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Fade Margin Calculation in GSM

As previously I write about fading effect in GSM here I write about Fade Margin Calculation in GSM.

Cell area probability (CAP ) is the percentage of the cell area that has signal strength greater
than the receiver sensitivity.

CAP is dependent on the radio environment, primarily the standard deviation of the log
normal faded signal (s) and the propagation loss constant (n)

The CAP is calculated using the following equaion

PCA= ( 1+ erf (a) + exp (2ab+1/b2)(1 erf(ab+1/b)))

PCA = Cell area probability
A = Mfade/s
B = 10nLog10(e) / s2
MFADE = Fade margin applied
s = Standard deviation of received signal
N = Propagation constant
Outdoor Fade Margin

The outdoor fade margin depends on the standard deviation of the lognormal shadowing and
the propagation constant

The propagation constant depends on the environment and the frequency.

For urban areas propagation constant varies from 2.7 to 5 , with a typical value of 5 for both
850 Mhz and 1900 Mhz.

Standard deviation also varies on environment and frequency , and may vary slightly with

The urban areas have higher standard deviation than rural areas.Typical value ranges from 512dB with a typical value of 8dB

Outdoor fade margin can be calculated using a plot of the CAP


The next figure shows the CAP plot for a propagation constant of 3.5 and standard deviation
of 5, 8 and 12.

From the figure fade margin to be applied to the Link Budget may be selected depending on the
standard of the received signal.