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Sarah Dunn

ENC 1102
Professor Wolcott
02 March 15
Human trafficking is a direct infringement on ones basic human rights. Human trafficking also
referred to as Modern-Day Slavery, is the usage of people as property for the benefit of
profit or personal gains by the person trafficking. This inhumane act has gone on since
the beginning of humanity and is a prominent industry that seems to only be expanding
within our global economy today. The topic that these annotated bibliographies serve to
give more information and aide to is the prevention and strategies in place or those that
need to be implemented to combat this issue once and for all. These annotated
bibliographies can be used by members of this discourse community to find different
ways in which prevention is occurring and ways in which they can be improved.
Annotated Bibliography

Alvarez M, Alessi E. Human Trafficking Is More Than Sex Trafficking and Prostitution:
Implications for Social Work. Affilia: Journal Of Women & Social Work [serial online].
May 2012;27(2):142-152. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA.
Accessed February 28, 2015.

This journal article was written by authors, Maria Beatriz Alvarez the Director of Care
Coordination and Social Work at New York-Presbyterian Hospital and a graduate of

Silver School of Social Work at New York University as well as Edward J. Alessi an
assistant professor of Rutgers School of Social Work composed this article to shed some
light on the topic of human trafficking. Human trafficking is usually explained or focused
on women and children forced into sex slavery, however, the authors make it their goal to
explain that human trafficking goes far beyond children and women in sex slavery and
affects others as well. the authors provide the readers with this definition of human
trafficking to clarify what it is; Human trafficking encompasses the transportation and
subjugation of persons for financial gain. It is an extremely profitable enterprise, with
global earnings estimated at more than US$31 billion (Belser, 2005). The article also
explains the role social workers take in this particular discussion and ways in which they
get involved in prevention on the individual as well as political approach. The article
provides data that reports that most slaves today are trapped in other industries like
construction, manufacturing, mining, and food processing to name a few.
Combating Human Trafficking : Federal, State, And Local Perspectives : Hearing Before The
Committee On Homeland Security And Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One
Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, September 23, 2013 [e-book]. Washington :
U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014.; 2014. Available from: UCF Libraries Catalog,
Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 16, 2015.
In this academic journal created by the United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, provides a view on combating human
slavery from the perspective of the government. Two senators, Senator Heitkamp and
Senator Chiesa who are newly elected senators recommended a hearing for the topic of
human trafficking. This article also includes its own definition of human trafficking.

Human trafficking is listed as the second most imperative criminal industry making up to
thirty-two billion dollars in profits. The author makes sure to clear up any misconstrued
language about what human trafficking is. He makes sure to explain that although many
slaves are smuggled to another country to work as a slave, some are not smuggled. The
author provides proof of this statement by saying Just last year, in Wilmington,
Delaware, a man was found guilty of forcing a 15-year-old girl to work for him as a
prostitute. And just last month, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) conducted a 3day operation in 76 cities that led to the rescue of 105 children who had been trafficked
into the commercial sex trade. The remainder of the article seeks for ways in which to
prevent this act of injustice. Besides the TVPA, the senators also discuss The Blue
Campaign which was founded in 2010, which focuses on trainings so that the government
can detect human trafficking, as well as outreach so that they can prevent it from


ABOLITIONISM. University Of Pennsylvania Law Review [serial online]. May
2010;158(6):1729-1778. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA.
Accessed February 28, 2015.

In this scholarly academic journal created by author Michelle Madden Dempsey an Associate
Professor of Law, Villanova University School of Law takes the unique approach of
arguing about both those who seek to abolish sex trafficking as well as prostitution
compared to those who seek to only abolish sex trafficking. The author uses the Swedish

model. This definition is included in the article to explain what the model is used for,
This model includes social-welfare policies that assist people in exiting and avoiding
prostitution; public education campaigns to raise awareness of the harms experienced by
prostituted people and to change social norms that support sex trafficking and
prostitution; and criminal law reforms that penalize trafficking, pimping, and the
purchase of sex, while decriminalizing the sale of sex. This article is also from the point
of view of feminist-abolitionists which I find to be interesting because although they have
the same views as most about those who seek to prevent sex trafficking, however, many
seem to feel as though prostitution should be a legal activity.

Govindan P. Rethinking Emancipation. Interventions: The International Journal Of Postcolonial

Studies [serial online]. December 2013;15(4):511-529. Available from: Academic Search
Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 17, 2015.
In this article written by author Padma Govindan, a researcher of Gender and Sexuality, Feminist
Theory, Human Rights Law and a graduate student of UCLA, the author gives a
background of the what seems permanent trace of human trafficking that has been made
throughout the world from the beginning of time. The author gives two existent anecdotes
from people she interviewed working in the field of human trafficking in India. However,
the two stories contradict one another. One person interviewed a founder of a non-profit
company that works with women sex workers in Maharashtra and Karnataka, India,
and provides logistical support for a sex workers union, Vehsya AIDS Mukabala
Parishad (VAMP). Ms.Seshu explains that her organization was attacked by the IJM,
International Justice Mission that investigates trafficking in developing countries. She

explains that they tried raiding her offices and throwing the women that worked for the
organization in government homes. The other story told by an American intern working
for the IJM claims to have had a completely different experience with the company. She
said that We work to stop modern-day slavery. Factories, brick kilns, brothels that sort of
thing. We do all the legwork, and then we bring in the police to make arrests and help
rescue the victims. Its tough work because you really see the worst, the most horrible
kind of degradation. But its totally worth it. These anecdotes were cited by the author to
ultimately show the contradictory meanings of the human and of emancipation that
haunt the political rhetoric and actions of IJM in the Global South This issue is stressed
in this article as the underlying issue of why human trafficking still exists today.

Grubb D, Bennett K. The readiness of local law enforcement to engage in US anti-trafficking

efforts: an assessment of human trafficking training and awareness of local, county, and
state law enforcement agencies in the State of Georgia. Police Practice & Research [serial
online]. December 2012;13(6):487-500. Available from: Academic Search Premier,
Ipswich, MA. Accessed February 28, 2015.

In this research article, authors Deborah Grubb of the Department of Criminal Justice, Social &
Political Science and Katherine Bennett, from Armstrong Atlantic State University assess
the readiness of law enforcement to get involved in the prevention of Human trafficking
throughout the United States and, especially in Georgia. The article uses the Palermo

Protocol (Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Per- sons, 2000), and
by creating federal legislation known as the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000
[TVPA 2000]. The author also explains that individual states, including Georgia joined
the war in combating human trafficking in 2010 by signing the (Polaris Project, 2010),
which allows for prosecution at the state level by local, county, and state law enforcement
agencies. However, the author explains that although these laws are in place it doesnt
mean that the correct training and education of human trafficking standards have been
instilled. Georgia, along with several other states, are among the only states that have
made attempts beyond the Polaris Project and TVPA to ensure that this crime is reduced
by ensuring that law enforcers receive some sort of training on the issue. The author also
includes a survey that represented an effort to assess the levels of law enforcement
practitioners abilities within the State of Georgia to identify, investigate, and prosecute
human trafficking crimes when no mandatory training initiatives were yet in place. The
study was conducted online through the administration of a 13-question survey. The
purpose was to ascertain law enforcement perceptions of human trafficking issues,
opportunities, and resources for training, and the extent and range of investigative
incidents regarding these issues. Given that eighty-three percent of the agencies failed to
respond to the survey, the surveys results also showed how uninformed law enforcers are
about the topic. This article can be applied in the broader conversation of human
trafficking and prevention to understand that more education and training must be
enforced within governmental and non-governmental institutions.
Human Trafficking. [Electronic Resource] : Monitoring And Evaluation Of International
Projects Are Limited, But Experts Suggest Improvements : Report To Congressional

Requesters [e-book]. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Govt. Accountability Office, [2007].;

2007. Available from: UCF Libraries Catalog, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 16, 2015.

In this article, composed by the GAO also referred to as the United States. Government
Accountability Office, the current provisions set in place to reduce human slavery are
evaluated and supervised with suggestions of improvement given by experts. The article
provides an explanation for the study which is to find more effective strategies to combat
this war on modern day slavery. The article examines how governments and nongovernmental institutions have collaborated or worked independently to seek change in
this field of study. However, the GAO also reported that an underlying issue is the lack of
authority and capacity given to these organizations to effectively reduce human
trafficking. The article also discusses the lack of monitoring and key elements necessary
on ending the war on human slavery. The article provides an appendix that lists all the
main topics that are discussed within the article. This appendix includes Selected
International Organizations Involved in Combating Human Trafficking, Methods
Suggested by Expert Panel to Estimate the Number of Human Trafficking Victims and
Comments from the Department of State to name a few.

Kneebone S, Debeljak J. Transnational Crime And Human Rights. [Electronic Resource] :

Responses To Human Trafficking In The Greater Mekong Subregion [e-book]. London ;
New York : Routledge, 2012.; 2012. Available from: UCF Libraries Catalog, Ipswich,
MA. Accessed March 16, 2015.

In this book, written by authors Susan Kneebone is a professor at Monash University where she
teaches Forced Migration and Human Rights, analyzes national as well as international
policies held in place in terms of human trafficking. This research took place in the
Greater Mekong sub-region of Cambodia. This article analyzes the subject of human
trafficking based on sex trafficking, forced labor, as well as, various forms of trafficking
one being false adoptions. Although there have been many attempts at decreasing the
amount of slaves in human trafficking today, there has been an increase in human
trafficking not only on a national scale but on a global one in which its become a
growing industry in our economy. The article includes sixty interviews all from credible
organizations and agencies seeking to prevent human trafficking within this particular
sub-region. The policies, legal framework, and roles of governments and other
institutions who seek to end human trafficking are examined throughout this book.
Although this book is relevant to my conversation of preventing and reducing human
trafficking, this books main purpose is to serve in analyzing one particular region where
human trafficking is taking place, where as the topic Im researching, is a broader
conversation than this.
COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION. Regent University Law Review [serial
online]. July 2011;23(2):297. Available from: Publisher Provided Full Text Searching
File, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 16, 2015.

In this academic journal produced by author Laura Lederer, Founder and CEO of Global
Centurion, Former Senior Advisor on Trafficking in Persons with the U.S. State
Department discusses the recurring Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 20002 in the
United States as well as the U.N. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
Persons analyzes the attempts made to prevent human trafficking. Lederer provides the
reader with a model of the sex trafficking market today. The triangle is provided to see
the place in which the TVPA lacks the proper involvement needed to reduce this issue.
The act only focuses on one side of the triangle which is the supply side which are the
women, men, and children who are trapped in slavery today. However, the TVPA fails to
address the root of the issue which is the distribution end of the triangle, the traffickers.
The author provides us with her own set of provisions against the demand side of the
triangle. These strategies include (1) drafting laws that penalize patronizing and target
customers and consumers of commercial sex; (2) creating first-offender programs,
colloquially known as "John's Schools," to educate first offenders about the deleterious
effects of commercial sexual exploitation; (3) creating sting and reverse-sting operations
to assist law enforcement in identifying, arresting, and prosecuting buyers; and (4)
developing social marketing campaigns that not only target exploiters, but also impress
upon the general public the message of "no tolerance" for their actions. The author then
goes into details on each of the four strategies for addressing demand reduction.
Mulvihill N. Human trafficking: look around--it's in our own backyard. Health Progress [serial
online]. March 2014;95(2):66-68. Available from: CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Ipswich,
MA. Accessed March 16, 2015.

In this scholarly journal article, author Nancy Mulvihill an associate professor at South Suburban
College, introduces her article with a definition on human trafficking. Mulvihill uses the
CHA, Catholic Health Association who seeks to raise awareness to its members to what
extent human trafficking is taking place and how much of a serious matter it truly is. The
Catholic Health Association wants to pay Particular attention will be given to educating
clinicians in primary and emergency care. We will also help our members share best
practices on contracting, investing and other policies and practices that can reduce human
trafficking. The short yet informative article includes ways in which to assess whether or
not someone is a victim of human trafficking. Some of the clear signs to be aware of are
Seem anxious, fearful or paranoid, Avoids eye contact, Tearfulness or signs of
depression, Unexplained bruises or cuts or other signs of physical abuse, Appears to be in
a relationship with someone who is dominating, and Never alone, or always have
someone translating or answering questions on their behalf. The article also includes
some of the health risks and physical signs of human trafficking. The author is sure to
explain and make it clear that human trafficking victims need a stable environment to
recover in, in order for them to lead somewhat normal lives after the trauma they
experienced. This is a short yet helpful article and great introduction as to what human
trafficking is and ways in which to find out if people are victims of this horrendous

Nieuwenhuys C, Pecoud A. Human trafficking, information campaigns, and strategies of

migration control. American Behavioral Scientist [serial online]. 2007;(12):1674.
Available from: Academic OneFile, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 17, 2015.

In this academic journal, authors Cline Nieuwenhuys who is the General Secretary of the
Federation of Social Services and Antoine Pecoud, a professor of Sociology at the University of
Paris collaborated on this article to look at the ways in which European countries deal
with migration and emigration, an issue they have faced for hundreds of years now. This
migration issue In Europe, since the end of the cold war, issues such as the asylum
crisis, irregular migration, trafficking, human smuggling, and terrorism have put
migration at the heart of political debates. The authors speak about how western
countries like the U.S. have sought to gain more control of migration issues by tightening
their surveillance. However, migration still seems to persist despite these efforts. They
also explain that although certain sanctions may be put in place, these rules may differ
from their genuine intentions. The article then goes into information campaigns that are
intended to inform migrants about issues surrounding their potential new homes. It allows
the migrants to make more rational choices when considering moving to a different
country. These campaigns also work to reduce human trafficking. For example, In
central and eastern Europe, the majority of information campaigns target young women
and stress the risk of getting lured into job offers abroad that eventually lead to forced
sexual exploitation. Slogans are strong and unambiguous: You are not for sale!
Human beings are priceless. Although information campaigns focus heavily on raising
awareness to women about human trafficking, they also help countries when dealing with
irregular migration. This article would serve me in my research but not as well as some of
the articles mentioned previously.

Okech D, Morreau W, Benson K. Human trafficking: Improving victim identification and service
provision. International Social Work [serial online]. July 2012;55(4):488-503. Available
from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed February 28, 2015.
In this scholarly article written by David Okech, Whitney Morreau, and Kathleen Benson,
researchers of social welfare at the University of Georgia, evaluate the ways in which
human trafficking can be prevented and reduced. The authors use the US Trafficking
Victims Protection Act (TVPA) to analyze and discuss ways in which human trafficking
can be prevented. In this article, the authors explain what human trafficking is, how many
people are entrapped in slavery, as well as how many countries are involved in it. The
authors provide credible resources and information on countries and what they are doing
to minimize this issue. The authors explain the issue of human trafficking not being
looked at as an infringement on ones basic human rights by governments throughout the
world to further analyze why human trafficking is still so prominent within the world
today. Okech, Morreau, and Benson use the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA)
throughout the article to thouroughly break down the system of human trafficking today.T
he article was very helpful and resourceful, however, I feel as though there should have
been more talk about prevention.


53, 1, 28-35, Jan. 2013. ISSN: 01903063.

In this periodical, authors Mikhail Reider-Gordon and Markus T. Funk discuss what human
trafficking is and the ways in which to prevent it. The authors approach this issue by
using the executive order that was composed in September of 2012. This order was set in
place to Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts.
This amends the act previously mentioned in the other articles, the Trafficking Victims
Protection Act of 2000. The article explains the restrictions and limitations pertaining to
the act. This article is similar in content to the other articles however its an article
composed of; laws, regulations, trade policies, and market trend. This article was
published by the National Contract Management Association and gives a new perspective
to the topic. The authors include the terms subcontractors and contractors, which involve
government laws, regulations, rules, and recruiting. This article includes consequences
for contractors Failure to comply with the existing FAR regulations for defense
contractors includes significant penalties, ranging from administrative actions resulting in
the termination of contracts to more severe actions such as suspension or debarment.
What is likely of even greater concern to those providing goods and services to the U.S.
government, however, are the easily-overlooked, looming criminal penalties. The
authors discuss ways in which the government contractors must prevent a trafficking-free
environment, as in companies need to ensure supply chain security as well as more
enforcement and regulations including internal audits, investigations as needed, and

Samarasinghe V, Burton B. Strategising prevention: a critical review of local initiatives to

prevent female sex trafficking. Development In Practice [serial online]. February

2007;17(1):51-64. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed

March 17, 2015.
In this article, Vidyamali Samarasinghe who is a Professor in the International Development
Program of the School of International Service, American University and Barbara K
Burton, MD, who is a Professor of Pediatrics at the Northwestern University Feinberg
School of Medicine recognize some of the gaps and flaws in laws implemented today to
combat the war on sex trafficking. The article starts with an abstract and introduction as
to what female sex trafficking is. Efforts began in the late 1940s to fight against sexual
exploitation and trafficking although the industry has since then been on the rise. This
article has the recurring theme noted in most of the other articles annotated that the issue
today with efforts made towards ending or reducing any form of human trafficking is the
governments lack of prevention laws and mandates. The government is more concerned
with penalizing offenders of this crime, however, they do little to keep in place a system
of prevention and rehabilitation to victims of this inhumane act. The authors raise three
main points that have to deal with combating sex trafficking. One is raising awareness
which starts with educating and informing others about the topic of sex trafficking.
Number two is Community networking, capacity building, and training. Addressed at
communities of at-risk or vulnerable women and children, professional and advocacy
communities, bureaucrats, and community leaders. The target populations for training are
mostly bureaucrats, law-enforcement groups, legal professionals, and community
leaders. And three is the empowerment of women through job training, revenue
generation, and casual and formal teaching.


Review[serial online]. October 2011;80(1):403. Available from: Supplemental Index,
Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 16, 2015.

In this academic journal the author, Theodore Sangalis, an associate at Morgan Stanley first starts
off with an introduction as to what sex trafficking is. This article also includes the well
known act of 2000 passed by congress, the Trafficking Victims Protection act (TVPA) to
help to aid the author in drawing an analysis on the lack of the government to fully
accommodate the needs of previous women involved in the sex slave industry. This
article includes ways in which the Act can be revised to acclimate the needs of former
slaves. A table of contents is provided which allows for easy maneuvering throughout the
article. The article also provides facts and definitions of specific words used within the
community to include those new or who arent apart of the community to easily
understand the information being given. The author focuses on finding ways in which to
change the way victims are dealt with after leaving the industry of sex slavery. They are
left with emotional and sometimes physical trauma that has to be treated in order for
them to regain the normality of their lives before being enslaved. The act passed by the
government does little to treat this massive issue. Sangalis also provides two cases in
which the final result of the cases were influenced by the TVPA to give a clearer
understanding of the Act and the issues it has in terms of only providing restitution and
short sentences to a severe crime.

Shamir H. A Labor Paradigm for Human Trafficking. UCLA Law Review [serial online]. October
2012;60(1):76-136. Available from: Index to Legal Periodicals & Books Full Text (H.W.
Wilson), Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 17, 2015.
In this scholarly academic journal article, author Hila Shamir, is an assistant Professor at TelAviv University Faculty of Law, evaluates the legal procedures put in place throughout
the world to combat human trafficking. This article also includes the TVPA as a way to
assess the steps being taken by the government. The TVPA is used as a model worldwide
for other governments and countries to use to combat this seamlessly growing industry.
125 countries had enacted specific anti-trafficking legislation. The emerging
framework, which incorporates elements of the Trafficking Protocol and the TVPA into
national anti-trafficking laws, consists of laws that adopt what has become known as the
"3 Ps" paradigm - prevention, prosecution, and protection - with anti-trafficking efforts,
concentrating mostly on the criminalization of trafficking, but also on creating programs
to assist, rehabilitate, and eventually repatriate trafficked persons. Although these laws
have been set in place, little improvement has been made. Shamir goes into further
analysis of why there is little change within this industry. A main problem seems to be the
way in which the TVPA looks at human trafficking as labor abuse instead of what it
actually is, which is a violation of ones basic human rights. The author then speaks about
ways in which to improve these laws so that they do what theyre intended to do.


TRAFFICKING. Gender, Technology & Development [serial online]. January
2008;12(1):147. Available from: Supplemental Index, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 16,
In this scholarly article, there is no author provided because the article itself serves as a reference
for those interested in the topic of human trafficking to use credible sources to find
information about the specific conversation. The article includes the Asia Regional
Cooperation to Prevent People Trafficking (ARCPPT) which is an ongoing three year
program which serves to reduce the number of slaves in South East Asia and is funded by
the Australian government. The project is located in four countries currently and seeks
prevention through the process of law to properly deal with the crime of human
trafficking. The article also provides several resources that are credible to use for those
interested in finding more information about human trafficking and prevention. Each
source includes the site at which you can find the information as well as a brief summary
on what the website or organization does to prevent human trafficking. This is a helpful
site to use when writing these annotations as well as a great reference for outside
resources that are not found within the UCF library database.


Women's Rights Law Reporter [serial online]. Summer2011 2011;32(4):324. Available
from: Supplemental Index, Ipswich, MA. Accessed February 28, 2015.

In this academic journal, the author Maria Tavano who received her J.D. from Rutgers School of
Law and is a court-certified mediator and attorney for the U.S. District Court of New
Jersey and the U.S. District Courts for the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York,
discusses the ways in which the U.S. government is working on ways to prevent human
trafficking. Tavano uses the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) to show ways
in which progress is being made as well as where the government has lacked in making
progress. The author explains what human trafficking is, how human traffickers work,
how victims are transported and how human traffickers maintain control. Tavano
thouroughly breaks down the Trafficking Victims Protection Act by explaining all of its
revisions since it was first instilled in 2000. She also applies the US Trafficking Victims
Protection Act (TVPA) in comparison to international standards. The author then provides
the reader with ways in which to prevent human trafficking such as; Combat Root Causes
of Trafficking Through Microcredit Lending, Raise Public Awareness, Conduct Better
Investigations, Increase Criminal Convictions, and Implement Tactics to Combat
Government Complicity and Corruption. This article was definitely useful to me and it
was structured in a way in which anyone can understand and analyze the issue being
discussed, even those unfamiliar with the topic.

Todres J. Taking Prevention Seriously: Developing a Comprehensive Response to Child

Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation. Vanderbilt Journal Of Transnational Law [serial

online]. January 2010;43(1):1-56. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich,

MA. Accessed March 17, 2015.
The article written by Jonathan Todres, a Professor of Law at Georgia State University College
of Law and researcher on child trafficking and forms of exploitation related to that topic,
addresses the underlying issues that has been overlooked time and time again. This article
speaks about how most governments seek recovery for children who endured human
slavery, whereas, there should be more done to prevent child trafficking from occurring in
the first place. The author explains that the problem remains that efforts are not focused
at prevention of child trafficking and sexual exploitation such as developing reliable
research before enacting legislation or involving all stakeholders in the legislative
planning and drafting process, and thus children around the globe remain at risk. The
author explains that although laws have been set in place to deal with the criminal aspect
of this violation, it fails to assist victims which leaves them vulnerable and susceptible to
being a victim of human trafficking again. He explains that most regulations come
without mandates which leaves room for an unorganized and ultimately flawed system in
which underage girls and children in general can be exploited. The article seeks an
approach that will ultimately to build a comprehensive prevention-oriented approach to
child trafficking and sexual exploitation.