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Milestones in Distance Education

Edited by Savage, M., R.,Haggerty S.,K.& Bankole, K., A.

First Wave of Development: Correspondence/


Independent Learning Study (1840s...)

1) Larger context
(economics/politics
social values and
pressures/

2)
Theories

3) Institutions
&

4)Teachi
ng

5)
Predominant

Ways of
understan
ding

Organizationa
l

Learning

Technologies

Fordism
by Henry
Ford

RFD (rural
free delivery)

Maximized
access &
student
freedom

The University
of Chicago

-Scaling to
very large
numbers
at
significant
costs

The University
of Nebraska

government policies/

Development/
System

6) Key
Authors

Methodol
ogies

technological
advances)

AccessibilityDE must be made


available to its
users. Students
need to be able to
retrieve materials
and work within
the classroom as
needed.
Interaction/Commu
nicationA lot of research
was placed on
empathy and how
interaction
between teacher
and student

-significant
reductions
in
technologi

Dual Mode
Universities

Pennsylvania
State College

ICCE
(International
Council for
Corresponden
ce Education)
NUEA
(University
Continuing

Self
Directed
Learning
Indepen
dent
Learning

Corresponde
ncevia post
& railroad
system :
Textbooks &
printed
literature

Edward
Wastom
John
Thorisike,
BF.
Skinner.
Borje
Holmberg,
Charles
Wedmeyer
DesmondK
eegan

molded the overall


success of the
student. To be an
effective teacher in
a DE environment
having the right
tools to
communicate and
interact with
students is
essential.
EconomicalDE needs to be
affordable.
Students also have
to be able to pay
for any equipment
and materials
needed to
successfully
complete the
courses.
Quality/
CharacteristicsDE needed to be
on the same
academic level if
not exceed a
traditional
educational
institution. DE had
to focus on
teaching, format
and the delivery of
the coursework.
The features had
to be conducive to
learning therefore
the use of
technology,

es and in

Education)

social
presence

DETC
(Distance
Education &
Training
Council)

(only
words on
papers to
convey
presence)

Empathybased
conversati
on by
Borje
Holmberg

Theory
about
empathy
as he
optional
condition
for
effective
presentati
on of
learning
matter and
helpful
studenttutor
interaction

Theory of
Independe
nt study
by Charles
Wedemey
er

10
characteri
stics

PBS (Public
Broadcasting
Service)

empathy, and
accessibility was
incorporated.
Social Need for
communityDE continued to be
developed to reach
areas that lacked
an educational
institution that
needed more
options and
focused on
flexibility for
independent
learners.
Impartiality (so
everyone have the
same opportunity)

This includes
equality because a
traditional setting
may have the
finances to provide
quality education
in certain
geographical
areas. DE can be
a resource used by
each community to
provide the same
education to
everyone in an
effort to eliminate
the digital divide
which can restrict
or set boundaries
surrounding the

emphasizi
ng learner
independe
ncy and 6
characteer
istics of
independe
nt study
systems

use of technology.
Supply & Demand
(Need for
education)Determining what
is essential to the
development of
DE, what students
think should be
requirements and
what students
want as part of
their education.
This includes the
availability of
programs,
feedback from
teachers, and the
quality of the
education.
TechnologyDetermining what
tools and
resources should
be used when
developing and
distributing
coursework,
materials and
providing
educational
support.
MediaDetermining what
formats (TV, radio,
correspondence)
would be most

useful within a
learning
environment and
prompt student
success.
GeographicsHaving the
capability to reach
students in rural
areas

Second Wave of Development: Systems Approach


(1960s...)

1) Larger
context
(economics/politi
cs

2) Theories

3) Institutions &

4)Teaching

Ways of
understandin
g

Organizational

Learning

5)
Predomina
nt

Development/Syst
em

Methodologi
es

Technologie
s

Theory of

Open University

Collaborativ

Multi-

social values
and

6) Key
Author
s

pressures/
government
policies/
technological
advances)

Technology -

Otto

More
synchronous
technologies
became
available.
Social Needs DE classes
was being
developed to
handle large
populations of
students.
PoliciesDE was being
developed all
around the
world and it
was seen as a
viable resource
that could get
working adults
educated and
obtain a
college
education.
Design and
Development Focus was
placed on
research,
collaboration

Industrializati
on of
teaching by
Otto Peters

of United
Kingdom
IUC(International
University

Distance
education
assimilated
to mass
production

Theory of
transactional
distance
by Micheal
Moore

distance
dialogue,
structure,
and
autonomy as
the three
constitutive
elements of
DE

Andragogy
by Malcom
Knowles

Teaching and
learning
approaches
for adults.

Constructivis
m by Piaget

e Learning

Engaged
Learning

Consortium)
The U.S.
Cooperative
Extension Service
AESP (American
Educational
Satellite Program)
NUTN
(National
University
Teleconferencing
Network)

Discovery
Based
Learning

media:
radio,
television,
video,
audiocasett
es

Peters,
Michea
l
Moore ,
Malco
m

textbooks,

Knowle
s,

pinted
litterature

J.Piage
t
G.
Rumbl
e

and course
and
instructional
design.

Learning
where
students
participate in
the
construction
of
knowledge,
students
learn by
doing,
Scaffolds
learning, and
collaboration
among
learners with
interaction

System
Approach by
G. Rumble

View of
distance
education as
a system

Third Wave of Development: Internet/Web-based


communication (1995s...)

1) Larger context

2) Theories

3) Institutions &

4)Teaching

(economics/politi
cs

Ways of
understandi
ng

Organizational

Learning

5)
Predomina
nt

Development/Syste

Methodologi

Technologi

6) Key
Author
s

social values and

ms

es

es

pressures/
government
policies/
technological
advances)

Emerging
internet -

Community of
Inquiry
Theory by

The use of
the internet
enhance
communicatio
ns within the
classroom
Globalization
Increase
demands for
education

Garrison
Anderson, &
Archer

Framework of
cognitive
presence-social
presenceteacher
presence

Interaction
Equivalent
Theorem by Terry

Accessibility
Cost
Advanced
technologiesIncreased
classroom

-Single
Modes
institutions
--

Anderson

student-student,
student-content,
& studentinstructor
interaction
combined to
create a learning
environment

Indira
Gandhi
National
Open
University

Synchronous
Learning
Methods
Asynchronou
s
Communicati
on Methods
Collaborative
Learning

- Dual
Modes
Institutions
-

Self-directed
Learning

The
University of
Nairobi

Non-linear

- Blended
Institutions
The
University of
WisconsinMilwaukee

Use of the
internet
Connectivism

Web 2.0
Internet
with
incorporati
on of MultiMedia:

Course
manageme
nt systems,

Word
processing
documents
,

Streaming
audio

Videos &
podcasts

Social
Networks

Social
Bookmarki

Otto
Peters,
Norman
Vaughan
,
Terry
Anderso
n,
Randy
Garrison
,
Archer,T.
Morgan,
G.Salmo
n,
Karen
Swan
Geoge
Simmen
s
Jon
Dron

and
curriculum
designs to
incorporate
new ideas
and concepts

Online Blending
Learning by
Norman
Vaughan

CoI applied to
online learning
environment with
the use of
asynchronous &
synchronous
technologies

CIDER session
by Tannis Morgan:

Considerations
for designing
online courses

5 Stage Model
by Gilly
Salmon

Consortiu
ms of
institutions
-

motivation,
online
socialization,
information
exchange,
knowledge
construction, &
development

10 Virtual
Learning Spaces
by Otto Peters

Blogging

Texbooks
Claremont
Consortium
(known as
the
Claremont
Colleges)
consists of:
Pomona
College
Scripps
College
Claremont
Graduate
University
Claremont
McKenna
College
Harvey Mudd
College

5 stages model
progression:acce
ss &

ng

Pitzer
College
Keck
Graduate
Institute

-SACODIL
(SAARC
Consortiu
m of Open
Distance
Learning )-

10 virtuals
learning spaces
identified,
dessign of
specific activities
for each design

Bangladesh
Open
University

Current Trends (2005s...)

1) Larger context

2) Theories

3) Institutions &

4)Teaching

(economics/politi
cs

Ways of
understandi
ng

Organizational

Learning

5)
Predomina
nt

Development/Syste
ms

Methodologi
es

Technologi
es

social values and

6) Key
Author
s

pressures/
government
policies/
technological
advances)

Econo
mic
Impact
s
Limited
funding
require
s more
instituti
ons to
share

Pedag
ogy of
nearne
ss:

Curriki

Open Course Ware


Consortium used by:

Selfdeterm
ined
learnin
g

MIT
Mixtur
e of
faceto-face
and
online

__www.ocw.mit.edu/cour
ses/ocw_scholar__

Learning Analytics

And
erso
n

Cloud Works

Sie
men
s

Microblogs

Blende
d
Learni
ng

Web 3.0

Dow
nes
Has
e

resourc
es
Social
Needs
Develo
ping
Technol
ogies
Online
tools
has
prompt
ed
resourc
es that
can be
used
collabo
ratively
among
st
many
schools
Cultural
change
s

learnin
g

Heuta
gogy
by
Hase
&
Kenyo
n:

Learne
r
decide
s the
path of
learnin
g

Conne
ctivism
by
Sieme
ns &
Downe
s

Learni
ng
occurs
as the
result
of
creatin
g
enviro
nment
s
(mass
open
online
course

Blackboard
__http://www.blackboard
.com/__

(used @ Harford
Community
College)

Ed2Go (formerly
Gatlin Education)
__http://www.ed2go.com
/__

(used @ Harford
Community
College-)
__www.harford.edu__

My Math Lab
__http://www.mymathlab
.com/__

Second Life

A
combi
nation
of
faceto-face
and
online
learnin
g

College)

Skype

UStream

Elluminate

Nonlinear
learnin
g

Wikieducator

Formal
Asses
sment
of
Learni
ng

Taylor, J. (2001) Automating


e-learning: The higher
education revolution
Retrieved from:

(used @ Harford
Community

Mashups

Collab
orative
Learni
ng Cocreatio
n of
conten
t

Intelligent databases

__www.backingaustraliasfuture.g
ov.au/submissions/issuessub/pdf/143-3.pdf__

Ken
yon
Sch
wier