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Formulaire de trigonomtrie circulaire

Kb

cotan(x)

bH
M
b

sin(x)
b

cos(x) = abscisse de M

tan(x)

sin(x) = ordonne de M

b b1
cos(x) A

tan(x) = AH
cotan(x) = BK
eix = zM

sin(x)
cos(x)

+ Z, tan(x) =
et pour x
/ Z, cotan(x) =
. Enfin pour x
/ Z, cotan(x) =
.
2
cos(x)
sin(x)
2
tan(x)
Valeurs usuelles.
Pour x
/

x en

x en rd

30

45

60

90

3
2

sin(x)

cos(x)

tan(x)

cotan(x)

1
2
=
2
2

1
2
=
2
2

1
2

3
2
1

1
1

1
2

3
1

1
0

x R, cos2 x + sin2 x = 1
1

.
x
/ + Z, 1 + tan2 x =
2
cos2 x
1
.
x
/ Z, 1 + cotan2 x =
sin2 x
addition dun tour

addition dun demi-tour

angle oppos

angle supplmentaire

cos(x + 2) = cos x
sin(x + 2) = sin x
tan(x + 2) = tan x
cotan(x + 2) = cotan x

cos(x + ) = cos x
sin(x + ) = sin x
tan(x + ) = tan x
cotan(x + ) = cotan x

cos(x) = cos x
sin(x) = sin x
tan(x) = tan x
cotan(x) = cotan x

cos( x) = cos x
sin( x) = sin x
tan( x) = tan x
cotan( x) = cotan x

angle complmentaire

cos( x) = sin x
2

sin( x) = cos x
2

tan( x) = cotan x
2

cotan( x) = tan x
2

quart de tour direct

cos(x + ) = sin x
2

sin(x + ) = cos x
2

tan(x + ) = cotan x
2

cotan(x + ) = tan x
2

quart de tour indirect

cos(x ) = sin x
2

sin(x ) = cos x
2

tan(x ) = cotan x
2

cotan(x ) = tan x
2

c Jean-Louis Rouget, 2008. Tous droits rservs.


http ://www.maths-france.fr

Formules daddition

Formules de duplication

cos(a + b) = cos a cos b sin a sin b


cos(a b) = cos a cos b + sin a sin b
sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + sin b cos a
sin(a b) = sin a cos b sin b cos a

cos(2a) = cos2 a sin2 a


= 2 cos2 a 1
= 1 2 sin2 a
sin(2a) = 2 sin a cos a

tan a + tan b
1 tan a tan b
tan a tan b
tan(a b) =
1 + tan a tan b

tan(2a) =

tan(a + b) =

2 tan a
1 tan2 a

Formules de linarisation
1 + cos(2a)
2
1

cos(2a)
sin2 a =
2

1
(cos(a b) + cos(a + b))
2
1
sin a sin b = (cos(a b) cos(a + b))
2
1
sin a cos b = (sin(a + b) + sin(a b))
2

cos a cos b =

cos2 a =

Formules de factorisation

cos x, sin x et tan x


en fonction de t=tan(x/2)
1 t2
1 + t2
2t
sin x =
1 + t2
2t
tan x =
1 t2

pq
p+q
cos
2
2
pq
p+q
sin
cos p cos q = 2 sin
2
2
pq
p+q
cos
sin p + sin q = 2 sin
2
2
pq
p+q
sin p sin q = 2 sin
cos
2
2

x
2
x
1 cos x = 2 sin2
2

1 + cos x = 2 cos2

cos x =

cos p + cos q = 2 cos

Divers

cos(3x) = 4 cos3 x 3 cos x


sin(3x) = 3 sin x 4 sin3 x

Rsolution dquations
cos x = cos a
k Z/ x = a + 2k
ou
k Z/ x = a + 2k

sin x = sin a
k Z/ x = a + 2k
ou
k Z/ x = a + 2k

tan x = tan a
k Z/ x = a + k

Exponentielle complexe
ix

x R, e

= cos x + i sin x.
Valeurs usuelles

1
3 i/4
, 2e
e0 = 1, ei/2 = i, ei = 1, ei/2 = i, e2i/3 = j = + i
= 1 + i.
2
2
Proprits algbriques
x R, |eix | = 1.

1
eix
= ei(xy) ,
= eix = eix
iy
e
eix
Formules dEuler

(x, y) R2 , eix eiy = ei(x+y) ,

eix + eix
et eix + eix = 2 cos x.
2
eix eix
x R, sin x =
et eix eix = 2i sin x.
2i
x R, cos x =

Formule de Moivre
x R, n Z, (eix )n = einx .

c Jean-Louis Rouget, 2008. Tous droits rservs.


http ://www.maths-france.fr