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# Serraiocco 1

Lucas Serraiocco
Mr. Acre
AP Calculus
9 March 2015
The Relationship between the Derivative and the Integral
The derivative and integral are bounded together in the world of calculus. The
conceptual understanding of their relationship is crucial in developing successful
mathematical skills.
The Derivative
The derivative can be analyzed in two different scenarios, these being graphically
and physically. First, the graphical meaning can be described as the slope of the line

f (x)

at a point

## x=c . When discussing the physically

meaning, the derivative is the instantaneous rate of change of a point of the function
F(x). Since a slope is being analyzed here, the derivative can be denoted as the change

## concepts, an example with the function

y
x . In order to further grasp these

y=x 4

## will be used. The first point of this

function will be deemed as (x, y) or (x, f(x)). In order to find the second point, a new
value h must be introduced. This h value can be described as a very miniscule number

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that causes the function to change. The new point is written as ((x+h), f(x+h)). Next, the
slope can be calculated by finding the change in y and dividing by the change in x as
mentioned before. The set up is shown below.

y
x

f ( x+ h )f (x)
( x+ h )( x)

( x+ h)4x 4
( x+ h )(x)
4

x +3 h x +3 h x+ h x

h
3

3 h x +3 h x +h

3 x3 +3 h2 +h 3
It also needs to be noted that the h value is considered zero. This is because the
process performed is trying to locate the limit between the two points as h approaches
zero which, in turn, makes h zero.
One of the most notable methods to calculating the derivative is called the power
rule. This process states that when f(x) = x n, then f(x) = nxn-1. For example, the

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calculation of the derivative for the function

y=7 x

would equal 21 x

. This process

allows for simply deriving of many functions and is a very useful technique.
The Integral
The integral is the opposite process of the derivative, earning the name antiderivative. There are two different types of integrals, these being indefinite and definite.
Indefinite integrals are performed when the bounds of integration are unknown. This
process will find the anti-derivative of a given function. An important thing to note is that
when calculating indefinite integrals, the answer will always end in a C. This variable
will account for the possibility of having a constant in the original equation. There is no
way of knowing what this variable will be, but it is noted nonetheless. The general set up
for calculating indefinite integrals is shown below.
1

## x n dx= n+1 x n+1

N is the power of the function and is being raised. An example for the equation
y=5 x 2

## x n dx= n+1 x n+1

5 x3
5 x dx= 3 +C
2

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The second type of integral is definite where the integral of a function is taken
between a lower and upper limit (a and b respectively). This is solved through a process
called the fundamental theorem of calculus, which will be discussed later on.
The Integral can also be viewed graphically as the area under a curve between
an interval which is denoted as the bounds of integration. An example is shown below
for the graph y= sin(x) where the integral is being found from 0 to 3.
3

sin ( x )dx
0

## Figure 1. Graphical Meaning of the Integral.

The orange shaded region of the graph shows the area that is desired between
the bounds of integration.

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Relationship between the Derivative and the Integral
On a basic level, the derivative and integral are opposite of each other. These
concepts are applicable across a multitude math and science fields. One such example
is in the world of physics, more specifically, graphing motion. If presented with a
velocity- time graph, one can take the derivative in order to obtain acceleration.
However, if the integral of velocity is taken, displacement is produced. The units of each
of these properties must also be considered. Velocity is measured in meters per second
squared while time is measured in seconds. Since the derivative is viewed as the
change in the dependent variable divided by the change in the independent variable,
meters per second will be divided by seconds. This simplifies to meters per second
squared which is the unit for acceleration. For example, there is a football player who

has a velocity of

## 4 x 2 +2 x , where x is time, and the acceleration at 5 seconds wants to

be calculated. Since it was stated that the derivative of velocity is acceleration, the
derivate of the equation can be taken. This is shown below.
2

Velocity=4 x +2 x

Acceleration = 8x+2
Now that the acceleration equation has been found, the time value can be plugged in
which yields an answer of 42 meters per second squared. This concept also applies
when taking the integral of acceleration in order to calculate velocity.

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## Figure 2. Relationship between Acceleration and Velocity

Figure 2 shows a red and blue graph that represents velocity and acceleration
respectively. Since the acceleration graph is increasing in a linear fashion that means
the football players velocity is increasing at a constant rate.
Another such example is when dealing with the concepts of area, length and

volume. First, the units for each measurement must be established. These are

cm 3 ,

cm 2 , and cm for volume, area, and length respectively. The properties of derivatives
and integrals allow one to easily swap between measurements. This is because another
dx will be multiplied which causes the unit to be multiplied by itself.
Relationships involving graphs

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When looking at a graph, one will encounter critical points which occur when the
slope (or derivative) is either undefined or zero. These critical points can then be
separated into different categories. The first are maximums and minimums which can
either be local or global in nature. An example of these points is shown below.

## Figure 3. Representation of Maximum and Minimum Points

In Figure 3, the red graph has a maximum point at the coordinates (0, 3) while
the blue graph has a minimum at the point (0, -3).

The second set is plateau points which are when the derivative of a function at a point is
zero; however there is no minimum or maximum. The image below illustrates this.

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## Figure 4. Plateau Points

In figure 4 the green graph contains the plateau point which is the original
function. The red graph represents the derivative graph which contains the zero. As
shown, the point of plateau on the original function and the zero of the derivative occur
at the same x value.
The final type of critical points are points of inflection which is where the
concavity of a graph changes. The concavity will depend on whether the original
functions slope is increasing or decreasing. When the derivative function is above the
x-axis, then the function is increasing. When the derivative function is below the x-axis,
then the function is decreasing. An example of a point of inflection is shown below using

the function y =

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## Figure 5. Point of Inflection

Figure 5 shows how the concavity of the cubic function changes at the origin.
Knowing the sign of the values of the first and second derivatives will allow one
to discover the slope and concavity of the original function. The first derivative is what
determines slope since it is a literal graphing of the original functions slope. Because of
this, a positive value on the first derivative will mean a positive slope on the original and
vice versa. The second derivative will determine the concavity of the original function.
Similar rules apply with a positive sign meaning concave up and a negative one
meaning concave down. When the second derivative changes sign there will be a point
of inflection at that point on the original function.
The first derivative can also be used to determine the concavity as well as locate
points of inflection of the original graph. As mentioned previously, the derivative graph is

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a literal representation of the originals slope. A positive, increasing slope will result in a
positive second derivate which represents the originals concavity.
The derivatives of the original function can find maximum and minimum points as
well. When analyzing the first derivative, whenever the graph crosses the x axis that
means the original graph is changing directions and a max or min is formed. If the
derivative graph is moving from positive to negative then there is a maximum while a
minimum is created if the graph moves from negative to positive.
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, MVT, IVT
If a definite integral is being solved for and the bounds of integration are known,
then a process called the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be used. This theorem
is comprised of two parts. The first is done by taking the integral of the function at point
b and subtracting it from the integral of the function at point a. The general set up for
this is shown below.

if

f ( x ) dx=g(x )

f ( x ) dx=g ( b ) g (a)
a

## An example is shown below when the function

between 2 and 6.
6

x 4 dx
2

y=x 4

is being integrated

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1
1
b5 a5
5
5

1
1
65 25
5
5

1548.8units 2

The second part of this theorem applies when there is a function that is being

## a stands for a constant, and f is continuous then

derivative of

g (x )

g ( x ) = f ( t ) dt , where
a

'

## is equal to the integrand evaluated at the upper limit.

The next concept is the Mean Value Theorem (MVT). This theorem states that if

## a function is differentiable for all values in between the open interval

( a , b)

and the

function is continuous for all values in the closed interval [ a , b ] , then there is at least

one number,

## x=c , such that:

f ' ( c )=

f ( b )f (a)
. If the points A and B were to be
ba

graphed and then connected by a secant line, a slope would be produced. Next, there is

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a parallel line that is tangent to a point, c, that will have the same slope as the line that
connects a and b. The image below illustrates this.

## Figure 6. Demonstration of the Mean Value Theorem

Figure 6 shows the interval a and b with the c value drawn in. The tangent line at
that point c is also shown.
The final concept is the Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT). This states that if a

x=c

(a , b)

for which

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## Figure 7. Example of the Intermediate Value Theorem

This graph shows how the x value of c corresponds with the y value (denoted by
w) in between the interval of a and b.
Reversed Bounds of Integration
If the bounds of integration are reversed such so that the upper limit becomes the
lower limit and vice versa, the same numerical answer will be produced as the original.
However, the sign will be switched. Because of this, it can be concluded that
a

f ( x ) dx= f ( x ) dx
b

If the example from the fundamental theorem portion is used again here except
with the bounds of integration flipped, then this point will be proven. The work is show
below

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x 4 dx
6

1 5 1 5
a b
5
5

1
1
25 65
5
5

1548.8 units2

The relationship between the derivative and integral are crucial in the
understanding of mathematical concepts. These discoveries open countless doors to
the solving of calculus most difficult problems.

Serraiocco 15

## Problem 1: Let f be a function defined on the closet interval

5 x 5 with f(1) = 3.

The graph of f, the derivative of f consists of two semicircles and two line segments, as
shown below.

## Figure 8. Graph of Problem

Figure 8 is the drawing of the graph that was supplied in order to solve the
following problems.
a) For -5 < x < 5, find all values x at which f has a relative maximum. Justify with
calculus.
b) For -5 < x < 5, find all values x at which the graph of f has a point of inflection.
Justify.
c) Find all intervals on which the graph of f is concave up and also has positive slope.
Justify.
d) Find the absolute minimum value of f(x) over the closed interval -5 x 5. Justify.

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x

f ' (t )dt
e) Let g be the function given by g(x) =

## . Find g(3), g(3), and g(3). Justify.

Solutions:
A: As stated earlier, maximums and minimums appear on the original graph when there
are zeros on the derivative graph. When analyzing the figure above, this occurs when x
is equal to -3,1 and 4. However, maximums can only occur when the derivative changes
from positive to negative. This eliminates the possibility of 1 being a maximum and
leaving only -3 and 4.
B: In order to locate points of inflection, one must look to where the concavity changes.
When given the derivative graph, the areas where it decreases is when the original
functions concavity is downward and when the derivative is increasing is where the
original functions concavity is upward. Knowing this, whenever the slope of the
derivative changes is where there is a point of inflection. This occurs when the x value is
-4, -1, and 2. The cusp at x=2 does not affect it being a point of inflection in this case. It
should be noted that there could be point of inflections at the endpoints of -5 and 5 but it
is not possible to make a definitive conclusion.
C: As stated in the answer to part b, in order to find the area where the original graph is
concave up, the derivative graph must be analyzed. The intervals where the derivatives
slope is positive is where the original is concave up. This can be checked by seeing
where the graph is above the x-axis. The intervals that satisfy this criteria are

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5 x 4

## and 1 x 2 which is where the original function is concave up and has

a positive slope.
D:It was determined in part a that the critical max and minimum points occurred when x
was equal to -3, 1, and 4. However, -3 and 4 were discovered to be maximums due to
their position above the x-axis. This leaves the value of x = 1 to be the minimum value.
This is due to the fact that this region is below the x-axis and crosses up to the positive
region. The problem states that f(1) = 3, therefore the coordinate for the minimum is
(1,3). It should be noted that the value of x = -5 is not considered to be the minimum
because since it is an endpoint, it cannot be determined if a minimum is actually there
or not.
E:

## g' ( 3 )=1 . Second form of Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, derivative of g is equal

to the integrand of

## g' ' ( 3 )= 1. Instantaneous rate of change of derivative graph at

x=3 .

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Problem 2:
Problem Two: The functions F and G are differentiable for all real numbers, and G is
strictly increasing. The table below gives values of the functions and their first
derivatives at selected values of x. The function H is given by H(x) = F(G(x)) 6
X
F(x)
F(x)
G(x)
G(x)
1
3
4
2
5
2
9
2
3
1
3
10
-4
4
2
4
-1
3
6
7
a) Use calculus concepts to explain why there must be a value r for 1 < r < 3 such that
H(r) = -5
b) Use calculus concepts to explain why there must be a value c for 1 < c < 3 such that
H(c) = -5
G( x)

f (t )dt
1

## c) Let w be the function given by w(x) =

. Find the value of w(3)
-1
d) If G is the inverse function of G, write an equation for the line tangent to the graph
of
y = G-1(x) at x = 2.
e) If H(x) = x B(x), where B(x) = F-1 (x), use the table to find H(3)

Solutions:

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A: In this scenario, the IVT must be used. According to this theorem, because
H (1 ) =3 and

## H (3 )=7 , there must be a value of r between 1 and 3 such that

H ( r )=5 .
B: In this scenario, the Mean Value Theorem will be used. This is because there exists
some point c which has an instantaneous rate of change of -5 if the function is
continuous and differentiable in the interval from 1 to 3. The work is shown below.

H ( b )H (a) 73
=
ba
31

H ' ( c )=

f ( 4 ) f ( 2 )
2

H ' ( c )=

19
2

H ' ( c )=

10
2

H ' ( c )=5

C: This scenario calls for the second version of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.
The work is shown below.
G( x )

w ( x )= F ( t ) dt

'
w ( x )=F ( G ( x ) )

'
w ( 3 )=F ( G ( 3 ) )

w ' ( 3 )=F ( 4 )

w ' ( 3 )=1

D: In order to solve this problem, the coordinates must be calculated by first evaluating
g(2). Next, the inverse is taken. The new x coordinate will be used in order to solve for a

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slope. Next, the reciprocal of that slope will be taken and its sign will be changed. The
new values were then put into point slope form for the final answer.
y=G 1 ( x )
x=G ( y )

( x=2 )
2=G ( y )
y=1
y'=

1
1
1
=
=
G ( y ) G '(1) 5
'

1
y1= ( x2)
5

E: The first step of this problem is to use the product rule in order to find the derivative
of H(x). Also thanks to the given information of B(x) = F -1(x), it is able to be deduced

that B(x) =

1
F ( y) . Next, the y value in which x = 3 and 3 = F(y) is determined to be
'

1. Once the discovered values are plugged in, an answer of 1.75 is obtained. The work
is shown below.
H ' ( x )=B ( x ) + x B ' ( x )

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B ( x )=F1 ( x )
'

'

B ( x ) =( F ( x ) ) =

1
F ' ( y)

1
F ( x )= y F ( y )=x F ( y )=3 y=1

H ' ( x )=F1 ( 3 ) +

1
F ( y)

H ' ( 3 ) =F 1 ( 3 ) +

3
f '(1)

'

3
H ' ( 3 ) =1+ =1.75
4

Work Cited.
Acre, Scot. "Oral Presentations." MMSTC. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.
<http://mmstcmracre.weebly.com/oral-presentations.html>.
"Graphing Calculator- Free Online Tool Graph Functions, Finds Intersections, Table of
Values. Implicit Equations, Pan, Zoom, & Export as Image." Graphing CalculatorFree Online Tool Graph Functions, Finds Intersections, Table of Values. Implicit
Equations, Pan, Zoom, & Export as Image.N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2013.

## "Intermediate Value Theorem." Intermediate Value Theorem. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.

<http://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/intermediate-value-theorem.html>.

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"Mean Value Theorem." Mean Value Theorem. Web. 9 Mar. 2015.
<http://www.analyzemath.com/calculus/MeanValueTheorem/MeanValueTheorem
.html>.