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A Literal Revolution

By Group 3:
Christopher Kosirog
Frank Walker
Keifel Agostin
Stephan Kepley

ENGL 3134-R52-S15C
Dr. Michael Briggs

So many advancements have been made in online communications since the inception of
the internet; it must be described as nothing less than astounding. These advancements affect
literature and writing on an evolutionary scale. Such evolutionary advances are taking place in
web content as well as software and hardware development.
In this essay we will discuss how the internet supports literary pursuits with new
technology and shifts in paradigm. Indeed, the idea of shifting paradigms is important because it
suggests that aspects of the Internet support the evolution of literature and writing. Our group has
considered such evolutions.
Some of the literary advancements in online communications that we have pulled from
our brainstorming include the software of instant messengers and short message tools. We even
went a step further considering the means which regulate these literary evolutions of modern
communication. Also, we could not ignore means of accessing the software and hardware and
devices which must evolve with the literary means of modern communication.

Evolution of the Instant Message:

Christopher touches upon the recent evolution of communication:
I myself have only been using computers and the internet since I was about 14 years old
In the past 12 years, things have absolutely exploded as far as efficiency and reliability go, not
to mention the speed of communication now compared to then. For example: when I first ever
used a computer, Windows 98 was still a thing, and XP had just come out. My first PC was XP
and I thought it was so high tech. It was also dial-up and slow as a snail . Nowadays many of

us use computers every single day (and smart phones, which can do just about anything a PC can
to a certain extent). Email was pretty fast back then, and instant messengers were even faster
when you could get the other person online at the same time. Now you could send someone a
message via email, Facebook, or whatever other method you want to use, and they will get a
notification of it on their phone instantly.

Keifel comments on the evolution of how instant messengers have become to adapt
shorter message tools:
Heres another great point in the instantaneousness of communication! Texting,
Facebook Messenger, Whatsapp, Snapchat and the like have been the communication tools of
choice of the under-30 demographic age. These quick message tools have actually changed how
we use language with a lot of the vernacular used with these tools coming into everyday usage
and in some cases like OMG to the dictionary. It may be worthwhile to focus on how language is
evolving because of short message tools. Twitter, in particular, limits users to 140 characters and
forces users to communicate ideas in an exceedingly shortened form.

Christopher and Keifel have touched the heart of communication: the instant message.
While Christopher stabs at the rapidity of this evolution, Keifel reminds us of how
software shortens even the already short-message. Texting languages have evolved which
shorten words to a combination of words and abbreviations. This technological race forces
humans to reinvent the wheel, often on a moments notice. Hence, the evolution of technology
of communication is revolutionary, and the evolution is revolutionary.

Concerns for the Literature Revolution:

Frank speaks on the concerns of the technology of literary evolutions:
As far as the Internet, I'm concerned about some of the content that the general public
can view. I thought regulations were in place to filter some of things, especially on 'Facebook',
'YouTube', etc. I would love for us to come up with a way to protect people that don't desire to
be bombarded with the negative images from various site I know I don't want my children so
easily exposed to is madness on the Internet.
Stephan reminds us of the need for accommodations for those slower in
communicative society:
I would like to present the need for easy access, not only for the various kinds of
disabled people who use the web, such as those who are deaf, dumb, blind, etc., but also for the
majority of users who are slightly or wholly disabled in some way With both minor and major
physical disabilities, I lose a lot of productive time having to constantly re-position myself or my
environment. As far as online communication is concerned, the things mentioned that help
instant messages, shorter message tools, and even regulations such as spam-blockers would be
along the lines of ease-of-access. Anything that makes this job easier!
Regulatory and Access measures are worthy concerns.
Frank thinks that the rapid evolution of modern technology is moving at such a rate that
the important and often legal aspects of this movement are being ignored which permit harmful
images and promote undesirable, dangerous, and unlawful situations. It is moving at such an

alarming rate that it is moving faster than caution. Likewise, Stephan concerns himself with the
rapid movement of this evolution that threatens to leave behind lesser advantaged people in a
physical manner, much as Frank reminds us that nave children are being left unprotected while
criminal minds are free to roam.

The Revolution Exposed:

Christophers Bottom LineOld vs. New Technology
Lets talk a bit about the differences between using technology to create something such
as a written literary work versus using older techniques. There are several pros and cons to using
a computer as opposed to writing out your thoughts the old fashioned waypen and paper.
1. Using a computer to create a piece of writing is much faster if you are comfortable
Writing a novel can take a long time! You can instantly do research into various topics as
you write. You can instantly edit your work. Proofreading is automatic via spell check.
The work looks much more professional and is easier to read compared to most
handwriting. It can also be instantly searched and edited with very little effort. It is
possible to share documents via the internet and to collaborate with other people easily. It
is also possible to publish your work online instantly.
2. However, there are some drawbacks to using this method.
Long hours of typing can be bad for your eyes and the joints and the muscles in your
hands, arms, back and neck. For those who are uncomfortable typing, writing with a
computer can feel like swimming in an ocean, most overwhelming and nearly

3. Are there benefits to using the old fashioned pen and paper technique?
Several well-known writers still use old methods to create their works. Director Quinten
Terintino has stated that he still writes everything out by hand. He buys a single spiral
notebook and fills it up completely. Then he goes through it and marks out things he
doesn't like, moves details around, and shifts the work to another notebook. Is it
effective? Only he can testify to that.
Then again, George R. R. Martin is notorious for using an -ancient- DOS based machine
running a program known as Wordstar 4.0. Is it efficient? Not at all But it's what he
knows, and what he enjoys using.
4. The bottom line is... technology is growing exponentially.
You may have heard of Moore's Law, an observation that computing power doubles in
strength every two years. Millions of people use it every day for various reasons, and
they will continue using it as it continues to become more and more powerful. However, I
believe that some of us will also cling to the various systems and processes that are the
most effective FOR US. New technology will be adopted which may be better in every
way. But if someone wants to write down their ideas on a pad of paper instead of learning
the newest version of Microsoft Office, they willthat simple.

KeifelHistory of the Evolution:

Over the last decade Apple revolutionized the mobile computing market with the iPhone
and iPad. Before, internet-Phone companies such as Blackberry and Nokia had web capable
devices, but the interfaces were limited and sites used a protocol called Wireless Application
Protocol (WAP). WAP was introduced in the late 80s but did not catch on in Europe and Asia
until almost a decade later. WAPs adoption in the United States was limited and suffered due to

additional fees and carriers limiting access. One other drawback to WAP was websites had to be
custom designed to account for slow access and interface limitations.
However, WAP was not a complete failure. One of the most useful spinoff technologies to
come from the protocol was Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). MMS combined WAP and
Short Message Service (SMS) to allow users to send messages containing both graphic and text
content. SMS and MMS have become one of the cornerstones of mobile device usage today.
The original iPhone was introduced in 2007 and was one of the first mobile devices to
feature almost computer like web browsing. Anand Lal Shimpi, of AnandTech, surmised mobile
web browsing prior to the iPhone, The problem with web surfing on most mobile phones is that
the screens are so small that there's no reasonable way to display an entire web page. Site
owners, in turn, create mobile-friendly versions of their websites that are basically long pages of
text so you can at least read the content on a crippled browser. (Shimpi, 2007) This
breakthrough has standardized web browsing across platformsdesktop computers and mobile
devices with a majority of websites designed to be responsive, easily read and navigated, with a
minimum of resizing, panning or scrolling.
SMS began in the 80s as a means to transport messages at minimal cost. However, the
first SMS message was not sent until December 1992 in the United Kingdom. It became
commercially available to customers in 1993 when the early Nokia handsets allowed the sending
of SMS text messages. Initially, growth was slow with users sending approximately 0.4 messages
per month in 1995. By 2010, 6.1 trillion text messages were being sent daily using a maximum
of 160 characters per message.

An example of offshoot technology of SMS messaging is the online service, Twitter.

Twitter is a web SMS and mobile device service that allows users to send messages up to 140
characters. The service was developed in 2006 as a method of using SMS to communicate with a
small group. Since 2006, the service has grown to more than 284 million active users and has
become one of the most influential social media services.
Some of Twitters trending topics have included sports and media events like the
Grammys and the Super Bowl, as well as more serious topics like Arab Spring, Ferguson, Black
Lives Matter and Yes All Women. These topics are identified by a hashtag, usually connoted by
#, and the topic name without a space, i.e. #example.
These combinations of software and hardware technologies have influenced the way we
communicate on a daily basis and have caused changes in the English language. There have
been a number of studies since 2010 documenting the linguistic effects of SMS, computers, and
the internet on the language. They agree that communication is evolving and growing. The
Oxford English Dictionary, one of the definitive sources of our lexicon have recently added
words like bae, slacktivism, mansplain, selfie, twerk, podcast, unfriend, yolo in the last decade.
All of these words have their origins either online or verbal shorthand, as in the case of yolo, to
fit the requirements of limited character messaging.

As can be deciphered from Christopher and Keifels words, old and new technology
weigh in the balances. There are good and bad points and reasons to cling-onto or let-go of each.
The revolutionary science of communication is changing the way we communicate. It is evolving
new dialects of the English language. It is reaching globally other languages and threatens to

completely topple the once modern regime of communication. As we know all revolutions come
at some cost. Frank and Stephan now present these risks in greater detail.

FrankCracking Down
I recently took a mandatory Social Media class for my job. I am a Police Officer in
Nashville, Tennessee, and we have very strict policies regarding the use of Social Media outlets
by officers. A few things shared in the class, concerning the use of Social Media, shocked me to
say the least. Some of the information shared also got my energies flowing:
1. It was stated that of the 7.2 billion people on the planet, 20% (about 1.4 billion) use the
internet EVERYDAY. If this is true, any 'Mo and Jo' with a cell phone has access to over
a billion people instantly, on any given day of the week. Most of the information posted
using outlets such as YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, etc., seem to be negative
instead of positive. We have the power, to flood our world with positive thoughts and
images, with the push of a few buttons. We literally have the power to change the world,
in the palms of our hands. What is the best way to use these outlets to positively effect
change in our communities? One of my ideas is to create a series of 'filters' that
information MUST pass through before reaching the public, so as to affect positive
changes, in regards to what we view as a society.
2. Further, it was also stated that Facebook has a policy which states: all information
posted on Facebook, whether it be a picture or video, immediately becomes the property
of Facebook. Can this be so? Do other outlets have similar policies? Should they? If I
am a poet, and I post some of my copyrighted poetry on Facebook, how should it become
their property? One of my ideas is to educate people regarding these policies in a way

that the popular culture would accept and understand it as being an effort to protect
them. I'm sure these policies are written somewhere on such websites, but I doubt most
people that use these outlets are familiar with them.
3. I was recently on Facebook's 'news feed', and I decided to view a video that looked as if it
would be entertaining and funny. A few seconds into the video, the scene shifted from
people joking around, to people fighting, to a couple of women literally fightingout of
their clothes and exposing some of their 'private' parts. Does Facebook not have a policy
in place which limits this type of exposure?! What is in place to protect the children
and/or the people that don't desire to see these things!?
StephanUneasy Access
There are a large number of individuals in the United States, and in the world, who have
physical limitations. It is a struggle for most of these crippled, diseased, and unfortunate people
to just get out of bed in the morning. Some of them are unable to sleep soundly due to their
wounds and debilitating conditions.
The evolution of literature via technology is leaving these people behind, who struggle
already to make a meager living. There is technology in place that helps these individuals utilize
some of the literary tools we have explored in this presentation. However, the pace at which this
technology is rapidly advancing is outpacing those who can barely keep up with the next doctor
visit little on keep up with the working world.
In the old days, those who fell behind were left behind. In this day and age, those who
fall behind may never be able to catch up. A job is everything. While well able-bodied citizens
who utilize these advancing technologies are quick to jump on the next technology to keep up


with the business world, the disable-bodied are more eager. It is imperative that these
revolutionizing technologies accommodate individuals who are blind, deaf, paralyzed, etc.
More than the literary challenges faced by these individuals to keep up with the weboriented literary world, there are those of good mind who would be wasted otherwise. Take for
example, Stephen W. Hawking, English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and director
of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. His
scientific works include collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems
in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit
radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set forth a cosmology
explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is a vigorous
supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.Hawking suffers from a
rare early-onset slow-progressing form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as
motor neuron disease or Lou Gehrig's disease that has gradually paralyzed him over the decades.
He communicates using a single cheek muscle attached to a speech-generating device.
(WikiCommons, 2015)
To use some of the examples presented in our presentation, imagine texting or using a
mobile device with only your cheek! Yet, if these accommodations were not made for this man,
his genius would be lost on break-through scientific discoveries that rival Albert Einsteins. I
myself have seizures, and an undiagnosed form of nervous disorder. In its early stages, it is
deteriorating my muscles and tendons in my joints. I have to work on the computer in this fastpaced revolutionary literary world to support my family. It is a challenge to keep pace with the
times that are outpacing even the best of us. I seek to use every form of latest technology that can


assist me in online communication. This revolution is helping me. The evolution is leaving me
behind because of its lightning-quick changes.

Frank is on a crusade to join the bandwagon of watchdog organizations that seek to

regulate the internet and fight crime. His cause is perhaps more serious than Stephans. However,
Stephans cause is to help the turtles to keep up with the rabbits.
These ideas expose the flipside of any revolution. Revolutions can cause good, but there
is also hell to pay. Without cautions instilled and accessible accommodations for certain sectors
of our population, the wolves are free to slaughter the lambs. The old must look out of the young,
and likewise, while the entire human population rides the tide of one of the most energetic and
revolutionary battles of human history, the fight for communication.
Communication is everything. It is evolving at such a fascinating and alarming rate that it
can be said we are on the brink of a new form of communication. It may be some day that
written communication disappears altogether, and we become able to communicate with a look
and a thought. Telepathy is on the horizon, and it brings with it both good and bad omens.


Shimpi, A. K. (2007, July 2). Apple's iPhone: The Future is Here. Retrieved from
WikiCommons. (2015). Stephen Hawking. Retrieved from Wikipedia.org: