table. Retrieve the ice
cube from the freezer at the beginning of the lesson.
During the exploratory stage, one student will retrieve a box for their table with all the
materials from the back of the room. Another student will be responsible for returning
the materials in the box to the back of the room.
After the lesson, students will glue their graphic organizer into their science journals
(should be in desk) and one person from each table will turn them in at the rear of the
Grouping Structure:
Students are grouped in table groups of 6 but will mainly be working with the person
sitting next to them in pairs after the whole group lesson.
Students are strategically paired with students that they work well with and have
varying levels of reading and writing ability.
Structure and Properties of Matter. (2014). Lesson developed for McCracken County
Public Schools, KY.
I created the graphic organizer and found images from the following websites:
Academic Language Requirements:
Specialized Vocabulary:
Reversible change
Irreversible change

Text Types/Language Demands:

Productive language in pair work and whole class discussions to discuss whether
materials are reversible or irreversible.
Graphic organizer requires students to read instructions and write answers.
Beginning: Formative assessment will happen during beginning class discussion about
which soda is reversible and which soda is irreversible. This will give an initial
assessment of students understandings of what changes can be undone and what cannot.
During: Teacher will walk around monitoring student understanding of what changes can
be undone and what cannot. Ask probing questions such as, Why do you think this is
reversible? Can you demonstrate why? How are these two changes the same?
How are these two changes different?
After: Review science journals to look for student understanding about the difference
between reversible and irreversible changes. Look for lingering misconceptions that can
be addressed in the next lesson.
Instruction [Anticipatory Stage]:
[5 minutes] Students are gathered at the carpet. Introduce the soda can and soda bottle
and discuss with the students that the sodas open in different ways. Twist off the top of
the soda bottle and ask, Can I reverse this change? How? Students will likely say
that yes, the bottle cap can twist back onto the bottle. Then open the metal tab of the
soda can and ask, Can I reverse this change? How? Students will likely say that no,
the can is broken and the metal cannot be closed the same way anymore. Explain this
familiar real-world instance of reversible and irreversible changes. The bottle is
reversible and the can is irreversible. Reversible means the change can be undone and
irreversible means the change cannot be undone.
[5 minutes] Activate prior knowledge by asking students what they know about ice
melting and freezing. Is this a reversible or irreversible change? Show students the ice
in a tray and ask them to predict as a class what will happen to the ice if we left it there
while we do our main experiment. Write the class hypothesis on the board:
Hypothesis: We predict that leaving the ice will Tell them we will revisit our
hypothesis after the main experiment.
[10 minutes] Introduce the main experiment. One student will pass out the graphic
organizer, which serves as an anticipation guide. Another student will pass out
whiteboards to write on a hard surface at the carpet. Tell students, You are going to
experiment with some different materials and see if they are reversible or irreversible
changes. But before you test these out, you will hypothesize, or predict, which are
reversible and which are irreversible. Introduce each material one by one, starting
with the paper. Hold up the paper and ask, You will rip this paper. Do you think that
is a reversible or irreversible change? Write what you think in the predict column next
the paper. Point to this square on the projector for students to see. They will write
their predictions. Repeat this process with all of the materials.

Instruction [Exploratory Stage]:

[20 minutes] Explain to the students that they will go back to their seats and one
person (chosen by teacher) will collect a box from the back of the room with all the
materials. Students will work with their table partners to experiment with each
material. Encourage students to take turns doing the experiment, discuss results, and
come up with their answers together. The students will fill in the rest of the graphic
organizer with their answers based on their observations. I will be available for
questions and monitoring for formative assessment. When they finish, they will glue
their paper into their science journal and create their own list of reversible and
irreversible changes Students will put all materials back into the box when they finish
and one designated person will return the box to the back table.
Instruction [Student Explanation Stage]:
[15 minutes] Students will return to the carpet with their graphic organizers. We will
go through each material in order starting with the paper experiment. Ask, When you
ripped the paper in half, was it possible to put it back into a whole piece of paper
again? Students will discuss their answers. Then ask, Who can explain why you
think it was reversible? and Who can explain why you think it was reversible?
Allow students to discuss their ideas and agree and disagree with each other. If some
students say it is reversible, challenge them to take the ripped paper and put it back
exactly as it was before. They will see that it is not possible. Discuss that it is
irreversible because there is no way to make it go back to exactly the same piece of
paper again. Praise students for thinking critically. Repeat this process for the rest of
the materials and make sure that students explain why it is reversible or irreversible.
Instruction [Closure]:
[5 minutes] Redirect students to the ice cube tray (with ice that has now melted). Ask,
What happened? Why? Students will say the ice melted because it was in a warm
environment. Ask, What would happen if I were to put this back into the freezer?
Students will say it will refreeze. Point back to the class hypothesis and ask, Was our
hypothesis correct? Students will discuss if the hypothesis was correct or incorrect
and teacher will write a sentence explaining what happened below the hypothesis:
Our hypothesis was correct/incorrect because This gives students a model of how
to write a prediction and explain the results. Tell students, Tomorrow we are going to
do an interesting experiment with crayons and we will be creating a hypothesis and
seeing if our predictions are correct or incorrect. It will be just like this writing we did,
so you know what to expect to write!
Differentiated Instruction:
The students use a graphic organizer that serves as an anticipation guide and tool in
organizing their observations. The anticipation guide lets the students know what to
expect so there is less confusion going into the experiment. The graphic organizer also
gives students a way to organize their ideas simply and easily so they can focus on the
experiments. There are pictures with the instructions to support the struggling readers and
my IEP student who may need multiple modalities of instruction. The students who tend

to finish early, including many of my GATE students, have the opportunity to create their
own list of reversible and irreversible changes in their science journals. This provides an
opportunity for students to extend their thinking and gives them something to do while
others are finishing up. The students are also paired up with students they work well with
and have varying levels of reading and writing ability. They are strategically placed this
way so they can help each other and bring different strengths to the experiment.

Graphic organizer for science journals:

Reversible or Irreversible?

Is this reversible or
Prediction Observation

Rip piece of
paper in half.

Bend chenille
stem into a new
Break a piece of
chalk in half.

Take apart the


Rip apart the clay

into two pieces.

Done? Glue this page into your science journal, and come up with
your own list of reversible and irreversible changes!