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LEARNING AREA 2

COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Topic 2.1 System Concept

2.1.1 Overview of Computer


Systems
2.1.1.1 Define Computer System.
A COMPUTER SYSTEM IS DEFINED AS
COMBINATION OF COMPONENTS
DESIGNED TO PROCESS DATA AND
STORE FILES.
DIDEFINISIKAN SEBAGAI KOMBINASI
KOMPONEN YANG DIREKA UNTUK
MEMPROSES DATA DAN MENYIMPAN FAIL

2.1.1 Overview of Computer


Systems
2.1.1.2 State the meaning of input, processor, output and storage.
I.
INPUT
INPUT IS ANY DATA OR INSTRUCTIONS THAT WE ENTER INTO THE
COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING.
II.

PROCESS
PROCESS IS A MACHINE CYCLE THAT CONSIST FOUR BASIC OPERATIONS,
THATS ARE FETCHING,ECODING, EXECUTING AND STORING.

III.

OUTPUT
OUTPUT IS DATA THAT HAS BEEN PROCESSED INTO A USEFUL FORM,
CALLED INFORMATION. THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF OUTPUT, WHICH ARE
TEXTS, GRAPHICS, AUDIO AND VIDEO.

IV.

STORAGE
STORAGE IS A LOCATION WHICH DATA, INSTRUCTION AND INFORMATION
ARE HELD FOR FUTURE USE. EVERY COMPUTER USES STORAGE TO
HOLD SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE

2.1.1 Overview of Computer


Systems
2.1.1.2 State the meaning of input, processor, output and storage.
I.
MASUKAN
MASUKAN ADALAH APA-APA DATA ATAU ARAHAN YANG DIMASUKKAN KE
DALAM SISTEM KOMPUTER UNTUK DIPROSES
II.

PROSES
PROSES ADALAH KITARAN MESIN YANG MENGANDUNGI 4 OPERSI IAITU
MENARIK, MENGKOD, MELAKSANA DAN MENYIMPAN.

III.

KELUARAN
KELUARAN ADALAH DATA YANG DIPROSES KE DALAM BENTUK BERGUNA
DIPANGGIL MAKLUMAT. ADA 4 JENIS KELUARAN IAITU TEKS,
GRAFIK,AUDIO DAN VIDEO.

IV.

SIMPANAN
SIMPANAN ADALAH TEMPAT DI MANA DATA, ARAHAN DAN MAKLUMAT
DISIMPAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN AKAN DATANG. SETIAP KOMPUTER
MEMPUNYAI SIMPANAN UNTUK MEMEGANG PERISIAN SISTEM DAN
PERISIAN APLIKASI.

2.1.1 Overview of Computer Systems


2.1.1.3 Describe the information processing cycle which includes input, process,
output and storage.
USER WILL INPUT THE DATA TO BE PROCESSED BY THE PROCESSOR. THE
STORAGE HOLDS DATABASES, FILES AND PROGRAMS. THE OUTPUT DEVICES
PRESENT THE PROCESSED DATA AS USEFUL INFORMATION PRODUCTS FOR THE
USER
PENGGUNA AKAN MEMASUKKAN DATA UNTUK DIPROSES OLEH PEMPROSESAN.
SIMPANAN AKAN MEMEGANG PANGKALAN DATA, FAIL DAN PROGRAM. PERANTI
KELUARAN MEMPERSEMBAHKAN DATA YANG TELAH DIPROSES KE DALAM
BENTUK MAKLUMAT YANG BERGUNA UNTUK PENGGUNA

2.1.2 DATA REPRESENTATION


2.1.2.1 State the relationship of data representation : bit, byte and character.
BIT
A BIT IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF DATA THAT THE COMPUTER CAN
PROCESS. BIT IS A SHORT FOR BINARY DIGIT. A BIT IS REPRESENTED
BY THE NUMBERS 1 AND 0.
MERUPAKAN UNIT DATA TERKECIL DI MANA PC BOLEH MEMPROSESNYA.
BIT SANGAT PENDEK UNTUK DIGIT BINARI. IA MEWAKILI NOMBOR 0
DAN 1
BYTE
BYTE IS A UNIT OF INFORMATION BUILT FROM BITS. ONE BYTE IS EQUALS
TO 8 BITS.
BAIT ADALAH UNIT MAKLUMAT DARIPADA BIT. SATU BAIT BERSAMAAN 8
BIT.
CHARACTER
8 BITS = 1 BYTE
8 BIT = 1 BAIT

2.1.3 Introduction to Binary Coding


2.1.3.1 Explain the function of ASCII code
TO ACHIEVE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN VARIOUS TYPES OF DATA
PROCESSING EQUIPMENT MAKING IT POSSIBLE FOR THE
COMPONENTS TO COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER SUCCESSFULLY.
ENABLES MANUFACTURERS TO PRODUCE COMPONENTS THAT ARE
ASSURED TO OPERATE CORRECTLY IN A COMPUTER.
ENABLES HUMAN TO INTERACT WITH A COMPUTER.
ENABLES USERS TO PURCHASE COMPONENTS THAT ARE COMPATIBLE WITH
THEIR COMPUTER CONFIGURATIONS.
UNTUK MENCAPAI KESESUAIAN ANTARA BERBAGAI JENIS PERALATAN
MEMPROSES DATA BAGI MENJADIKANNYA SESUAI DENGAN KOMPONEN PC
UNTUK BERKOMUNIKASI DENGAN LANCAR
MEMBENARKAN PEMBUAT KOMPONEN MEMBUAT KOMPONEN YANG BOLEH
BEROPERASI DENGAN BETUL DI DALAM PC
MEMBENARKAN MANUSIA BERKOMUNIKASI DENGAN PC
MEMBOLEHKAN PENGGUNA MEMBELI KOMPONEN PC YANG SESUAI DENGAN
KONFIGURASI KOMPUTER MEREKA.

2.1.4Data Measurements
2.1.4.1 STATE THE UNIT OF DATA
MEASUREMENT
BIT
BIT
BYTES
BAIT
KILOBYTES (KB) KILOBAIT
MEGABYTE (MB) MEGABAIT
GIGABYTE (GB) GIGABAIT
TERABYTE (TB) TERABAIT

2.1.5 Clock Speed Measurement


2.1.5.1 Describe the units of clock speed measurement:
MEGAHERTZ (MHZ)
MEGA IS A PREFIX THAT STANDS FOR MILLION. THUS, MEGAHERTZ (MHZ)
EQUALS TO ONE MILLION CYCLES OF THE SYSTEM CLOCK.
MEGA ADALAH TAMBAHAN KEPADA JUTA. MAKA MEGAHERTZ BERSAMAAN
DENGAN KITARAN SATU JUTA DARIPADA SISTEM JAM
1 MHZ = 1,000,000
1 SECOND
GIGAHERTZ (GHZ)
GIGA IS A PREFIX THAT STANDS FOR BILLION.GIGAHERTZ (GHZ) EQUALS TO
ONE BILLION CYCLES OF THE SYSTEM CLOCK.
GIGA ADALAH TAMBAHAN KEPADA RIBU JUTA. MAKA GIGAHERTZ BERSAMAAN
DENGAN KITARAN SATU RIBU JUTA DARIPADA SISTEM JAM
1 GHZ = 1,000,000,000 CYCLES
1 SECOND
1 GHZ = 1000 MHZ

Topic 2.2 PERKAKASAN


(HARDWARE)

2.2.1 Input Devices


2.2.1.1 Identify the input devices used for
text, graphic, audio and video
Text keyboard
Graphic scanner
Audio microphone
Video webcam

2.2.2 Output Devices


2.2.2.1 Identify the output devices used for
text, graphic, audio and video

Text/graphic/video

audio

Text/graphic

2.2.3 Motherboard
2.2.3.1 Identify the location of the central
processing unit (CPU), expansion slots,
expansion cards, RAM motherboard
expansion slots
central
processing unit

RAM motherboard

2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.1 Explain types and function of : - primary stroge (RAM , ROM )
PRIMARY STORAGE
IS KNOWN AS THE MAIN MEMORY OF A COMPUTER, INCLUDING RAM (RANDOM-ACCESS
MEMORY) AND ROM (READ-ONLY MEMORY)
IT IS AN INTERNAL MEMORY (INSIDE THE CPU) THAT CAN BE ACCESSED DIRECTLY BY
THE PROCESSOR.
FUNCTION OF RAM :

RAM IS VOLATILE WHICH MEANS THE PROGRAMS AND DATA IN RAM ARE LOST WHEN
THE COMPUTER IS POWERED OFF.

A COMPUTER USES RAM TO HOLD TEMPORARY INSTRUCTIONS AND DATA NEEDED TO


COMPLETE TASKS. THIS ENABLES THE COMPUTER'S CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSING
UNIT) TO ACCESS INSTRUCTIONS AND DATA STORED IN THE MEMORY VERY QUICKLY.

RAM STORES DATA DURING AND AFTER PROCESSING.


FUNCTION OF ROM :

ROM IS NON-VOLATILE. IT HOLDS THE PROGRAMS AND DATA WHEN THE COMPUTER IS
POWERED OFF.

PROGRAMS IN ROM HAVE BEEN PRE-RECORDED. IT CAN ONLY BE STORED BY THE


MANUFACTURER; ONCE IT IS DONE, IT CANNOT BE CHANGED.

MANY COMPLEX FUNCTIONS, SUCH AS START UP OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS,


TRANSLATORS FOR HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES AND OPERATING SYSTEMS ARE PLACED
IN ROM MEMORY.

2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.1 Explain types and function of : - primary stroge (RAM , ROM
STORAN /SIMPANAN PRIMER(UTAMA)
DIKENALI SEBAGAI MEMORI UTAMA PC, IA TERMASUK RAM (MEMORI CAPAIAN RAWAK)
DAN ROM (MEMORI CAPAIAN BACA SHJ)IA MERUPAKAN MEMORI DALAMAN (DI
CPU/UNIT PEMPROSESAN PUSAT) YANG BOLEH DICAPAI TERUS OLEH PEMPROSES.
FUNGSI RAM
RAM ADALAH MERUAP DI MANA PROGRAM DAN DATA DI DALAM RAM AKAN HILANG
APABILA PC DITUTUP.
PC MENGGUNAKAN RAM UNTUK MEMEGANG SEMENTARA ARAHAN DAN DATA UNTUK
MENYIAPKAN TUGASAN. INI MEMBOLEHKAN CPU KOMPUTER UNTUK MENCAPAI
ARAHAN DAN DATA YANG TERSIMPAN DI DALAM MEMORI DENGAN CEPAT
RAM MENYIMPAN DATA SEMASA DAN SELEPAS BERLAKUNYA PROSES.
FUNGSI ROM
ROM TIDAK MERUAP DI MANA MAKSUDNYA IA MEMEGANG DATA DAN PROGRAM
WALAUPUN KOMPUTER DITUTUP DAN DIBUKA SEMULA
PROGRAM DI DALAM ROM ADA PRA REKOD. IA HANAYA BOLEH DISIMPAN OLEH PEMBINA
PROGRAM. APABILA IA DIBUAT MAKA IA TIDAK BOLEH DIUBAH
BANYAK FUNGSI RUMIT SEPERTI MEMBUKA ARAHAN OPERASI, ALAT PENUKARAN BAHASA
ARAS TINGGI DAN SISTEM OPERASI ADALAH TERLETAK DI DALAM ROM.

2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.2 Explain types and function of : - secondary stroge (Magnetic and optical medium AND Flash memory )
SECONDARY STORAGE IS ANOTHER ALTERNATIVE STORAGE TO KEEP YOUR WORK AND
DOCUMENTS. IT IS VERY USEFUL TO STORE PROGRAMS AND DATA FOR FUTURE USE.
SIMPANAN KEDUA ADALAH SATU LAGI SIMPANAN ALTERNATIF YANG MENYIMPAN KERJA
DAN DOKUMEN. SANGAT BERGUNA UNTUK MENYIMPAN PROGRAM BAGI MASA DEPAN
1. MAGNETIC MEDIUM / MEDIUM MAGNETIK
IS A NON-VOLATILE STORAGE MEDIUM. IT CAN BE ANY TYPE OF STORAGE MEDIUM THAT
UTILIZES MAGNETIC PATTERNS TO REPRESENT INFORMATION. THE DEVICES USE DISKS
THAT ARE COATED WITH MAGNETICALLY SENSITIVE MATERIAL.
THE EXAMPLES OF MAGNETIC STORAGE ARE:

MAGNETIC DISK SUCH AS:


A FLOPPY DISK, USED FOR OFF-LINE STORAGE
HARD DISK, USED FOR SECONDARY STORAGE

MAGNETIC TAPE; INCLUDING VIDEO CASSETTE, AUDIO STORAGE REEL-TO- OPTICAL MEDIUM IS A NONVOLATILE STORAGE MEDIA THAT HOLDS CONTENT IN DIGITAL FORM THAT ARE WRITTEN AND READ BY A
LASER. THESE MEDIA INCLUDE VARIOUS TYPES OF CDS AND DVDS.
MERUPAKAN SIMPANAN TIDAK MERUAP. IA BOLEH JADI PELBAGAI JENIS BERBENTUK MAGNETIK UNTUK
MEMPERSEMBAHAKAN MAKLUMAT. PERANTI MENGGUNAKAN CAKERA YANG DISALUT BAHAN SENSITIF
BERMAGNET
CONTOH SIMPANAN MAGNETIK ADALAH
CAKERA MAGNETIK SEPERTI (DISKET/CAKERA KERAAS
TAPE MAGNETIK TERMASUKLAH VIDEO KASET DAN SEBAGAINYA.
.

2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.2 Explain types and function of : - secondary stroge (Magnetic and optical medium AND
Flash memory )
2. OPTICAL MEDIUM / MEDIUM OPTIK
THESE FOLLOWING FORMS ARE OFTEN COMMONLY USED :
CD, CD-ROM, AND DVD: READ ONLY STORAGE, USED FOR
DISTRIBUTION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION SUCH AS MUSIC,
VIDEO AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS.
CD-R: WRITE ONCE STORAGE, THE DATA CANNOT BE ERASED OR WRITTEN OVER
ONCE IT IS SAVED.
CD-RW, DVD-RW, AND DVD-RAM: SLOW TO WRITE BUT FAST READING STORAGE; IT
ALLOWS DATA THAT HAVE BEEN SAVED TO BE ERASED AND REWRITTEN.
REEL TAPE AND OTHERS.
BEBERAPA PENDEKATAN SERING DIGUNAKAN SEPERTI:
CD: SIMPANAN BACA SAHAJA DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MEMPERSEMBAHKAN MAKLUMAT
DIGITAL SEPERTI MUZIK, VIDEO DAN PROGRAM KOMPUTER
- CD-R: SIMPANAN TULIS SAHAJA. DATA TIDAK BOLEH DIPADAM ATAU DITULIS SEMULA
- CD-RW, DVD- RW DAN DVD-RAM: LAMBAT DITULIS TETAPI CEPAT DIBACA SEMULA. IA
MEMBENARKAN DATA DISIMPAN, DIPADAM DAN DITULIS SEMULA
- TAPE GELENDONG DAN SEBAGAINYA
- DVD=Digital Versatile Disc

2.2.4 Storage
2.2.4.2 Explain types and function of : - secondary stroge (Magnetic and
optical medium AND Flash memory )
3. FLASH MEMORY
FLASH MEMORY IS A SOLID-STATE, NON-VOLATILE, REWRITABLE
MEMORY THAT FUNCTIONS LIKE RAM AND A HARD DISK DRIVE
COMBINED. FLASH MEMORY STORE BITS OF ELECTRONIC DATA IN
MEMORY CELLS JUST LIKE DRAM (DYNAMIC RAM), BUT IT ALSO
WORKS LIKE A HARD DISK DRIVE THAT WHEN THE POWER IS TURNED
OFF, THE DATA REMAINS IN THE MEMORY. FLASH MEMORY CARDS AND
FLASH MEMORY STICKS ARE EXAMPLES OF FLASH MEMORY

MEMORI FLASH SANGAT JELAS, TIDAK MERUAP, MEMORY BOLH


BACA,TULIS DAN TULIS SEMULA YANG BERFUNGSI SEPERTI RAM DAN
CAKERA KERAS. MEMEORI FLASH MENYIMPAN BITS DARIPADA DATA
ELEKTRONIL DI DALAM SEL MEMORI SAMA SEPERTI DRAM(DYNAMIC
RAM). MALAH IA JUGA BEKERJA SEPERTI CAKERA KERAS DI MANA
WALAUPUN PC DITUTUP DAN DIBUKA SEMULA, DATA KEKAL DALAM
MEMORI. KAD MEMORI FLASH DAN KAYU MEMORI FLASH ADALAH
CONTOH-CONTOH MEMORI FLASH.

TOPIC 2.3 SOFTWARE


(PERISIAN)

2.3.1 OPERATING SYSTEM


2.3.1.1 State the various types of OS used on different platforms.
OPERATING SYSTEM
OS on different platform :

Linux is a freely distributed UNIX, it is a compatible operating system for PCs and a number of other
processors.

Mac OS X is a multitasking operating system that is the latest version of the Macintosh operating system.

UNIX is an operating system, or family of operating systems, developed at Bell Laboratories in early
1970sas a replacement for an earlier system called Multics.

Windows XP is the latest version of the Windows operating system, which is Microsofts fastest, most
reliable Windows operating system.
SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN
SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN DALAM PELBAGAI PLATFOM

LINUX SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN PERCMA BERASAL DARI UNIX, IA SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN YANG
SESUAI BAGI PC DAN BEBERAPA PEMPROSESAN

MAC OS X MERUPAKAN SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN PELBAGAI TUGASAN YANG MERUPAKAN VERSI


TERKINI DARIPADA SISTEM PENGOPERSIAN MACHINTOSH

UNIX ADALAH SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN UTAMA(BESAR), DIKELUIARKAN OLEH MAKMAL BELL DI


AWAL 70AN DAN DIGANTIKAN DARIPADA SISEM AWALNYA YANG DIKENALI SEBAGAI MULTICS

WINDOWS VISTA MERUPAKAN VERSI TERKINI DARIPADA SISTEM OPERASI WINDOWS. SISTEM
PENGOPERSIAN WINDOW SEBELUMNYA IAITU WINDOW XP MASIH KEKAL SEBAGAI SISTEM
PENGOPERSIAN YANG PALING SESUAI DAN PALING BANYAK DIGUNAKAN OLEH PENGGUNA PC
SELURUH DUNIA.

2.3.1 OPERATING SYSTEM


2.3.1.2 State the functions of OS.
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE OPERATING SYSTEMS ARE:
STARTING A COMPUTER
MEMBUKA KOMPUTER
PROVIDING A USER INTERFACE
MERANGKUMI ANTARAMUKA PENGGUNA
MANAGING DATA AND PROGRAMS
MENGURUS PROGRAM DAN DATA
MANAGING MEMORY
MENGURUS MEMORI
CONFIGURING DEVICES
MENGKONFIGURASI PERANTI

2.3.1 OPERATING SYSTEM


2.3.1.3 State the different interfaces of OS.
1. COMMAND-LINE USER INTERFACE / BARIS ARAHAN ANTARAMUKA PENGGUNA

REQUIRES A USER TO TYPE COMMANDS OR PRESS SPECIAL KEYS ON THE


KEYBOARD TO ENTER DATA AND INSTRUCTIONS THAT INSTRUCT THE
OPERATING SYSTEM WHAT TO DO. IT HAS TO BE TYPED ONE LINE AT A TIME.

MEMERLUKAN PENGGUNA MENAIP ARAHAN DAN MENEKAN KEKUNCI KHAS


PADA PAPAN KEKUNCI UNTUK MEMASUKKAN DATA DAN ARAHAN YANG
MENGARAHKAN OS APA YUANG HENDAK DILAKUKAN. IA HARUS DITAIP SATU
BARIS PADA SATU MASA.

IS DIFFICULT TO USE BECAUSE IT REQUIRES EXACT SPELLING, SYNTAX OR A


SET OF RULES OF ENTERING COMMANDS AND PUNCTUATION.

SUKAR KERANA MEMERLUKAN EJAAN TEPAT, SINTAKS ATAU SET ARAHAN


UNDANG-UNDANG UNTUK MELETAKKAN ARAHAN DAN MESTI TEPAT

REQUIRES MEMORISATION. IT IS ALSO EASY TO MAKE A TYPING MISTAKE.


THE ADVANTAGE OF COMMAND-LINE INTERFACE IS, IT HELPS THE USER TO
OPERATE THE COMPUTER QUICKLY AFTER MEMORIZING THE KEYWORDS
AND SYNTAX.

MEMERLUKAN INGATAN. AMAT MUDAH BERLAKUNYA KESILAPAN MENAIP.


NAMUN BEGITU KELEBIHANNYA ADALAH IA MEMBANTU PENGGUNA
BERINTERAKSI DENGAN KOMPUTER DENGAN CEPAT SETELAH INGATAN
TERHADAP KATAKUNCI DAN SINTAKS TELAH DIBUAT.

2.3.1 OPERATING SYSTEM


2.3.1.3 State the different interfaces of OS
2. MENU DRIVEN INTERFACE / ANTARAMUKA BERPANDUKAN
MENU

ENABLES THE USER TO AVOID MEMORIZING KEYWORDS SUCH


AS COPY, PASTE AND SYNTAX. ON-SCREEN, MENU-DRIVEN
INTERFACE PROVIDE MENUS AS MEANS OF ENTERING
COMMANDS. IT SHOWS ALL THE OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT A
GIVEN POINT IN A FORM OF TEXT-BASED MENU. MENU-DRIVEN
USER INTERFACES ARE EASY TO LEARN.

MEMBOLEHKAN PENGGUNA MENGELAK DARIPADA


MELETAKKAN INGATAN PADA KATAKUNCI SEPERTI MENYALIN
DAN TAMPAL SERTA SINTAKS. IA MENGANDUNGI MENU IAIUTU
MELETAKKAN ARAHAN YANG DIKEHENDAKI. IA MEMAPARKAN
SEMUA PILIHAN YANG ADA YANG DIBERI DALAM BENTUK TEKS.
ANATARAMUKA BERPANDUKAN MENU INI ADALAH SANGAT
MUDAH DIPELAJARI

2.3.1 OPERATING SYSTEM


2.3.1.3 State the different interfaces of OS
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) /ANTARAMUKA PENGGUNA BERGRAFIK

MAKES USE OF THE COMPUTERS GRAPHICS CAPABILITIES TO MAKE THE


OPERATING SYSTEM AND PROGRAMS EASIER TO USE, WHICH IS ALSO
CALLED USER-FRIENDLY. ON TODAYS PCS AND MACINTOSHES, GUIS ARE
USED TO CREATE THE DESKTOP THAT APPEARS AFTER THE OPERATING
SYSTEM FINISHES LOADING INTO MEMORY.

WE CAN EASILY DIFFERENTIATE THE INTERFACES BETWEEN MAC OS,


WINDOWS XP OR LINUX BY LOOKING AT THEIR DESKTOPS. GRAPHICAL
USER INTERFACE INTERACT WITH MENUS AND VISUAL IMAGES SUCH AS
BUTTONS, ICONS AND OTHER GRAPHICAL OBJECTS TO ISSUE COMMANDS.

ON THE DESKTOP, WE CAN INITIATE MANY ACTIONS BY CLICKING ICONS


THAT REPRESENT COMPUTER RESOURCES SUCH AS FILES, PROGRAMS
AND NETWORK CONNECTIONS. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE IS
COMMONLY USED AND HAS BECOME A STANDARD.

MEMBOLEHKAN GRAFIK KOMPUTER BERFUNGSI MENJADIKAN OS DAN


PROGRAM LEBIH MUDAH DIGUNAKAN. IA DIGELAR MESRA PENGGUNA. PC
ZAMAN INI MENGGUNAKAN GUI UNTUK PAPARAN DESKTOP MEREKA

MUDAH UNTUK MEMBEZAKAN JENIS ANTARAMUKA ANTARA PELBAGAI JENIS


OS KERANA DENGAN HANYA ME;IHAT PAPARAN DESKTOP MEREKA

PADA DESKTOP, PENGGUNA BOLEH MELIHAT / MENGGUNA DENGAN KLIK


IKON YANG ADA DAN PELBAGAI TUGASAN AKAN DAPAT DIBUAT.

2.3.2 Application Software


2.3.2.1 State the types of application software (word processing,spreadsheet, presentation, graphic).
WORD PROCESSING
WORD PROCESSING AN OFFICE APPLICATION THAT ENABLES USER TO
CREATE, EDIT, FORMAT AND PRINT TEXTUAL DOCUMENT.
SPREADSHEET
A PROGRAM THAT PROCESSES INFORMATION IN THE FORM OF TABLES. TABLES CELLS
CAN HOLD VALUES OR MATHEMATICAL FORMULA.
PRESENTATION
AN APPLICATION SOFTWARE THAT ALLOWS A USER TO CREATE VISUAL AID FOR
PRESENTATION TO COMMUNICATE IDEAS, MESSAGES AND OTHER INFORMATION TO A
GROUP.
GRAPHICS EDITING
PROGRAM THAT CAN EDIT DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OR NON-TEXT INFORMATION SUCH
AS DRAWING, CHARTS AND PHOTOGRAPH.
PEMPROSESAN KATA
ADALAH APLIKASI PEJABAT YANG MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA, MENGUBAH,
MEMFORMAT DAN MENCETAK DOKUMEN
LEMBARAN
PROGRAM YANG MEMPROSES MAKLUMAT DALAM BENTUK TABLE. SEL TABLE INI AKAN
MEMEGANG NILAI SEPERTI FORMULA MATEMATIK
PERSEMBAHAN
ADALAH PERISIAN APLIKASI YANG MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA VISUAL UNTUK
PERSEMBAHAN BAGI TUJUAN BERKOMUNIKASI, MEMBERI MESEJ DAN MAKLUMAT KEPADA
KUMPULAN ATAU AUDIEN YANG RAMAI.
PENGGUBAH GRAFIK
PROGRAM YANG MEMBENARKAN PENGGUBAHAN KE ATAS MAKLUMAT BUKAN TEKS
SEPERTI LUKISAN, CARTA DAN GAMBAR

2.3.2 Application Software


2.3.2.2 Describe the uses of application software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphic).

WORD PROCESSING
- ALLOWS USERS TO CREATE AND MANIPULATE DOCUMENTS CONTAINING MOSTLY TEXT AND
SOMETIMES GRAPHICS

-PROVIDES THE ABILITY TO CREATE, CHECK SPELLING, EDIT AND FORMAT A DOCUMENT ON THE
SCREEN BEFORE PRINTING IT TO PAPER.

- PRODUCE DOCUMENTS SUCH AS LETTERS, MEMOS, REPORTS, FAX COVER SHEETS, MAILING
LABELS, NEWSLETTERS, AND WEB PAGES

SPREADSHEET
- ALLOWS USERS TO ORGANISE AND MANIPULATE DATA IN ROWS AND COLUMNS.
- PRODUCES WORKSHEETS THAT REQUIRE REPETITIVE CALCULATIONS BUDGETING,
MAINTAINING A GRADE BOOK, BALANCING ACCOUNTS, TRACKING INVESTMENT, CALCULATING
LOAN PAYMENTS, ESTIMATING PROJECT COSTS AND PREPARING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.
PRESENTATION
- ALLOWS USERS TO CREATE VISUAL AIDS FOR PRESENTATIONS TO COMMUNICATE
IDEAS, MESSAGES AND OTHER INFORMATION TO AN AUDIENCE

GRAPHIC EDITING
- ALLOWS USERS TO WORK WITH DRAWINGS, PHOTOS AND PICTURES. IT PROVIDES THE USERS
THE ABILITY OF CREATING, MANIPULATING AND PRINTING GRAPHICS

2.3.2 Application Software


2.3.2.2 Describe the uses of application software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphic).
PEMPROSESAN KATA
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA DAN MEMANIPULASI DOKUMEN YANG
BERBENTUK TEKS DAN KADANGKALA BERGRAFIK
-MENGANDUNGI KEBOLEHAN UNTUK MEREKA, MENYEMAK EJAAN, MENGEDIT DAN
MEMFORMAT DOKUMEN PADA SKRIN SEBELUM MENCETAKNYA.
-MEMBUAT DOKUMEN-DOKUMEN YANG BERBENTUK SURAT, MEMO, LAPORAN,
LAMPIRAN MUKA DEPAN FAKS, LABEL, SURAT KHABAR DAN MUKA LAMAN WEB.
LEMBARAN
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MENGORGANISASI DAN MEMANIPULASI DATA
DALAM BENTUK BARIS DAN LAJUR.
- MEMBUAT LEMBARAN YANG MENGANDUNGI PENGIRAAN SEPERTI BAGET, GRED,
PENGIRAAN PELABURAN, GAJI PEKERJA, BAGET PROJEK, KEWANGAN DAN SEBAGAINYA.
PERSEMBAHAN
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEREKA PAPARAN VISUAL UNTUK PERSEMBAHAN
BAGI BERKOMUNIKASI, MENYAMPAIAN MESEJ DENGAN AUDIEN YANG RAMAI.
MENGEDIT GRAFIK
- MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA BEKERJA BAGI MEMBUAT LUKISAN, GAMBAR,
FOTO. IA MEMERLUKAN PENGGUNA MEMPUNYAI KEBOLEHAN MEREKACIPTA,
MEMANIPULASI DAN MENCETAK GRAFIK.

2.3.3 Utility Program


2.3.3.1 Differentiate between the types and usage of utility
programmes (file management, diagnostic, and file compression)
FILE MANAGEMENT
- USED TO MANAGE FILES ON A DISK. IT PROVIDES FUNCTIONS TO DELETE, COPY. MOVE, RENAME
AND VIEW FILES AS WELL AS CREATE AND MANAGE FOLDERS (DIRECTORIES).
- PERFORMS TASKS OF FORMATTING AND COPYING DISKS, DISPLAYING A LIST OF FILES ON A
STORAGE MEDIUM, CHECKING THE AMOUNT OF USED OR FREE SPACE ON A STORAGE MEDIUM,
ORGANISING, COPYING, RENAMING, DELETING, MOVING AND SORTING FILES AND ALSO
CREATING SHORTCUTS.
DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY
COMPILES TECHNICAL INFORMATION ABOUT A COMPUTER'S HARDWARE AND CERTAIN SYSTEM
SOFTWARE PROGRAMS AND THEN PREPARES A REPORT OUTLINING ANY IDENTIFIED
PROBLEMS.INFORMATION IN THE REPORT ASSISTS TECHNICAL SUPPORT STAFF IN REMEDYING
ANY PROBLEMS.
FILE COMPRESSION
-THAT REMOVES REDUNDANT ELEMENTS, GAPS AND UNNECESSARY DATA FROM A
COMPUTERS STORAGE SPACE SO THAT LESS SPACE IS REQUIRED TO STORE OR TRANSMIT
DATA.
- REDUCE THE TIME REQUIRED TO TRANSMIT SUCH LARGE FILES OVER A NETWORK.
- COMPRESSED FILES ARE SOMETIMES CALLED ZIPPED FILES BECAUSE THEY USUALLY HAVE A .ZIP
EXTENSION.
- A COMPRESSED FILE MUST BE UNZIPPED OR RESTORED TO ITS ORIGINAL FORM BEFORE BEING
USED. TWO POPULAR FILE COMPRESSION UTILITIES ARE PKZIP AND WINZIP

2.3.3 Utility Program


2.3.3.1 Differentiate between the types and usage of utility
programmes (file management, diagnostic, and file compression)
PENGURUSAN FAIL
DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MENGURUS FAIL PADA CAKERA.IA MEMBEKALKAN FUNGSI UNTUK MEMADAM,
MENYALIN, MEMINDAH, MENAMAKAN SEMULA DAN MEMAPARKAN FAIL SEPERTI MEREKA DAN
MENGURUS FOLDER (DIREKTORI)
MELAKSANAKAN TUGAS SEPERTI MEMFORMAT DAN MENYALIN CAKERA. MEMAPARKAN SENARAI
FAIL DALAM MEDIUM STORAN, MENYEMAK AMAUN STORAN YANG DIGUNAKAN, MENGORGANISASI,
MENYALIN, MENAMAKAN SEMULA FAIL, MEMADAM, MEMINDAH DAN MENYENARAI PENDEK FAIL DAN
JUGA MEREKA JALAN PINTAS.
UTILITI DIAGNOSTIK
MENGUMPUL MAKLUMAT TEKNIKAL SEPERTI PERKAKASAN PC DAN PROGRAM SISTEM PERISIAN
DAN KEMUDIAN MENYEDIAKAN LAPORAN LUARAN UNTUK MENGENALPASTI APA JUA MASALAH
YANG TIMBUL. MAKLUMAT YANG ADA KEMUDIAN AKAN DIURUSKAN OLEH STAFF TEKNIKAL BAGI
PEMBAIKULIH.
PENGECILAN FAIL
TUGAS BAGI MENGELUARKAN ELEMEN, HALANGAN DAN DATA YANG TIDAK PERLU DARIPADA
STORAN PC. DENGAN INI DAPAT MENJIMATKAN RUANG DALAM STORAN.
MENGECILKAN MASA BAGI MENNCARI DATA YANG BESAR DALAM RANGKAIAN.
MENGECILKAN FAIL DAN KADANGKALA IA DIGELAR FAIL ZIP SEBAB BIASANYA IA TELAH
MEMPUNYAI SAMBUNGAN ZIP.
3 FAIL POPULAR BAGI MENGECILKAN FAIL ADALAH PKZIP,WINZIP DAN WINRAR.

2.3.4 Proprietary and Open


Source Software
2.3.4.1 Differentiate between proprietary
(PERISIAN TERTUTUP)and open source
software (PERISIAN SUMBER TERBUKA)

2.3.4 Proprietary and Open


Source Software
2.3.4.1 Differentiate between proprietary (PERISIAN TERTUTUP)
and open source software (PERISIAN SUMBER TERBUKA)
WINDOW XP (PROPRIETARY
SOFTWARE)

LINUX (OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE)

MAC OS X (PROPRIETARY
SOFTWARE)

KELEBIHAN
- PELBAGAI JENIS PERKAKASAN
BOLEH MENGGUNAKANNYA
- ADA PASARAN BESAR
- TELAH ADA UTILITI YANG
TERBINA DI DALAMNYA

KELEBIHAN
-PELBAGAI JENIS PERKAKASAN BOLEH
MENGGUNAKANNYA
-RAMAI PENGGUNA KERANA
ANTARAMUKA PUNGGUNANYA
-BOLEH MENJADI PC SERVER

KELEBIHAN
-MUDAH DI INSTALL
-ANTARAMUKA TERBAIK(GUI)
-SELAMAT DAN STABIL

KEKURANGAN
-MASALAH KESELAMATAN
-TIDAK STABIL SBG SERVER
-APABILA KONFIGURASI DIUBAH
IA PERLU DI RESTART

KEKURANGAN
-TIDAK MENYOKONG BANYAK JENIS
PERMAINAN DAN APLIKASI
- SUKAR DIPELAJARI

KEKURANGAN
-HANYA MENYOKONG PC
APPLE
-KURANG UTILITI DAN
PERMAINAN BERBANDING
WINDOWS.
--BANYAK APLIKASI YNG
PERLU DI
UPDATE BAGI
MENJALANKANNYA.

Topic 2.4
Installation

2.4.1 Personal Computer (PC)


Assembling
2.4.1.1.Assemble the components of a PC.(Step)

FIXING THE PROCESSOR

INSTALLING THE RAM

INSTALLING THE POWER SUPPLY

INSTALLING THE OPTICAL DRIVE (DVD OR CD)

ATTACHING THE VIDEO CARD & CONNECTING THE CABLES

INSTALLING THE FLOPPY DRIVE

INSTALLING THE HARD DISK

CONNECTING OTHER PERIPHERALS

POWERING THE SYSTEM

MEMASANG UNIT PEMPROSESAN PUSAT


MEMASANG RAM
MEMASANG BEKALAN KUASA
MEMASANG PEMACU OPTIKAL (CD ATAU DVD)
MEMASANG KAD VIDEO DAN KABELNYA
MEMASANG PEMACU FLOPPY
MEMASANG CAKERA KERAS
MENGHUBUNGKAN LAIN2 SAMBUNGAN
MEMBEKALKAN KUASA KEPADA SISTEM

2.4.1 Personal Computer (PC)


Assembling
2.4.1.2 LIST COMPONENT FOR ASSEMBLING A PC
CASING
PROCESSOR
MOTHERBOARD
MEMORY (RAM)
HARD DISK
OPTICAL DRIVE
FLOPPY DISK DRIVE
MOUSE
VIDEO CARD
MONITOR
SOUND CARD
CABLES
SPEAKER
SCREWDRIVER

(ASSESSMENT S03.1)

2.4.2 Hard Disk Partitioning and


Formatting
2.4.2.1 Format and partition the hard disk.
Why partitioning the hard disk :
Limits Accidental Or Deliberate Damage Of Your Data
Increases Security
Making The Computer Faster
Organises Information
Increases Productivity
Creating a partition on hard disk
Step by step partitions the hard disk
Formatting hard disk
Step by step formatting the hard disk

2.4.3 Software Installation


2.4.3.1 Install operating system, application software and
utility programs
INSTALLING THE OPERATING SYSTEM
INSTALL WINDOWS
INSTALLING AN APPLICATION SOFTWARE
INSTALLING MS OFFICE
INSTALLING A UTILITY PROGRAM
AVG ANTIVIRUS
SYBOT DOCTOR (ANTI SPYWARE)

(ASSESSMENT S04.1)

2.5 CURRENT AND FUTURE


TECHNOLOGIES
2.5.1 LATEST OPEN SOURCE
SOFTWARE

(ASSESSMENT S05.1)