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ColdformedSteelDesign

EUROCODE3:DesignofSteelStructures
PART13 DesignofColdformedSteelStructures

ProfessorD.eng. DanDUBINA
Politehnica UniversityTimisoara
Romania

ColdformedSteelDesign

ColdformedSteelDesign
Eurocode 3:DesignofSteelStructures
Part13 DesignofColdformedSteelStructures

ProfessorDanDubina

ColdformedSteelDesign
Introduction
Typesofcoldformedsteelsections
Peculiarcharacteristicsofcoldformedsteelsections
Peculiarproblemsofcoldformedsteeldesign
Basisofdesign
MainApplicationsofColdFormedSteelSections

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
General

Collectionofdifferentcoldformedsteel Collectionofdifferentcoldformed
sectionsshapes(Trebilcock,1994)
steelsectionsshapes

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Typesofcoldformedsteelsections
Typicalformsofsectionsforcoldformedstructuralmembers

Openbuiltupsections

Closedbuiltupsections
Singleopensections

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Typesofcoldformedsteelsections
Profiledsheetsandlineartrayssections

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Typesofcoldformedsteelsections

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Advantages
AdvantagesInBuildingConstructions(WeiWenYu,2000)

Ascomparedwiththickerhotrolledshapes,coldformedlightmemberscan
bemanufacturedforrelativelylightloadsand/orshortspans;
Unusualsectionalconfigurationscanbeproducedeconomicallybycold
formingoperations,andconsequentlyfavourable strengthtoweightratios
canbeobtained;
Nestable sectionscanbeproduced,allowingforcompactpackagingand
shipping;
Loadcarryingpanelanddeckscanprovideusefulsurfaceforfloor,roof,and
wallconstruction,andinothercasestheycanalsoprovideenclosedcellsfor
electricalandotherconduits;
Loadcarryingpanelsanddecksnotonlywithstandloadsnormaltotheir
surfaces,buttheycanalsoactassheardiaphragmstoresistforceintheir
ownpanelsiftheyareadequatelyinterconnectedtoeachotherandto
supportingmembers.

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Advantages
AdvantagesofUsingColdFormedSteelSections

Lightness;
Highstrengthandstiffness;
Abilitytoprovidelongspans;
Easyprefabricationandmassproduction;
Fastandeasyerectionandinstallation;
Substantialeliminationofdelayduetotheweather;
Moreaccuratedetailing;
Nonshrinkingandnoncreepingatambienttemperatures;
Formworkunneeded;
Termiteproofandratproof;
Uniformquality;
Economyintransportationandhandling;
Noncombustibility;
Recyclablematerial.

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Manufacturingtechnologies

START

Rollforming;
Folding;
Pressbraking
1

Flat sheet

Finished
section

6
5
4
3
2
1

6
5
4
3
2
1

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Manufacturingtechnologies

Rollforming;
Folding;
Pressbraking

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
Manufacturingtechnologies

Rollforming;
Folding;
Pressbraking

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarCharacteristicsofColdFormedSteelSections

Themostimportantpropertiesofsteel:

Yieldpointandyieldstrength
Tensilestrength
Stressstraincharacteristics
Modulusofelasticity,
tangentmodulusand
shearmodulus
Ductility
Weldability
Fatigueresistance
Toughness

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarCharacteristicsofColdFormedSteelSections

ImperfectionsinThinWalledColdFormedSteelMembers

mecanical

Loadingeccentricities
Supporteccentricities

IMPERFECTIONS

material

Formingprocess
Yieldingstrength
Residualstresses
Local (sectional)

geometric
Global (member)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarCharacteristicsofColdFormedSteelSections

EffectofStrainHardeningandStrainAgingonStressStrain Characteristics
Increase in F y

Increase in F u

Strain aging

D
A

Strain aging

C
A
Strain
hardening
Ductility after
strain aging
B
C

Ductility after
strain hardening
Virgin ductility

Strain

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarCharacteristicsofColdFormedSteelSections

IncreaseoftheYieldStrengthandUltimateStrengthDuetoColdForming

Forming method

Cold rolling
Corner
Flange

Yield strength
fy

Ultimate strength
fu

Forming method

Press bracking
Corner
Flange

Yield strength
fy

Ultimate strength
fu

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarCharacteristicsofColdFormedSteelSections

MeasuredResidualStressesforColdFormed SteelSections
(Rondal etal.,1994)
Membraneresidualstresses(rm)
Flexuralresidualstresses(rf)

thickness

+
+

bending/flexural

=
+

membraneout

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarCharacteristicsofColdFormedSteelSections

FlexuralResidualStressesObtainedatthePOLITEHNICAUniversityof
Timisoara
Schafer and Pekoz

27%

23%

39%

27%

23%

25%

14%

12%

33%

8%

(a) Roll-Formed

24%
39%

17%

17%
15%
24%

26%

12%
(b) Press-Braked

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarCharacteristicsofColdFormedSteelSections

TypeandMagnitudeofResidualStressInSteelSections
Formingmethod
Membrane
residualstresses(srm)
Flexuralresidual
stresses(srf)

Hotrolling

Coldforming
Coldrolling Pressbraking

high

low

low

low

high

low

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Bucklingstrengthwithrespectto:

Localbuckling
Distortionalbuckling

Globalbuckling

Shearbuckling

local

distortional

Sectionalbuckling

flexural

torsional flexuraltorsional

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Bucklingmodesforalippedchannelincompression
Singlemodes:
(a) local(L);
(b) distortional(D);
(c) flexural(F);
(d) torsional(T);
(e) flexuraltorsional(FT).

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Coupled(interactive)modes:
(f)L+D;
(g)F+L;
(h)F+D;
(i)FT+L;
(j)FT+D;
(k)F+FT

f)g)h)i)j)k)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign
Bucklingstrengthversushalfwavelengthforalippedchannelin
compression(Hancock,2001)

800

Local mode

Distorsional mode

Buckling Strength (Mpa)

700
600
Timoshenko FlexuralTorsional Buckling

500
400
A
B

300
All modes (coupled) buckling curve

200

65mm

100

C
Flexural-Torsional
mode

280mm

0
10

100

1000

10000

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Behaviour ofcompressionbar
(a)slendertickwalled(hotrolledsection)
(b)thinwalled(coldformedsection)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

FailureModeofaLippedChannelInCompression
(Ungureanu&Dubina,2004)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Effectoflocalbucklingonthemembercapacity
N=N/Npl
(Npl=Afy)

NE (Euler)

Erosion due to
imperfections
+
local buckling effect

Erosion due to
imperfections

1.0
N=Aeff/A<1

Full section (A)

Reduced section (Aeff)

0.2

1.0

2.0
Bar slenderness ( )

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

ErosionConcept Erosionlevels
Load
Ncr

mode 1

mode 2
Eroziune
maxim,

Nu

Coupling point

Nu=Ncr

mod real

I: Weak interaction (WI), 0.1


II: Moderate interaction (MI), 0.1 0.3
III: Strong interaction (SI), 0.3 0.5
IV: Very Strong interaction (VSI), >0.5

Thin walled
members

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

ErosionConcept Erosionlevels
Nu
N cr

ideal

actual
weakerosion

1.00
0.75

moderateerosion

0.50

importanterosion

veryimportant
erosion

Nu=Ncr
I: Weak interaction (WI), 0.1
II: Moderate interaction (MI), 0.1 0.3
III: Strong interaction (SI), 0.3 0.5
IV: Very Strong interaction (VSI), >0.5

Thin walled
members

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Torsionalrigidity

e
ncrcare
(P)

Centru
tiere

Centru
greutate

Reducedtorsionalstiffeness
Deplasarea centrului
de tiere din
ncovoiere

Rsucire

ncrcare axial
n centrul de
greutate

Flambaj prin
ncovoiere

Flambaj prin
ncovoiere-rsucire

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

WebCrippling(CriticalProblems)

Incoldformedsteeldesign,itisoftennotpracticaltoprovideloadbearing
andendbearingstiffeners.Thisisalwaysthecaseincontinuoussheetingand
deckingspanningseveralsupportpoints.
Thedepthtothicknessratiosofthewebsofcoldformedmembersare
usuallylargerthanhotrolledstructuralmembers.
Inmanycases,thewebsareinclinedratherthanvertical.
Theintermediateelementbetweentheflange,onwhichtheloadisapplied,
andthewebofacoldformedmemberusuallyconsistsofabendoffinite
radius.Hencetheloadisappliedeccentricallyfromtheweb.

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

WebCrippling(CriticalProblems)

Incoldformedsteeldesign,itisoftennotpracticaltoprovideloadbearing
andendbearingstiffeners.Thisisalwaysthecaseincontinuoussheetingand
deckingspanningseveralsupportpoints.
Thedepthtothicknessratiosofthewebsofcoldformedmembersare
usuallylargerthanhotrolledstructuralmembers.
Inmanycases,thewebsareinclinedratherthanvertical.
Theintermediateelementbetweentheflange,onwhichtheloadisapplied,
andthewebofacoldformedmemberusuallyconsistsofabendoffinite
radius.Hencetheloadisappliedeccentricallyfromtheweb.

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

WebCrippling(CriticalProblems)

Incoldformedsteeldesign,itisoftennotpracticaltoprovideloadbearing
andendbearingstiffeners.Thisisalwaysthecaseincontinuoussheetingand
deckingspanningseveralsupportpoints.
Thedepthtothicknessratiosofthewebsofcoldformedmembersare
usuallylargerthanhotrolledstructuralmembers.
Inmanycases,thewebsareinclinedratherthanvertical.
Theintermediateelementbetweentheflange,onwhichtheloadisapplied,
andthewebofacoldformedmemberusuallyconsistsofabendoffinite
radius.Hencetheloadisappliedeccentricallyfromtheweb.

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Connections(UsualTypes)

bolting
blindrivets
selfdrillingscrews
selftappingscrews
firedpins
arcwelding

ConnectionsTypology(basedonthematerial)

metaltometalconnections
metaltosheathing(woodbasedandgypsumbasedsheathings)connections
metaltoconcreteconnections.

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

ConnectionsTypology(clasification basedonthetypology)
screws

pins

nails

bolts

welding
blindrivets

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Connections SpecialTypesofConnections

(Rosettesystem)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

DuctilityandPlasticDesign
Moment

Mpl
Mel

2
3
4

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Corrosion
Mainfactorsgoverningthecorrosionresistance:

corrosionmediumrisk;
typeandthicknessofprotectivetreatment.

Cold-formed steel has the advantage that the protective coatings can be
applied to the strip during manufacture and before roll forming.

MainTypes ofProtections:

Metalcoating;
Paintcoating

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Corrosion maintypesofprotections:

MetalCoating
Usually,steelprofilesarehotdipgalvanizedwith275gramofzincper
squaremeter(Zn275),correspondingtoazincthicknessof20 mon
eachside.
Estimateddurabilityisaround100years.

Hotdipgalvanized
Aluminiumzinc

100%zinc
55%aluminium
43,4%zinc
1,6%silicon

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Corrosion maintypesofprotections:

MetalCoating
Aluzink threemetals onematerial!

Aluminiums excellent corrosion properties


against general corrosion
Zincs ability of self healing
Zincs resistance against pitting corrosion
Strength of steel

Protective
very thin not
visual
aluminium
oxide/ zinc
carbonate layer
(a number of
molecule layers
thickness)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Corrosion maintypesofprotections:

MetalCoating
Aluzink threemetals onematerial!

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Corrosion maintypesofprotections:

PaintCoating

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
PeculiarProblemsofColdFormedSteelDesign

Corrosion maintypesofprotections:

PaintCoating Prelaq PaintedSheet


Opt.protectivefilm
Topcoat
Primer
Passivationlayer
Metalcoating
Steel
Metalcoating
Passivationlayer
Reversesidecoating

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

Generalities

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

LimitStateDesign>EN1990(CEN,2002a)

Alltheseparateconditionsthatmakeastructureunfitforusearetakeninto
account.Thesearetheseparatelimitstates;
Thedesignisbasedontheactualbehaviour ofmaterialsandperformanceof
structuresandmembersinservice;
Ideally,designshouldbebasedonstatisticalmethodswithasmall
probabilityofthestructurereachingalimitstate.

ULS SpecificThinWalledIssues
localinstabilityandstrengthofsections
interactiveinstabilityandinfluence
ofspecificimperfection
connectingtechnologyandrelateddesignprocedures
reducedcapacitywithreferencetoductility,
plasticdesignandseismicresistance
fireresistance

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

ActionsonStructures.CombinationsofActions
(EN1991)
VerificationattheUltimateLimitState
VerificationattheServiceabilityLimitState

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

ActionsonStructures.CombinationsofActions(EN1991)

VerificationattheUltimateLimitState
VerificationattheServiceabilityLimitState

safetyfactorsaccordingtoEN1990(asforhotrolledsteel)
factors:
M0 resistanceofcrosssectionstoexcessiveyieldingincluding
localanddistortionalbuckling
M1 resistanceofmembersandsheetingwherefailureiscaused
byglobalbuckling
M2 resistanceofnetsectionsatfastenerholes

Recommendedvalues
(EN1993 1 3)
M0 =1.0
M1 =1.0
M2 =1.25

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

Materials(EN199313)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

Materials(EN199313)

yieldstrengthfyb andultimatetensilestrengthfu shouldbeobtained:


eitherbyadoptingthevaluesfy =Reh (upperyieldstrength)orRp0,2
(proofstrength)andfu =Rm (tensilestrength)directfromproduct
standards
byusingthevaluesgiveninTable2.7aorbofEN199313
byappropriatetests(EN100021)

propertiesofcoldformedsectionsandsheeting
modificationofthestressstraincurveofthesteel(increaseoftheyield
strengthisduetostrainhardening,theincreaseoftheultimatestrength
isrelatedtostrainaging)
coiling,uncoiling,coldreducingandthecoldformingprocess

usedfor
crosssectionresistanceofanaxiallyloadedtensionmember
bucklingresistanceofmemberswithfullyeffectivecrosssection

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

MethodsofAnalysisandDesign
Methodsofanalysis Globalframeanalysis
FiniteElementMethods(FEM)foranalysisanddesign
Designassistedbytesting

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

MethodsofAnalysisandDesign

Methodsofanalysis Globalframeanalysis
FiniteElementMethods(FEM)foranalysisanddesign
Designassistedbytesting
determinethedistributionoftheinternalforcesandthecorresponding
deformationsinastructuresubjectedtoaspecifiedloading
globalanalysisofframesisconductedonamodelbasedonmany
assumptionsincludingthoseforthestructuralmodel,thegeometricand
materialbehaviour ofthestructure,ofitssections/membersand
joints.
(1)Firstorderelasticanalysis;
(2)Secondorderelasticanalysis;
(3)Elasticperfectlyplasticanalysis(Secondordertheory);
(4)Elastoplasticanalysis(secondordertheory);
(5)Rigidplasticanalysis(firstordertheory)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

MethodsofAnalysisandDesign

Methodsofanalysis Globalframeanalysis
FiniteElementMethods(FEM)foranalysisanddesign
Designassistedbytesting

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

MethodsofAnalysisandDesign

Methodsofanalysis Globalframeanalysis
FiniteElementMethods(FEM)foranalysisanddesign
Designassistedbytesting

firstorderanalysismaybeusedforthestructure,iftheincreaseofthe
relevantinternalforcesormomentsoranyotherchangeofstructural
behaviour causedbydeformationscanbeneglected.
forelasticanalysis

Whenaframeisanalysed usinganelasticmethod,theinplanesecond
ordereffectscanbeallowedforbyusing:
a)firstorderanalysis,amplifiedswaymomentmethod;
b)firstorderanalysis,Iterativemethod;
c)firstorderanalysis,withswaymodebucklinglength.

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

MethodsofAnalysisandDesign

Methodsofanalysis Globalframeanalysis
FiniteElementMethods(FEM)foranalysisanddesign
Designassistedbytesting

guidancecanbefoundinAnnexCofEN199315
TheFEmodelling maybecarriedouteitherfor:
(1)thecomponentasawhole
(2)asubstructureasapartofthewholestructure.Also,designof
membersanddetailscanbeassistedbynumericalsimulations(e.g.
numericaltesting).

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

MethodsofAnalysisandDesign

Methodsofanalysis Globalframeanalysis
FiniteElementMethods(FEM)foranalysisanddesign
Designassistedbytesting

guidancecanbefoundinAnnexCofEN199315
TheFEmodelling maybecarriedouteitherfor:
(1)thecomponentasawhole
(2)asubstructureasapartofthewholestructure.Also,designof
membersanddetailscanbeassistedbynumericalsimulations(e.g.
numericaltesting).

Loaddisplacementcurvesfoundusingdifferent
analysesofthesamestructure(Rotter,2011)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

Designassistedbytesting maybeundertakenunderanyofthe
followingcircumstances:

ifthepropertiesofthesteelareunknown;
ifitisdesiredtotakeaccountoftheactualpropertiesofthecoldformed
memberorsheet;
ifadequateanalyticalproceduresarenotavailablefordesigninga
componentbycalculationalone;
ifrealisticdatafordesigncannototherwisebeobtained;
ifitisdesiredtochecktheperformanceofanexistingstructureorstructural
component;
ifitisdesiredtobuildanumberofsimilarstructuresorcomponentsonthe
basisofaprototype;
ifconfirmationofconsistencyofproductionisrequired;
ifitisdesiredtodeterminetheeffectsofinteractionwithotherstructural
components;
ifitisdesiredtodeterminetheeffectsofthelateralortorsionalrestraint
suppliedbyothercomponents;

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

Designassistedbytesting maybeundertakenunderanyofthe
followingcircumstances:

ifitisdesiredtoprovethevalidityandadequacyofananalyticalprocedure;
ifitisdesiredtoproduceresistancetablesbasedontests,orona
combinationoftestingandanalysis;
ifitisdesiredtotakeintoaccountpracticalfactorsthatmightalterthe
performanceofastructure,butarenotaddressedbytherelevantanalysis
methodfordesignbycalculation.

ECCSNo1242008:Testingofconnectionswithmechanicalfastenersin
sheetingandSections
ECCSno.1272009TestinganddesignoffasteningsinSandwichpanels
En151292009:Steelstaticstoragesystems Adjustablepalletracking
systems
EN1990,AnnexD:designassistedbytesting(reliabilityandstrength)

Backgroundandpeculiarities
Introduction
BasisofDesign

Designassistedbytesting maybeundertakenunderanyofthe
followingcircumstances:

ifitisdesiredtoprovethevalidityandadequacyofananalyticalprocedure;
ifitisdesiredtoproduceresistancetablesbasedontests,orona
combinationoftestingandanalysis;
ifitisdesiredtotakeintoaccountpracticalfactorsthatmightalterthe
performanceofastructure,butarenotaddressedbytherelevantanalysis
methodfordesignbycalculation.

ColdformedSteelDesign
Eurocode 3:DesignofSteelStructures
Part13 DesignofColdformedSteelStructures

Resistanceofsections

Resistanceofsections
ResistanceofCrossSection
General

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Propertiesofgrosscrosssection

Nominaldimensionsandidealisation

ERRORS

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Propertiesofgrosscrosssection

DimensionallimitsofcomponentwallsofCFS

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Propertiesofgrosscrosssection

DimensionallimitsofcomponentwallsofCFS

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Propertiesofgrosscrosssection

DimensionallimitsofcomponentwallsofCFS

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Propertiesofgrosscrosssection

DimensionallimitsofcomponentwallsofCFS

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Propertiesofgrosscrosssection

Modellingofcrosssectionforanalysis

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Flangecurling

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Flangecurling

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ShearLag

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
LocalBuckling

Sectionalbucklingmodesinthinwalledsections

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
LocalBuckling

Elasticbucklingofthinplates

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
LocalBuckling

Elasticbucklingofthinplates

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
LocalBuckling

Elasticbucklingofthinplates

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
LocalBuckling

Elasticbucklingofthinplates

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
LocalBuckling

Elasticbucklingofthinplates

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Distortionalbuckling:analyticalmethods

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
Distortionalbuckling:analyticalmethods

ThemethodgiveninEN199313:2006

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

General

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithoutstiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithoutstiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithoutstiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithoutstiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithoutstiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgeorintermediatestiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgeorintermediatestiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgeorintermediatestiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgeorintermediatestiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgestiffeners conditions

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgestiffeners generalprocedure

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgestiffeners generalprocedure

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgestiffeners generalprocedure

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Planeelementswithedgestiffeners generalprocedure

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Calculationofeffectivesectionpropertiesforcoldformedsteel
sectionsundercompressionorbending FlowChart

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)
Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression
General(iterative)procedure FlowChart

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

EXAMPLE1:Calculationofeffectivesectionpropertiesforacold
formedlippedchannelsectioninbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

EXAMPLE1:Calculationofeffectivesectionpropertiesforacold
formedlippedchannelsectioninbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Checkingofgeometricalproportions

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Grosscrosssectionproperties

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheweb

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheweb

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionproperties

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionproperties

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE1:CFSinbending

Effectivesectionproperties

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

EXAMPLE2:Calculationofeffectivesectionpropertiesforacold
formedlippedchannelsectionincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

EXAMPLE2:Calculationofeffectivesectionpropertiesforacold
formedlippedchannelsectionincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Checkingofgeometricalproportions

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Grosscrosssectionproperties

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheflangeandlipincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionpropertiesoftheweb

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
EXAMPLE2:CFSincompression

Effectivesectionproperties

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
DesignAgainstLocalandDistortionalBuckling(EN199313)

Trapezoidalsheetingprofileswithintermediatestiffeners
Webswithuptotwointermediatestiffeners

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

General

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Axialtension

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections Axialtension

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberintension

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections Axialtension

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberintension

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections Axialtension

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberintension

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections Axialtension

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberintension

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Axialcompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Axialcompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Axialcompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections AxialCompression

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections AxialCompression

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections AxialCompression

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections AxialCompression

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections AxialCompression

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberincompression

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

BendingMoment Elasticandelastoplastic resistancewith


yieldingatthecompressedflange

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

BendingMoment Elasticandelastoplastic resistancewith


yieldingatthecompressedflange

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

BendingMoment Elasticandelastoplastic resistancewith


yieldingatthecompressedflange

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

BendingMoment Elasticandelastoplastic resistancewith


yieldingatthecompressedflange

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

BendingMoment Elasticandelastoplastic resistancewith


yieldingatthecompressedflange

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

BendingMoment Elasticandelastoplastic resistancewith


yieldingatthetensionflangeonly

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

BendingMoment Effectsofshearlag

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

TorsionalMoments

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

TorsionalMoments

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

TorsionalMoments

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
Resistanceofsections

BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections BendingMoment

Example Designofacoldformedsteelmemberinbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

LocalTransverseForces General

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

LocalTransverseForces
Crosssectionswithtwoormoreunstiffenedwebs

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

LocalTransverseForces
Crosssectionswithtwoormoreunstiffenedwebs

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

LocalTransverseForces Crosssectionswithasingleunstiffenedweb

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

LocalTransverseForces Crosssectionswithasingleunstiffenedweb

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

LocalTransverseForces Crosssectionswithasingleunstiffenedweb

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Combinedtensionandbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Combinedtensionandbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Combinedcompressionandbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofawallstudincompressionanduniaxialbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofawallstudincompressionanduniaxialbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofawallstudincompressionanduniaxialbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofawallstudincompressionanduniaxialbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofawallstudincompressionanduniaxialbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofawallstudincompressionanduniaxialbending

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Combinedshearforce,axialforceandbendingmoment

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example DesignofaZpurlinwithboltedlappedconnections.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Combinedbendingmomentandlocalloadorsupportreaction

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

Resistanceofsections
BehaviourandResistanceofCrossSection
ResistanceofCrossSections

Example Designofasteelroofsheetingunderverticalloads.

ColdformedSteelDesign
Eurocode 3:DesignofSteelStructures
Part13 DesignofColdformedSteelStructures

Resistanceofmembers

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
General
Compressionmembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting
Designofbeamsatserviceabilitylimitstates

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Imperfectmember

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Imperfectmember

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Class4sections:localglobalinteractive
buckling

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Class4sections:localglobalinteractive
buckling DirectStrengthMethod

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Class4sections:localglobalinteractive
buckling DirectStrengthMethod

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Class4sections:localglobalinteractive
buckling DirectStrengthMethod

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Class4sections:localglobalinteractive
buckling ECBLapproach

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Class4sections:localglobalinteractive
buckling ECBLapproach

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Theoreticalbackground Class4sections:localglobalinteractive
buckling ECBLapproach

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Bucklingresistanceofuniformmembersincompression.
DesignaccordingtoEN199313

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Bucklingresistanceofuniformmembersincompression.
DesignaccordingtoEN199313

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers
Bucklingresistanceofuniformmembersincompression.
DesignaccordingtoEN199313
Flexuralbuckling

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers
Bucklingresistanceofuniformmembersincompression.
DesignaccordingtoEN199313
TorsionalandFlexuralTorsionalbuckling

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers
Bucklingresistanceofuniformmembersincompression.
DesignaccordingtoEN199313
TorsionalandFlexuralTorsionalbuckling

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers

Example Designofaninternalwallstudincompression

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers
DesignaccordingtoEN199313
Lateraltorsionalbucklingofmemberssubjecttobending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers
DesignaccordingtoEN199313
Lateraltorsionalbucklingofmemberssubjecttobending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers
DesignaccordingtoEN199313
Simplifiedassessmentmethodsforbeamswithrestraintsinbuilding

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingstrengthofbendingmembers

Example Designofancoldformedsteelbeaminbending

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Compressionmembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression
Theoreticalbackground

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression

DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression

DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression

DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression
DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313
Generalmethodforlateralandlateraltorsionalbucklingofstructural
components

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression
DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313
Generalmethodforlateralandlateraltorsionalbucklingofstructural
components

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression
DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313
Generalmethodforlateralandlateraltorsionalbucklingofstructural
components

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression
DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313
Generalmethodforlateralandlateraltorsionalbucklingofstructural
components

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Bucklingofmembersinbendingandaxialcompression
DesignofbeamcolumnsaccordingtoEN199311andEN199313
Generalmethodforlateralandlateraltorsionalbucklingofstructural
components

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

General.Constructionaldetailingandstaticsystem

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

General.Constructionaldetailingandstaticsystem

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

General.Constructionaldetailingandstaticsystem

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

Modelingofbeamsheetinginteraction

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

Modelingofbeamsheetinginteraction

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

Modelingofbeamsheetinginteraction

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

Modelingofbeamsheetinginteraction

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

Modelingofbeamsheetinginteraction

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

Modelingofbeamsheetinginteraction

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting

Modelingofbeamsheetinginteraction

Resistanceofmembers
Behaviour andDesignResistanceofBarMembers
Beamsrestrainedbysheeting
DesignofbeamsrestrainedbysheetingaccordingtoEN199313
Designcriteria

ColdformedSteelDesign
Eurocode 3:DesignofSteelStructures
Part13 DesignofColdformedSteelStructures

Conceptualdesign

Conceptualdesign
Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

Conceptualdesignprinciples

Designingcoldformedsteelbuildingstructuresisbasedontheconceptualframingofdesigned
conventionalsteelstructures
However,thedesignerhastomanagefourspecificcategoriesofproblemswhichcharacterise
thebehaviourandperformanceofthinwalledsectioni.e.Thesepeculiaritiesrefermainlyto:

Stabilityandlocalstrengthofsections;
Connectingtechnologyandrelateddesignprocedures;
Reducedductilitywithreferencetoductility,plasticdesignandseismicresistance;
Lowfireresistance

Ifcompareswithconventionalsteelconstruction,thefactthestructuralmembersofacold
formedsteelstructureare,ingeneral,ofclass4, involvestoworkwitheffectivecross
sectionsofmembersincompression bending.Theoverallstabilityofthesestructures,their
sensitivitytoimperfectionsandto2ndordereffectsmustcarefullycontrolledbyproper
analysesanddesign.

Conceptualdesign
Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

HallTypeModularSystem(HTMS) POPETHall

Conceptualdesign
Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

HallTypeModularSystem(HTMS) POPETHall

Conceptualdesign
Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

HallTypeModularSystem(HTMS) POPETHall

Conceptualdesign
Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

HallTypeModularSystem(HTMS) POPETHall

Conceptualdesign

HallTypeModularSystem(HTMS) POPETHall

Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

Conceptualdesign
Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

HallTypeModularSystem(HTMS) POPETHall

Conceptualdesign
Introduction
CaseStudies StructuralPerformances

HallTypeModularSystem(HTMS) POPETHall

Conceptualdesign
Designexample
Zroofpurlinsdesign

Overlapdistances

Staticsystem

Conceptualdesign
Designexample
Zroofpurlinsdesign

Overlapdistances

Designedfor(loadanddeformation)
Corrugatedsheetinside outside(pressure andsuction)
Corrugatedsheetoutside(pressure,gravitational)
Corrugatedsheetoutside (suction)

AlloweddeflectionL/200
Alloweddeflection L/300

Conceptualdesign
Designexample
Zroofpurlinsdesign

Initialdata
Loadonpurlin

Span
Structuralsystem

5kN/m gravitationalload
2kN/m suction
5m
5

Conceptualdesign
Designexample
Zroofpurlinsdesign

Initialdata
Loadonpurlin

Span
Structuralsystem
Analysistype

5kN/m gravitationalload
2kN/m suction
5m
5
2,3,5

Designedfor(loadanddeformation)
Corrugatedsheetinside outside(pressure andsuction)
Corrugatedsheetoutside(pressure,gravitational)
Corrugatedsheetoutside (suction)

AlloweddeflectionL/200
Alloweddeflection L/300

Conceptualdesign
Designexample
Zroofpurlinsdesign

Initialdata
Loadonpurlin

Span
Structuralsystem
Analysistype

5kN/m gravitationalload
2kN/m suction
5m
5
2,3,5

Static system no. 5 Z Profile