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Caleb Davis

Annotated Bibliography
R. Andrew Brown
UWRT 1103-024

Miller, Rudy. "The Effects of Music on a Student's Schoolwork." Education. Demand Media, n.d.
Web. 15 Apr. 2015.

A University of Toronto Study says that listening to music whilst studying can hinder
comprehension of material studied. Also test scores were hindered when participants were tested
on material studied while listening to music. However there was a study done where students
listened to Mozart for 10 minutes and their IQ scores were increased. One Bulgarian study
showed that listening to Baroque Music, playing one beat in a second increased foreign
Language retention 92%-even long term memory. The author of this source, Rudy Miller, of
Demand Media is a semi-reliable source who shows both sides of the argument. However, his
credentials are not clear, as the source does not specify what Demand Media is.

Dolegui, Arielle S. "The Impact of Listening to Music on Cognitive Performance." Student Pulse
5.09 (2013). <http://www.studentpulse.com/a?id=762>

There have been numerous studies that support the idea that listening to music impairs cognitive
performance. A Smith and Morris study in 1977 revealed that listening to preferred music
impaired cognitive performance. A study by Hallman, Price, and Katsarou showed that children
performed better in non-music conditions than music conditions. A university of Maryland study
showed no distinction in genre of music, but music at louder volumes had a greater impairment
on cognitive performance. It is best for students to not have any noise distraction while studying.

Lemonick, Michael D. "Music on the Brain." Time. Time Inc., 28 May 2000. Web. 21 Apr. 2015

Music is powerful. It can trigger memories and emotions. How does it affect the human mind?
The nervous system is affected when listening to music. Different areas of the brain are affected
dependent on what is being done with music. Interestingly, autistic people have known to be

adept at music. Playing an instrument has been known to enlarge the cerebral cortex. This source
is on music's effect on the brain. It does not specifically mention studying, or music's effect on it.
So, it will be a primary source. Lemonick is a reporter for Time Magazine

Faille, Mike. Music on the Mind. Digital image. Buffer Social. Buffer Social, n.d. Web. 21 Apr.
This image shows the major areas of the brain. It shows how each area interprets and used music.
I will probably use this source to explain how the brain uses and music and how each part is
involved. The source is very ambiguous, so it may or not be reliable.

Perham, Nick, and Martinne Sykora. "Disliked Music Can Be Better for Performance than Liked
Music." Applied Cognitive Psychology 26.4 (2012): 550-55. 1002/acp.2826. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.

Many people believe that classical music enhances cognitive learning abilities. This is known as
the Mozart effect. It is assumed that the more acoustic variation in a song, the more distracting it
is and thus the more it hinders studying. However, it could be theorized that a disliked music
genre will have a less harmful effect on cognitive performance than a liked genre. An experiment
tested recall of students in the presence of silence, then classical music, and finally, hard rock
music. Results showed that in the silent condition, cognitive performance was best. But, in the
presence of the hard rock music, cognitive performance was slightly better than in the liked
music conditions. The author of this source is credible. However, the experiment done assumes
that people do not like hard rock music and specifically like classic music. So, results cannot
completely prove that liked music improves cognitive performance.