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]l*fl]l]l# i ~]l]l

Cl]lM- S $ ]l$]l M- S ->- VS$_ l$-- $-MS $-.


$-MS $-l B- Z { -l] V> {s- l] $, yl - - ->- $, M]l#$, r-$-l] $, Q-f ]l-M> r$ MS{-l M- S B]l*O- - l]
(DNA&RNA) $ Es-. r-$-l] $, Q-f- ]l-M- >-$ _-l]
-l] *-- -Z Es-. M- >-s- t s- l$-V> _]l-V- S $ Vyl- $ $a-M-l] y- l MS Z MS- - --. M> {s- l] $, M]l#-$,
yl- ->- $ l -l] *-Z Es-. s- _]l-- V- S $
Vyl- $ l$-V> Z- ^l $-M- - l] #. M>-s t C _]l -l] *-ZMS ]l*>-. Z- f-W- l] ->- $ MS > - l MS- g-(Tissues)MS$ - - > fV- >-. B* MS-g--$ - - M- S >- - l] $ - *-W- ^l$-M--. D ll {{MS- $-Z { -l] V>
$-VS $ l- - $ MS- - - .
z l
-l] *-Z- M- S ->- $ (-{-s - l] $, M>-O -{- ylr$, M]l#-$) o-MS V>, - $-M- S V> _]l -l] *-Z-MS
]l*y- l & -- l i- - {-~ MS- $ As- $.
z i- O-~ l $-l] M- S
->- ]l$ _]lVS$ Vyl- $ Z- ^l $-M-l] yl.
z Z
- ^l-l] - - ->- $ - M- S > - l A]l- $--M- S $
--> M>]l-yl.
z
- - - > A-l] M- S ->- - l] $ A]l- $--$ - *-W- ^l$M-l] y- l . -l - X-MS - - (Assimilation) As-$.
f]l- - O lMS$ ^l-l] {-$ A]lV- >-
-l] M- S $ _ Es. M>-s t i- -~ l] -l] - VS$_ - #- V> ^la.

MS$- l] -- >- - l] $ B- V> $-MS $l- . E-: {-$, DVS


>.
4. -S-M>-$ (Omnivorous):
A M> B- ->- - l] * $-MS $-l - . E: ]l*]l]l#yl$,
MS, M>MS.
5. g S (Cannibalism):
JMS gMS ^l]l i]l#]l$ Al gMS ^l]l i]l#$ BV>
$h^lyl. E: MSVS M{, l$, l$$
6. (Larvivorous):
Cl i]l# >]l$ l E: V>** ^l ]l$
>]l$ r$.

i~ ]l]l-

]l*]l]l#yl i~]l]l

]l*]l]l#yl i~ l] ]l Z { ]lV> yl$ V>$s. 1.


i~ 2. i~ {VSl$$
i~ (Digestive Tract):
JMS Vrt ]l*V> i~ ]l$]l Z lO l $ Er$.
D s lVSY {O l $ ]l# ]ll Al]l$]l#l $.
D {MS]l$Z JMS VSZ ]lV>, ]l$ VSZ
lyl$V> Hyl Er$. i~ Z -V>-$ ]l$- - Z..
$, B MS$, {VS , B MS, i>~ $, _]lVS$,
l VS$, ]l#. i~ Z JMP VS VS$_ ]lV>
l$$MS$.
B MS$ (Buccal Cavity): O l]lyl, MS l]lyl ]l$l
V> B MS$ As$. Cl$Z $MS, l$
A]l$ Es.
$MS: $]l l$ gl $_. M>st
$MS JMS $_ {V>MS. ^l Z $MS Eyll$. ]lZ
$MS $_MS l$$ ]l]l$ {VS
^lyMS ylyl$l$.
$]l ]l $MS.., #$#, E, ^ll$ Al
$VS$ M> $^l$]l$ {VS
$.
l$: l VS$_ l$g > Jylsi A
s$. l$ ylOs l l*]l#. ylOs l M> $
M>ls, M> $ s l*]l#l$.
lZ ylOs lO G$ V>
Er$. G$ Z A VSst . C l$
AVSMS$y, l $$ >MS$y M>yl$l$. G$ B
VS HylsMS l ]lMS A]l . VS s >
O yl *Z l Al$l$. lZ ylOs l Hyl
sMS ylyl r$l BPMS B]l$ r$l& .

--l fl$-]l#- --- --$

*$-O- E]l i- - l] #- $ l]l$-MS $ M>---l] M- S ->- - l] $ - l


l l $- > {VS
-- . B- - - V> - -l] $ - l M>$V> ]l- M-Y S - ^l- l] ^- l $a.
1. $ - (Autotrophs):
l]l$-MS $ M>--l] M- S -- >- - l] $ l$ l*$ ^l $-M-l i-l] #$ - - $M- >-$. E-: BMS$^la- lMSP-$, M MS-t *-$. MS- f-l] *-VS {MS$ > B-MS $^la- lMSP-$ B>- l*- $ ^l $-Ms-.
2. --- (Heterotrophs):
B-
- - M Cl- i]l#- O- B- ylr
- . E-: >-M>--$-$&
lMSP-- l] $ B- V> $-M-l] y- l . ]l*- $-$& C-l - i]l#-l] $ B- V> $-M-l] y- l . X-- - (Sangvi vorous)M>- - - $al* i^l i]l#- $. E: f-VS , ]l$, ]l.
3. N-M>--$-$ (saprophytes):

il M>Z l$ Hyl Q]l$ st ]lyl$ M>$


1. $ l$ (Polypheodont teeth): il M>Z
l$ AlMS $ Fyl, W Hyl.
E: ^l $, E$ ^l>$, $.
2. l$ (Dipheodont teeth): il M>Z l
$ yl$ $ Hyl. lls Hyl]l s
l$, y Hyl]l s >l l$
As$. E: S$ (]l*]l]l#yl$)
3. HMS l$: il M>Z JMS ]l*{ll$ l$
Hyl. E : yl, $VS$, MSV>*

l M>$:

s$$. ^lM>$ il M>Z JMS ]l${ll$ Hyl$$.


{VS (Pharynx): BMS$, M> MS$>$ yl*
{VS ZMS l$^l$MS$s$$. {VS J-MS O l # sMS, ]l$Ol #
B MSZMS l$^l$MS$r$. Al$]l {VS >,
B ]l*>Y ]l$l MS*ylV> VS $. B $VS
]l$$Z B M> MS$ZMS lM S $y Ayl$zMS $l
> Myl $MS (Uvual). B sMSZMS
lM S $y Ayl$zMS $l > E hMS.
B MS: {VS ]l$_ $$l i>~ $ZMS l$^l$
MS$r$.
i>~$: C JMS _ ]ls >. fMS r
(Diaphragm) MSl A]l$ Er$. i>~ $Z B
GMS$P]l ]l$$ Er$. B> MS$rtyl , i~
^l$yl i>~ $ ]lQ. l]l$$l >M> SZ
i>~ $ $VS$ VSl$$V> yl$$ Er$.
E: B]l#, VSl
_]l VS$: C ]l*]l]l#yl Z # B$ $r yl]l# E
r$. i>~ $ l$$l Z ylO l ]l VS _]lVS$. Z
VylO Eyl AlMS l ]ls >]l$ B{l^l*M>$
(Villi) As$. _]lVS$Z ]lyl$ V>$s$$.
G.B{l]l (Duodenum),
. gk]l (Jejunum),
. {MS (Ilium)
l VS$: C 1 1/2 $r yl]l# Er$. Cl$Z ]lyl$
V>$s$$.
G. Al (Ceacum),
. Ml (Colan),
. # (Rectum)
# _]l ]l# (Anus) Er$.

BM>, {MS$ BV> l M>$


z ]l$ l$ (Hemodont teeth): sZ A lMS*
JMS BM>, {MS$ Er$. E: ^l $, E$
^l>$, $.
z ]l$ l$ (Heterodont teeth): sZ l
l BM>>Z Eyl, l$ {MS$$ .
E: S$ (]l*]l]l#yl$).
]l$ l$]l i]l#$ B> ]l]l$]l#. l$V>
$VS. Al sMS l$ Gl$MS$? Al l

MS$VS]l^l$a. C S r$ B s ]l$_ g
MS$y E- *-VS - y- l $--. M>st B ]l$ A]lM>
]l$ l$]l SMS E.
MS$ ^l]l $, S$Z l$ Eyl]l#. s
SZ JMS l]lylZ lMS Q? s {$ Ayl
V^l$a. ]l*-- $-Z l- M- S - $ V> A]l ^l
Es$$. G$MS, MS$l$, H]l$VS$Z il MS$lM>$
$VS$-l * Es$$. H]l$VS$ O l]lylZ y fl MS$lM>$
l$ (Tusks)V> ]l*$ ^ll$$$. ]l$]l lZ ]l$VS
H]l$VS$MS$ ]l*{ll$ l$ Es$$.
_]l]l Eyl ^lM>]l$ gql] l$ (Wisdom teeth)
As$. s- Z l$$l $VS$ gql] l$ Es$$. 17
]l$_ 25 H ]l$l ]l$$Z C Hyl$$. ]l*]l]l#yl
sZ lMS$, gql] l]l$ A]l A$$V>
VS $.
]l*]l]l#yl Z l$$lr Hyl l]l$ l$
As$. l Q 20. C Hyl$ ]l$_ $l
]l$$Z Fyl$$ 32 >l l$ Hyl$$.
l MSs AMSV> 12 >l l$ Hyl$$. D
l l]lyl _]l Eyl ^lM>$. lZ ^lM>$
Eyl]l#. MS$lM>$, lMS$, A{VS ^lM>$ ]l*{ll$ E

i~]l]l & i~{MS$


i>~$Z i~{MS$

BMS MSlMS > B l]l$V> i>~ $ZMS


^l$l$. Cl$Z yl , M>z *MS, O ZMS Al ]lyl$
V>$s. M Mr *MSOl $]l fu {VSl$$ i>~ $
VylZ Es. s ]l$_ fu yl$l]l#l $. fu
{VSl$Z Mt S MS$ fl Al {MS*
l GOg l$
E]l fu yl$l ^l. BMSsMS MS$,
O {yMMS MS*ylE]l fu yl$l ^l.
O {yMMS B]l$ {]l $l MV> {MS*
l
fl, {MS* lZMS ]l*$l$. B l>l l
$VS fl]l$ l]lZMS ]l*$$. Cr$]ls ^l]l$
Autocatalysis As$. fu
Z B]l$l GMS$P]lV>
Er$. BZ {s]l$ l ^l > {s
*g$, tl $V> ]l*.

BZ ZMS$ VS$M> MS t A$]l#$ ZMS$


VS$M>VSVS A$]l#$V> ]l*y i{~ MS$ As$. i~
]l]l Z l V>Z {lMS $MS ^l >
i{~ MS$ f$VS$l$. i~ ]l]l Z JMS i~ ,
A]l$l i~ {VSl$$ Es. i{~ MS$ N l] l>l,
Ai~ ]l , ]l$ *Z ]l$_ $rMS$
jl ]l$]l#l$. i~ s llO ]l#
Al]l$]l#l$. i~ Z l V>$ MSl P]l
{MS]l$Z Es.
$ (Mouth) s MS$ (Mouth Cavity) {VS
(Pharynx) BMS (Oesophagus) i>~$
(Stomach) _]lVS$ (Small Intestine) l VS$
(Large Intestine) ]l# (Anus).
_]l VS$Z B{l]l (Duodenum), gf]l, C$
Al ]lyl$ V>$ Es. l VS$Z Al
(Caecum), Ml,
# (Rectum) Al ]lyl$ V>$
Es. i~ f {VSl$$, fu {VSl$$,
M>$, Ml] $, B{l {VSl$$ ]lyl yl Es.
i{~ VSl$ ]l$_ yl$l$ i~ Z GOg l$$
i{~ MS$]l$ ^l yl. {s]l l] $ i~ ^l GOg l$$,
{s$g$, M]l# >]l$ i~ ^l GOg l$$, O g$,
yl >]l$ i~ ^l GOg l$$, AOl $g$. D GOg
l$$ E{lM>$V> ]l]l
* MS t B A$]l#]l$ MS
l V> A$]l#$V> ]l*$.
yl >$
AOl$g$ l*>QOyl$
{s]l$
M]l#$

{s{MSg$ AOl $ B]l*$


Og$
M]l# B]l*$ + W >

sZ i~{MS$
]l$ s MS$ZMS ]lyl$ fl f {VSl$$
l$^l$MS$s. Cl SsZ $VS$ fl f
{VSl$$ Es. s ]l$_ s MS$ZMS f
yl$l]l#l $. fZ r$l Al JMS AOl $g
Er$. EylMS]l t a]l$ r$l { ]lV> ]l*Ztg V>
]l*$$. t a JMS >QO yl. ]l, Vl $]l$ ]ls
BZ t a s MS$Z r$l ^l >
]l*Ztg Al yO l >QO ylV> ]l*$l$.
t a

l ]l*Ztg

l
{s]l$
{s*g$ + tl $
_$ fu Z l Al {lMS GOg l$ Er$.
C {sl, MS l]l$ M> $ ]l$SZ >MS lV>
]l*$$. D ^l]l$ Curdling of milk As$.

B{l]lZ i~{MS$
B{l]lZMS i>~ $ ]l$_ B]l$ l B
^l$l$. Chyme As$. B{l]l _]l VS$
lls VS. 'U' BM>Z Er$. yl]l# 20&25
.$. B{l]lZMS M>$, Ml] $ yl$
l$^l$MS$s. M>$Z $Z O l
Er$. $ M^l > O l B{l]l
ZMS yl$l]l#l$. O l Z GOg l$$ Eyl]l#. O l
]l$, O l ]lM~ >$ Es. O l ]l$
(yl$, s$ sMs$, VSM Ms$) M]l#
G]l$MS (Emulsification)]l$ ^l yl. O l ]lM~ >$
(O $l, O ]lzl ) ]l >$
Z
l*Vl
_e]lOl $]l #yl $
VS ]l$_ C Hyl MS ZMS
yl$l]l#. MS ]l$_ M>$ MS_ O l
*Z B{l]lZMS yl$l ^l $. ]l$ >
_]lMS$ ]l$_ C $rMS$ yl$l]l#. Ml] $ JMS
${]l$ {VS. Cl$Z {]lMS VSZ A MS$
Es. s ]l$_ Ml] $ B{l]lZMS yl$ lZ
yl$l]l#l $. yllZ O M>ls AMSV> E]l Ml] $
, B l>l GOg l$$ AMSV> E]l Ml] $

gf]lZ i~{MS$

gf]lZ VylZ {lMS B{l {VSl$$s. s crypts



of Lieberkuhn As$. s ]l$_ gf]lZMS B{l
(Succus entericus) yl$l]l#l$. Cl$Z GOgl$
^l > i{~ MS$ N l] #l$. B{l Z AOl $g$
yl > i{~ MS$]l$ N ^l. ]l*gt Al GOg l$
]l*Ztg ]l$ yl$ VS*Mg A$]l#$V> ]l*$$. ${Mg Al
GOg l$ ${Mg]l$ JMS VS*Mg JMS {Mtg A$]l#V> _e]l
^l $. MSgt Al GOg l$ Mtg ]l$ JMS VS*Mg, JMS
V>Mtg V> ]l*$$. VS*Mg, {Mtg , V>Mtg D ]lyl$
l*>QO yl$. B{l]lZ Hyl]l yt l ]l$ B{l
Z Gl Al GOg l$, AOl $ B]l*$V> ]l*$$.
B{l O g > $W]l M {sW O yl$ M]l# B]l*$,
W >V> ]l*. B{l Z ]l*MS $g GOg l$,
BZ MS{lM>]l*]l$ ]l*MS*Osyl$V> ]l*$$.
]l*MS *Os ylO ]l*MS *sylg Al GOg l$ ^l
]l*MS *Oyl, MS B]l$V> ]l*$$.

2. ]l$ i~ ]l]l Z GOg l$ M>? ( {l$ 2007)


G) {s l
) V>[t l
) r$l
yl) l
3. _]lVS$Z ]lyl$ V> ]l* O ]l {MS]l*
VS$^lyl? ( {l$ 2007)
G) gf]l & B{l]l & C$
) C$ & B{l]l & gf]l
) gf]l & C$ & B{l]l
yl) C$ & gf]l & B{l]l
4. s MS$Z i{~ MS$ l>l BMSZMS ^l
B ]ll l] $ H]l$s$?
G) MO S
) MO S
) Z
yl) OMSZOl${M>l
5. MS sZ M> H?
G) M>$ Z Al {VS
) O l Z {s]l l] $ i~ ^l GOg l$$ Es
) O l Z O l ]l$ M]l# G]l$MS]l$
^lyl
yl)Ol >lV> Er$
6. MS sZ 14 ]ll> Z# MS $VS$
lMS$ A ]lQOl $ H? ({VS*&2, 2008)
G) M]l#
) $
) r$]l$
yl) {s]l$
7. B{l]lZMS ^l Ml] $ , O l Z MS
>lV> ]l*]l B?
G) MO S
) MO S
) Z
yl) H M>l$
8. l VS$Z Al VS?
G) Ml
) Al
) #
yl) Eyl$MS
9. * H VSZ l*]l#l$?
G)

) Ml] $
) M>$
yl) ]l{l yl
10.JMS *{Mg A$]l#Z ll G ]l*$]l#$ E
s?
G) 45
) 48
) 50
yl) 46

yl$l]l#l$. Ml] $ Z {s l, MO S l*{s l Al


GOg l$$. i>~ $Z Hyl]l {s*g, tl ]l$
{s yt l , yO l yt l $V> ]l*$$. Ml] $ Z A$Zl
Al AOl $g ^l > s MS$Z i~ M> t a
]l*Ztg V> ]l*$l$. Ml] $ Z t *l Al O g
M]l#]l$ {sW O yl$V> ]l*$$. ^l >l
{sW O yl$ M]l# B]l*$, W >V> i~ l] $]l#.

B Z

O V>Z iO~ l $]l B _]lVS$Z ylO l ]l VS


C$Z MS ZMS Z ^ll$l$. C$ El
A *MS ^l*M>$ (Microvilli) Al *MS lM>
> > B MS Z Z ^ll$l$. M]l#
B]l*$, W > MV> l M>]lyl ]l, s Z,
Lacteals Al {lMS ^l*M> > f$VS$l$. MS
ZMS
Z ^l]l B A$]l#$ Z *VS]l$]ly
XMS (Assimilation) As$.
i~ M> ]l l] $ ]l$V> ]l* l VS$ Ml
> VS$l*, # Z Eyl, ]l# >
jl]l$]l#l$.

]l*$

]l* {$
1. f pH $]l Gl?
G) 7.0 & 7.5
) 6.3 & 7.0
) 5.0 & 6.0
yl) 7.5 & 8.5

1 2 3 yl 4 5
6 yl 7 G 8 G 9 10 G

GOgl$$ Eyl i~?


i~ Z B {* $l] ]l$$Z A i~
M>]lyMS ylyl {VSl$l i{~ VSl$$ As$. i{~ VSl$$
i~ ]l$ (Digestive Juices) yl$l ^l. i~ Z
GOg l$$ (Enzymes) Es. GOg l$$ B> i~
^l$yMS ylyl.

i~{MS$

M>$ (Liver): C Z A l {VS. $]l#


$]l*$V> 1 1/2 MSi$. C >MS A]l O l $]l A{ ]l
>]l$ l*$^l $. Al$MS Z JMS
$]l {]l$V> $ $.
z Z ll
{VSl$Z A l & M>$
z A _]l {VS &
r*r {VS
z A l Al{ {VS & O l >yl {VS
z A _]l Al{ {VS &
r*r
z M>$Z l*$ M { ]lO l $]l
>$..
{{l, O {hl & C V>$ Hyl]l^r MS
VSylMz S rtyl Z ylyl$. l & MS Z MS
VSylMz S rtMS $y ^l* . VSM fl & MS Z GMS$POl ]l
VS*Mg M>$Z VSMflV> ]l*$^ll$l$.
B > ZMS {l^l M >]l$
M>$ ^l $. A { ]l M>]l$ M>$
^l $MS$ A]l O l $]l yl$ lMS > ^l $. C
^l $MS$l { ]l M>$.. Il, VSM fl, r$l & G,
r$l & yl, r$l & MS, r$l & 12, r$l & 2
llO ]l. iO~ l $]l B _]lVS$ Vyl > Z
^l]l l$l l$V> M>*MS ^l$l$. AMSPyl ]l$_
MS >$ l A]l$MS$ > A]l#. As
M>$ "^lMS 't ^l $ A ^l ]l^l$a. M>$
]l$ { ]l S "MZ]l V> W l]lMS$ ]l$V>
*^l$M]lyl'. l #]l$l (Regeneration)
As$. ]l$]l Z #]l$l f$#MS$l A]l$Z
{ ]l O l $]l.. ^l, M>$. M>$ ]l$l Z VS ]ls
V> $ (Gall bladder) As$. $Z
O l Er$. O l Z $, O l ]l$
(Bile Salts), O l
]lM~ >$ (Bile Pigments), M t >
Es. O l ]l$ { ]lV> yl$ VSM Ms,
yl$ sMs. C BZ M]l#]l$ G]l$MS
(Emalsification) ^l. D {{MS$ M]l# i{~ MS$MS$

_]lVS$ Vyl$ Z (absorption) ^l$M]lyMS $V>


MS Ot l $]l l ]l*Z B >]l$ _]l VS$
Vyl$ Z ^l $M]lyMS $V> O l $]l _]l ]l*
ZMS ]l*a {{MS$l i{~ MS$ As$.
]l*]l]l#ylZ { ]lV> "5' M>O ]l i~ {VSl$$s.
A..
z f{VSl$$ (Salivary Glands)
z fu {VSl$$ (Gastric Glands)
z M>$ (Liver)
z Ml] $ (Pancreas)
z B{l {VSl$$ (Intestinal Glands)

E*W^l GOg l$ l. MS$ l]l$


MSyl > Z MS l VSylMz S st k]l$ l*]l#l $.
i>~ $Z MO S l$ MMV> _]lVS$ B{l ]lZMS
{l$. C MO S l$ B{l]l (Duodenum)ZMS {l^l
y fuY l] $ ]l (Pyloric Spincter) ${$.
B{l]lZMS yl$ {VSl$$ l^l$MS$s. A M>
$, Ml] $.

(Cheese) ElZ

i~]l]l

f{VSl$$ (Salivary Glands): s MS$ (Buccal


Cavity) ^l$r*t 3 fl f {VSl$$s. C kMS$
r$ f yl$l ^l. fl (Saliva)
yl$MS Z "E$' As. sZMS $MS$]l B
f MS]l l>l Z (Bolus) As$.
fZ $, ]ll ( ), r$l Al GOg l$$
Es. r$l]l$ f AOl $ A MS*y As$.
C yl >]l$ (Carbohydrates) i~^l ]l*Ztg,
ylMS{sZg ^lMSP$V> ]l*$$.

fu{VSl$$ (Gastric Glands): C i>~ $ VylZ


Es. fu yl$l ^l. fuMS B]l$
S Er$. Cl$Z $, , O {yMMS B]l$
(HCl),
l, l$ Es. B r$ ZMS
{l_]l *MSi]l#]l$ O {yMMS B]l$ ^l $.
{sl]l$ SMSV> l i~ ^l {s*$, tl $V>
]l*$$. l GOg l$ ]l$ VSylMz S st _ Z MS l Al
{sl i~ M>]lyMS ylyl$l$. D GOg l$ _]lZ
GMS$P]lV> El A]l#l$. i>~ $Z SMSV> iO~ l $]l
B> "OMS l$' (Chyme) As$. {>$MSV> k]l$

]lR>$
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

i~ Z i{~ MS$ {]l$$ VS & AMS$


i{~ {MS$Z llrV> i~ l] $$ >$ & yl
>$
i{~ MS$Z Yl lls GOg l$ & r$l
i{~ VSl$$ Eyl V>$ .. {VS , BMS, l VS$
f{VSl$ {l$$ ]l i~ l] $$ & yl
>$
fu{VSl$ ]l i~ l] $$ >$ & {sl$
Gs GOg l$* Eyl i~ & O l
i>~ $Z i~ l] $$ >$ & {sl$
{sl i{~ MS$ {]l$$ VS & i>~ $
A GMS$P]l i{~ MS$ fVS VS & _]lVS$
i{~ MS$ N $ VS & _]lVS$

M]l$ (Pancreas): C JMS {l s BM>Z Eyl {VS.


"MS {VS' As$. Z ll {VSl$]l$
yl$ M>$V> h^l]l^l$a. A {VSl$$ (Duct
Glands), {VSl$$ (Ductless Glands). M> Ml] $
]l*{l yl$ {VSl$$V>]l* ^l $. Al$MS
MS{ VS (Complex Gland) As$. Ml] $Z {VSV>
^l VS "VS
l #s MS$' (Islets of Langerhans).
VS
l#sMS ]l$_ yl$l$ l$.. C]l$l
(Insulin), VS*MS V>l (Glucogon).

]lyl l VS$ { ]l{MS$.

ylyl$l$. M]l# G]l$MS fVSMSl M]l#$ i~


M>]l#. O l ]lM~ >$ (Bile Pigments) yl$ M>$ A..
$# ]l~ Z *l, BMS$^la ]l~ Z yll.
O l ]lM~ >$ MS]l ]l$>MS ]l>~ MSW^lyl l
Cl H {{MS$MS* ylyl]l#.
H l O l $]l iG~ Og l$* i~ "Ol '.

z
z
z

C]l$l: MS Z MSs GMS$POl ]l VS*Mg]l$


MS lWY $. MS Z GMS$POl ]l VS*Mg]l$
"VSM flV>'V> ]l*$$. VSM fl M>$Z Er$.
C]l$l Z ]l MS Z VS*Mg MSs
(80$.{V>&120$.{V>/100 $..) GMS$P]l M>]ly "yl*
s $r ' ($VS ) As$.

VS*MSV>l: MS Z VS*Mg MSs lMS$P]lO l ]l #yl$


VS*MS V>l yl$l]l#l$. MS Z lWYl] VS*Mg]l$
MS ^l$l$.
Ml] $ ]l$_ Ml] $ yl$l]l#l$. Cl$Z {s l,
O , MO S l*{s l, ]l*MS $g, AOl $g Al GOg l$$
s. {s l, MO S l*{s l$ {sl]l$ i~ ^l. O g
M]l#]l$, ]l*MS $g MS{lMS B]l*]l$, AOl $g yl >
]l$ i~ ^l. As Ml] $ A > i{~ MS$
Z]l* ylyl$l$.
B{l{VSl$$ (Intestinal Glands): C _]lVS$ VylZ
Es. B{l yl$l ^l. B{l Z $,
yt l g, O g, ]l*MS *Os ylg, ]l*MS *Oylg, ${MSg, MSt
g, ]l*gt Al GOg l$$ Es. yt l g {sl$, O g
M]l#$, ]l*MS *Os yl , ]l*MS *Oyl $ MS{lMS B]l*]l$
i~ ^l. ${MSg, MSgt , ]l*gt $ yl >]l$ i~
^l. B i~ l] $]lyl N l] #l $.
l VS$Z Gs i{~ VSl$* Eyl]l#, H >
i{~ MS* fVSl$. $, ]l]l$ ]l*{ll$ Z ^l $M