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ECE450Lecture

Antennas
Summer 2009

Jose E. Schutt-Aine
Electrical & Computer Engineering
University of Illinois
jesa@illinois.edu

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Vector Potential

G
G
(1)
E = j H
G G
G
H = J + j E (2)
G
D = /
(3)
G
(4)
B = 0
G
G G
G
B = 0 A such that A = B
G
A = 0
G
A : vector potential
G
G
G
G
E = j A E + j A = 0

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Vector Potential
vector = 0 vector =

G
G
E + j A = where is the scalar potential

Since a vector is uniquely defined by its curl and its


divergence, we can choose the divergence of A

G
choose A such that
G
A + j = 0
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Lorentz
condition
3

Vector Potential
G
G
G
B = J + j E
G
G
G
A = J + j j A

G
G
G
G
2
A + A = J + A j
2

G
G
G
2 A + ( j ) = J + 2 A j
G
G
G
2
2
DAlemberts
A + A = J
equation
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Vector Potential
Three-dimensional free-space Greens function
G G
j r r '

e
G G
G ( r , r ') =
G G
4 r r '
Vector potential

G G j rG rG '
G G
J ( r ') e
A ( r ) =
dv '
G
G
V'
4 r r '
From A, get E and H using Maxwells
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Hertzian Dipole
For infinitesimal antenna, the current density is:

G G
o dl ( x ') ( y ') ( z ')
J ( r ') = zI
Calculating the vector potential,

G G
I o dl j r
A ( r ) = z
e
4 r
In spherical coordinates,

z = r cos sin
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Hertzian Dipole
G G
I o dl
j r

A ( r ) = z
r cos sin e
4 r

Resolving into components,

I o dl cos j r
Ar = z

e
r
4
I o dl sin j r
A =

e
r
4
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Hertzian Dipole E and H Fields


Calculate E and H fields

G
G 1
H = A

1
Hr =
sin


A
( A sin ) = 0

1 1 Ar
H =
( rA ) = 0
r sin r

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Hertzian Dipole E and H Fields


1
Ar
H = ( rA )
r r

I o dl
1 j r
sin
H =
j 1 +
e

4 r
j r

G
G
1
H
E=
j
1
Er =
r sin
ECE450,Summer2009


1
H

sin
(
) j


JoseE. SchuttAine

Hertzian Dipole E and H Fields

2cos I o dl
1 j r 1
Er =
j 1 +
e

2
j r
j
4 r

1
1
E = ( rH )
r r
j

j I o dl
1
1
1
j r
2 2 ( j ) e
sin 1 +
E =
4 r
j r r
j

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

10

Hertzian Dipole E and H Fields

2cos I o dl
1 j r 1
Er =
j 1 +
e
2

j r
j
4 r

j I o dl j r
1
1
E =
e
sin 1 +
+
2
4 r
j r ( j r )

I o dl
1 j r
sin
H =
j 1 +
e

4 r
j r

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

11

Far Field Approximation


1
Far field : r  1 or r  then, 2 0
r
Er = 0

j I o dl j r
E =
e
sin
4 r
j I o dl j r
H =
e
sin
4 r

Note that: E = H , where =

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Far Field Approximation


Characteristics of plane waves

Uniform constant phase locus is a plane


Constant magnitude
Independent of
Does not decay

Similarities between infinitesimal antenna far field radiated and


plane wave
(a) E and H are in phase
(b) E and H are related by
(c) E is perpendicular to H
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Poynting Vector
G
G
G
P (t ) = E (t ) H (t )
Time-average Poynting vector or TA power density

G 1
G G
P = Re E H *
2

E and H here are PHASORS

G
2
I o dl
r
2

P = Re
H = r
sin
2
2 4 r

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Time-Average Power
Total power radiated (time-average)

P=

P=

G G
P ds

G
2

with ds = rr sin d d
2

I o dl 2 2
0 2 4 r r sin sin d d

I o dl
P=
2 d sin 3
2 4
0
2

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Time-Average Power
4 I o dl
P=

3
4

Poynting Power Density


Directive Gain =
Average Poynting Power Density
over area of sphere with radius r

Directive Gain =
ECE450,Summer2009

G
P

P / 4 r
JoseE. SchuttAine

Directivity
For infinitesimal antenna,
2

Directive Gain =

I o dl
2
sin

2 4 r

4 I dl
o

3 4

3 2
Directive Gain = sin
2
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

/
4
r

Directivity

The directivity is the directive gain in the direction


of maximum value
For Hertzian dipole, directivity = 1.5
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Radiation Resistance
Radiation resistance:
From

1 2
P = RI o
2

we have:

Rrad

2P
= 2
Io

For infinitesimal antenna:

Rrad

2 4
= 2
Io 3

ECE450,Summer2009

2 dl
I o dl
=
2

4
3

JoseE. SchuttAine

Radiation Resistance
= 120

For free space,

Rrad

dl
= 80

(for Hertzian dipole)

The radiation resistance of an antenna is the value of


a fictitious resistance that would dissipate an amount
of power equal to the radiated power Pr when the
current in the resistance is equal to the maximum
current along the antenna
A high radiation resistance is a desirable property
for an antenna
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Example
In free space, a Hertzian dipole located at the origin with a
radiation resistance of 1 and oriented in the z-direction, is
known to generate the instantaneous electric field intensity of

10sin ( 2 10 t ) ( mV / m )
8

At (x=300, y=0, z=400). Find the length of the Hertzian


dipole, the current amplitude and the total power radiated by
the antenna

= 2 108 rad / s f = 108 Hz


c 0.3 10
= =
=3m
8
f
10
9

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

Example (cont)
E in phasor form:

E = j10 ( mV / m )

For Hertzian dipole:

sin =

j I o dl j r
sin
E =
e
4 r

300

( 300 ) + ( 400 )
2

r = 500
ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine

3
=
5

Example (cont)
E 4 r
j10 4 500 10
=
I o dl =
500
j r

2
j
j e
sin
2 3

377 j
e
5

I o dl = 397.87 10 A m
2

Hertzian dipole: Rrad

dl
= 80 = 1

dl
dl =
= 0.1067 m
=
2
2
80
80
2

ECE450,Summer2009

JoseE. SchuttAine