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PRE-TEST Practice

NAME: ______________________________ Period: ____

Persuasive Devices/Techniques (by category)


A) persuasion
B) logical appeal / reasoning (vs.)
C) emotional appeal
D) propaganda
E) subliminal
F) card-stacking
G) stereotype
H) loaded words
I) name calling
J) transfer technique
K)
glittering generality

R) allusion
S) analogy
T) anecdote

L) testimonial

Y) parallelism
Z) repetition

M)
expert opinion
N)
celebrity endorsement
O) snob appeal
P) plain folks appeal
Q) bandwagon appeal

U) aphorism
V) slogan
W) rhetorical
X) shocking statistic

DIRECTIONS: As a pre-test, do your best to fill in the blank with the letter for the
CORRECT / MOST SPECIFIC term for the definition and example provided. Use each one
only once. (NOTE: After we go over the correct answers, write the correct term -- not
just letter -- in the blank for better studying.)
1) ____persuasion______ - the attempt to convince others to do something or to
change a belief of their own free will
2)

___testimonial___________ - personal statement attesting to the worth of something

3) ___aphorism_________________________ - a short statement or a saying that makes some wise or


clever observation about life; it is used to make a point.
(EXAMPLE: Teens who are debating about whether or not to have sex should follow the
good advice of an old saying: When in doubt, dont.)
4)

__analogy_______________________ - a comparison made between two


concepts or situations (that are mostly not alike), emphasizing a similarity between
the two in order to make a special point about one of them.
NOTE: This kind of comparison is different from a simile or metaphor in the way it may be
longer and more in-depth -- and usually compares situations or concepts, not objects.

(EXAMPLE: When teens get heated up, they should remember that having sex truly is like playing with fire. It
can hurt, it can burn, and it can leave scars on their lives that last forever.
5) ___card-stacking________________________ - based on a half-truth, or not telling the whole truth; A
form of manipulation that presents only partial information in order to leave an inaccurate impression;
Emphasizes only a part of the information that supports a particular viewpoint.
(EXAMPLE: An AT&T commercial says their network has the fewest dropped calls, but doesnt explain that its
only because they also have the fewest calls that are actually connected. Calls cant be dropped if they arent
connected to begin with.)
(CONTINUED)
6)
_____repetition________________________ - a persuasive technique in which a word, phrase,
sentence, slogan, idea, etc., is used multiple times for emphasis
(EXAMPLE: Today is the day to make a change! Today is the day to make a difference!)
7) ______parallelism______________________ - use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar in
grammatical structure and/or meaning; they come side-by-side or close together and are used for
special emphasis (EXAMPLE: When sex is over, teens are left to face the possibility of pregnancy. She
waits. He wonders. They worry.)
8) _______slogan______________________- a catchy phrase used in ads, campaigns, etc.
9) _________anecdote_________________- short, interesting story told to make a point
(EXAMPLE: Karen was 15 years old when she met Dan. She had never had a real boyfriend before, and she
thought he was the cutest guy in the whole school! She knew she was in love and thought he was, too. Now Dan
is nowhere to be found. But Karen is reminded of him every time she looks into her little babys eyes.)
10) ____allusion___________________________ - a reference to a person, place, event, or a another
literary work that is mentioned with the belief that the reader/audience will understand what is being
talked about and where the reference comes from.
(EXAMPLE: Many teen-agers are tempted by their partners to have sex, even when they believe its the wrong
thing to do. When this happens, they should realize the partners pleading is just like the song of the siren that
Odysseus faced; it sounds enticing but will bring nothing but harm in the long run.)
11) _____stereotype__________________ - a biased belief about a whole group of people based on
insufficient (not enough) evidence or irrelevant (unrelated) evidence (
EXAMPLES: all blondes are dumb ... OR ... that all company presidents are more concerned about profit and
personal gain than about their employees)
12) __logical appeal / reasoning______________ - based on reasons supported by evidence; attempts to
convince the audience using rational argument based on thought, not emotion
__loaded words___________________________ - Based on the strong positive or negative
connotations or feelings associated with words; Used to create very strong positive or negative
attitudes toward a person, group, or idea.
(EXAMPLE: A person who is assertive and out-spoken may be described as confident to promote a positive
attitude toward that person OR as pushy to promote a negative attitude about that same characteristic in a
person.
13)

14)

____bandwagon_________________________________ - a technique that urges you to do or


believe something because everybody else does, or to join everyone else

(EXAMPLE: Be where the action is! Shop at Governors Square Mall.)


15)

16)

___celebrity endorsement____________________ - a type of testimonial using famous people to


promote a product or idea
(EXAMPLE: Im professional football player Marcus Browning, and I use X-brand deodorant.)
___name calling_________________________________ - type of labeling intended to arouse
powerful negative feelings. Its purpose is to represent a particular person, group,
product, or idea as inferior or bad without providing evidence to support the claim.
(EXAMPLE: referring to a candidate as a warmonger, tree hugger, egghead, etc.

17) ___snob appeal______________________________ - This technique suggests that you can


be like the expensively-dressed, perfectly-shaped people who use this product.
(EXAMPLE: I accept only the best, and that's why I buy Aloft perfume.)

(CONTINUED)
18)

____propaganda__________________________________ - A term that broadly covers unfair


techniques to convince others in ways NOT based firmly on critical thinking;
These types of techniques deliberately discourage people from thinking for
themselves and often rely on one-sided or distorted arguments.
(NOTE: You need to be able to spot these types of techniques being used and be able to
judge their trustworthiness.)

19) _____expert opinion_____________________ - a persuasive technique (type of testimonial) using a


knowledgeable person recognized as an authority on the subject to make a statement of belief
about it.
20)

_____transfer technique_______________________ - a method that builds or creates a connection


between things that are not logically connected
(EXAMPLE: An advertisement might show a prosperous, happy, loving family drinking a
certain brand of milk. The goal is to get the viewer to associate the brand of milk with
happiness, love, etc.)

21) _______glittering generality_______________ - a certain type of transfer technique that associates


virtue words or virtue images (of great value) with the product, even though there really is no
direct connection between the product and virtue.
(EXAMPLE: Easy, breezy, Covergirl
____plain folks appeal______________________ - Ordinary people sell the product or
message. You are expected to believe they can be trusted because they are like you.
Or, in the case of persuasive advertising, the ordinary person is somehow
made more special because of the use of the product.
EXAMPLES: As a construction worker, I often get pains and headaches. That's why
I use PainAway Aspirin.
...Or... You can lose weight and look great, too, if you use this exercise machine!

22)

23) __emotional appeal ___________________________ - An attempt to affect how people in the audience
feel so they will agree with you. It is a statement that arouses strong feelings (positive or negative) such
as pleasure or anger, joy or sadness, pride or shame; desire for success, fear, etc.; (Sometimes called
heartstrings appeal.)
(EXAMPLE: A coffee ad shows an older brother coming home from the military overseas
and surprising his younger sister, while they enjoy a cup of coffee).
24) __rhetorical__________________-question asked for effect, not expecting or requiring answer.
(EXAMPLE: Shouldnt we be more concerned about our grandchildrens future?)
25) __shocking statistic____________________- a surprising and/or disturbing percentage used for effect
26) __subliminal____________________ - Hidden messages perceived by or affecting someone
subconsciously, without the person being aware of it.