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MATHEMATICS

Name: Karen Sanchez & Paulette Martinez

Lesson Title: Finding the common denominator

Grade Level: 5th

Important Mathematical Ideas:

What are the main ideas you want students to be thinking about as they work on

this lesson?

Before we can add fractions, the fractions need to have a common

denominator (in other words the denominators must be the same).

Instructional Objectives:

Use student friendly language

Students will be able to add fractions with unlike denominators by solving a real

word problem.

Common Core Standards Addressed:

Here is a link to the Common Core Standards:

http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Math%20Standards.pdf

Common Core Math CONTENT Standards Addressed:

5.NF.1 Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed

numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way

as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like

denominators.

Common Core Math PRACTICE Standards Addressed:

CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP1 Make sense of problems and persevere in

solving them.

CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

Think about how well the problem or task will engage students in the important

mathematical ideas you want to address in the lesson. In particular, for each

task, think about numbers, context, and problem structures, and say why you

are choosing the numbers, contexts, and problem structures you decide upon.

TASK(S):

What is the MAIN thing you will have students work on:

Your school is having a bake sale to raise funds for an upcoming fieldtrip. The

5th grade students are going to make two types of brownies to sell at the bake

sale. One batch of Fudge Nut Brownies and one batch of Caramel Brownies.

The students still need to purchase some of the ingredients so they need to

know how much of each of those ingredients are needed. Solve using the

recipes below and turn any improper fractions into mixed numbers.

Fudge Nut Brownies

cups butter

cups of sugar

cups of vanilla

1/9 cups of baking soda

cups of flour

cups of cocoa

3 eggs

cups of walnuts

(makes 2 dozen)

Caramel Brownies

cups of butter

cups of sugar

1/7 cups of vanilla

1/6 cups of baking soda

cups of flour

2/3 cups of cocoa

2 eggs

cups of caramel

(makes 2 dozen)

1.

2.

3.

4.

How many cups of butter do the students need to make both recipes?

How many cups of sugar do the students need to make both recipes?

How many cups of flour do the students need to make both recipes?

Challenge Question: If you're making 4 dozen of the Fudge Nut

Brownies and 4 dozen of the Caramel Brownies. How much flour and

cocoa are needed for both recipes? (hint: remember that each recipe

makes 2 dozen)

WHY:

Why these numbers: We used fractions that had different denominators but

were still relevant to a real baking recipe.

Why this problem context (context = setting or objects in problem):

We chose this word problem because our fifth grade class can relate to it since

they are fifth graders and they have prior experience with fundraisers and field

trips.

Why this problem structure (what mathematical information is given and what is

unknown):

We provide the two different brownie recipes but students are required to find

the total use of each ingredient, this will help them practice finding the common

denominator and they will know how much to use for the total of the two

recipes.

Thinking

List many different ideas for how students might respond to your task. For each

idea explain why students might think that and how you might respond to

challenge or extend their thinking.

Possible strategies:

1. Multiply to find the common denominator of two fractions

2. Draw pictures to find the common denominator of two fractions

3. Converting all fraction before adding them

Possible confusions:

1. Adding the fractions without having common denominators first

Explain why we need to have a common denominator (adding fractions

with different denominators is like adding apples to oranges/ have the

same units)

Remind throughout the lesson, that when adding fractions the

denominators need to be the same

2. Finding the wrong common denominators

Model how to find the multiples of each denominator to find the common

denominator (finding the least common multiple)

3. Miscounting, non-accurate math

Have student revise their math

State:

The key mathematical vocabulary used in the lesson, including vocabulary

in students native language, if appropriate.

If an ELD classroom, state the language objective for the lesson.

Mathematical words:

Numerator (Numerador): the part of the whole (number on top of the fraction)

Denominator (Denominador): the total number of pieces; whole (number on

the bottom of the denominator)

Common denominator (Denomainador comun): a shared multiple

Addition (Sumar): the total of two or more numbers

Other words:

Recipe (Receta): a set of instructions for preparing a dish

Ingredients (Ingredientes): any of the substances that are combine in a

recipe

Brownies (Pastelillo de chocolate): a chocolate dessert

Field trip (Excursion): a trip made by students to study something at first

hand

Sentence structure: Amount cups is needed for ingredient.

I.e. 4 cups are needed for flour.

Materials & Tools

Consider:

How do the tools I use in the lesson act as learning supports?

Do the tools make the topic easier for the students to understand?

Do I offer a variety of tools for students to use?

Description of the Mathematics Tools you will have available for students:

Numberline

White board

Markers

Pencil

Worksheet

Public Criteria

Consider and State:

What key rules and expectations do you need to make clear to students

before you start the lesson? For example, rules for using materials, for

working in groups, etc.

Each student is accountable for completion their own work

Show work on worksheet

Each student is responsible for putting away any tools used

1) BEFORE: Introduction

Consider and State how you will:

Transition students into the lesson (Before Before).

Introduce the task. You might introduce the problem through a story

book, a picture, a question, simply by discussing the context and getting

students to talk about it, or something else.

Get the students ready. Here you need to find out what students

already know about the topic / task, and help get them ready to work on

the task. You might begin with an easier version of the same task. You

might have them brainstorm ways of solving the task. Or something else.

Pose the task. Make sure all students understand what the task is

asking.

Include SPECIFIC QUESTIONS that you will ask students during this part

of the lesson.

YOUR PLAN for what teacher and students will do and WHY:

Before before:

Gather students attention and ask to put everything away but a

whiteboard and dry erase marker

Introduction:

We are going to have a short lesson with you guys about how to find a

common denominator. Start lesson by asking,Who can tell me what a

denominator is?, What do fractions need to have in order add them?

Go over how to find a common denominator with arithmetic (listing the

multiples for each denominator and then finding the one that they share

in common; Least common multiple)

Objective: Students will be able to add fractions with unlike denominators by

solving a real word problem.

Warm up task:

Go over a similar problem by modeling:

o So I want to make lemonade for my friends and I. I found two

recipes and I want to find how many cups of lemon juice and

sugar I need to make it

o

o

o

o

o

RECIPE 2: 5/6 cups of lemon juice, cups of sugar, water

1. How many cups of lemon juice are needed for both recipes?

2. How many cups of sugar are needed for both recipes?

I will model how to solve the first question and go over the

second question as a class.

Main task:

Your school is having a bake sale to raise funds for an upcoming

fieldtrip. The 5th grade students are going to make two types of brownies

to sell at the bake sale. One batch of Fudge Nut Brownies and one

batch of Caramel Brownies. The students still need to purchase some of

the ingredients so they need to know how much of each of those

ingredients are needed. Solve using the recipes below and turn any

improper fractions into mixed numbers

1. How many cups of butter do the students need to make both recipes?

2. How many cups of sugar do the students need to make both recipes?

3. How many cups of flour do the students need to make both recipes?

Challenge Question: If you're making 4 dozen of the Fudge Nut

Brownies and 4 dozen of the Caramel Brownies. How much flour and

cocoa are needed for both recipes? (hint: remember that each recipe

makes 2 dozen)

2) DURING: Exploring

Consider and State how you will:

Find out about students thinking. What will you be listening and

looking for, what strategies do you expect to see?

Support students thinking when needed hints, suggestions,

questions to get students moving on the task, or to help students who are

struggling.

Encourage students to test out their own ideas.

Support diverse groups of learners.

Pose questions that help students extend their thinking by looking for

patterns, considering multiple solutions, explaining their reasoning and

thinking, etc.

Include SPECIFIC QUESTIONS that you will ask students during this part

of the lesson.

YOUR PLAN for what teacher and students will do and WHY:

Assess students work, looking for samples that should be shared after

Ask students to describe their strategy and why

Strategies and ideas to look for include

drawing pictures of fractions as equivalent fractions

multiplying denominator to find a common denominator

listing multiples to find a common multiple

using manipulatives (fractions strips) to compare equivalent fractions

Questions to ask students

What do you notice about these two recipes that are interesting? (do

both of them use the same ingredients? do the measurements on both

recipes the same?)

How can models be used to compute fractions with like and unlike

denominators?

How are models used to show how fractional parts are combined or

separated?

Why do we need common denominators to add fractions?

After 30 minutes, when most of the groups are done converting and adding all

fractions in the recipe students will be asked to put manipulatives away and be

ready to share.

3) AFTER: Summarizing

Consider how you will:

Facilitate a class discussion and a sharing of students strategies.

Think about how and where students will share, how many will share, and

how you will choose those students.

Encourage dialogue and debate among students. Think about how the

class will determine whether a solution is correct or incorrect. Think about

how to extend the childrens thinking.

Summarize the important mathematical ideas. Consider how you will

draw students attention to the big mathematical concepts. Make sure you

define here what those important mathematical ideas are.

Include SPECIFIC QUESTIONS that you will ask students during this part

of the lesson.

Transition students from the lesson to the next activity (After After).

YOUR PLAN for what teacher and students will do and WHY:

This after assumes that students found common denominators for all

ingredients and were able to add each ingredient to figure out how much is

needed for both recipes.

First all students need to agree on what amount of each ingredient is needed

(same common denominator per ingredient)

Lets see if we can write down each fraction for each ingredient

Ask students if they agree with these fractions

If students disagree, ask students to explain why they think its not

correct

Add up each ingredient to see how much is needed

Extend mathematics

How can finding common denominators help you with future ingredients.

Thank them for letting us do this math lesson with them

Turn the class back over to the teacher

ASSESSMENT

How will you assess what students learned?

Have students share answers with the class and write them on the

board to check if everyone agrees on the final answer.

Collect recipe worksheets with students work

Monitoring class to make sure students are working

Have students explain their reasoning on how they solved the problem

VARIATIONS

Describe how you could adapt the task (i.e., task structure, context, and/or

numbers) for students who struggle with the mathematics (extensions down) and

for students who are ready for an additional challenge (extensions up).

Extensions down (struggling students)

Provide extra teacher support

Giving them a times table chart

Provide several options of manipulatives

Extensions up (additional challenge)

Give them higher numbers

Provide extra question: How much of each ingredient to we need to

make 8 dozen brownies?

Have them solve the problem using two methods

Select TWO students (e.g., English Language Learners, inclusion students,

students who are over or under participators) and describe how you will adapt

the lesson, as appropriate, to meet their needs.

provide a list of vocabulary words with translations

have him work with a partner that is fluent in both, English and Spanish

so that he can clarify questions and work with Rafael

provide both recipes in their native language

Sped Students (Daisy)

provide different manipulatives for Daisy such as fraction strips,

multiplication chart, which will help her find the multiples

have a the steps on how to find a common denominator

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