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Unit 8: History of Life on Earth

Lesson 1 Origin of Life on Earth


Vocabulary:

Cyanobacteria: oldest known organism based on the fossil record

Notes:

The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old.


Cyanobacteria are the oldest known organisms based on the fossil record.
o Scientists believe that it was formed about 2.5 billion years ago.
o Lightning struck the early ingredients (Primordial Soup) of earths
atmosphere and created amino and nucleic acids.
o Cyanobacteria were and are photosynthetic and pumped oxygen into the
atmosphere.
Stanley Miller, in 1953, placed the primordial soup ingredients into a flask, sent
a spark through it and a week later, it had amino acids in it.

Lets Practice!
True or False. If false, write the correct answer.
1. The Earth is about 1 thousand years old.
2. Cyanobateria is the oldest known organism based on fossil record.
3. Cyanobacteria were and are photosynthetic and pumped helium into
the atmosphere.
4. Mrs. Shepard, in 1953, place the primordial soup ingredients into a flask
and sent a spark through it.
5. Scientist believe that cyanobacteria was formed about 2.5 billion years ago.

Unit 8: History of Life on Earth


Lesson 2- The Theory of Evolution
Vocabulary:
Theory: an explanation or model of related natural events that can be tested
by observations or experiments
Evolution: the process by which an organism changes over time
Natural Selection: process by which individuals that are better adapted to
their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well
adapted individuals do
Notes:

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck suggested that during an organisms life, it acquires


changes and then passes on those changes to its offspring.
o He called this evolution by Acquired characteristics.
o This hypothesis was rejected because there was no evidence to support it.
Charles Darwin was a British naturalist that formed the Theory of Evolution by
means of natural selection.
o Galapagos Islands: Darwin sailed to the Galapagos Islands where he made
observations and collected data on the animals on the island.
o Darwin specifically studied the finches. He found that although they are all
from the same species, they had different characteristics depending on
which island/environment they were living in. He hypothesized that
populations had all changed over time.

Lets Practice!

Unit 8: History of Life on Earth


Match the definition to its word or Name by drawing a line connecting
them.

Evolution

Individuals that are better adapted


to their environment survive and
reproduce more successfully than

Charles Darwin

Process by which an
organism changes over time.

Theory

British naturalist that formed the


Theory of Evolution by means of
natural selection.

Natural Selection

Explanation or model of related


natural events that can be tested by
observations.

Lesson 3- Natural Selection


Vocabulary:

Unit 8: History of Life on Earth

Natural Selection: process by which individuals that are better adapted to


their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well
adapted individuals do
Overproduction: more offspring are produced than will live
Variation: all species have differences that enable them to meet challenges or
not
Survival of fit individuals: those with traits better fitted to the environment
survive better than those that do not
Adaptations: traits that allow organisms to survive in their environment
Lets Practice!

Fill in the blank with appropriate term.


1. ___________________ are traits that allow organisms to survive in their environment.
2. All species that have differences that enable them to meet challenges or not are
called ______________.
3. When more offspring are produced than will live is called __________________.
4. The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment
survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do is
called ___________ ______________.
5. __________ ___ ___ ______________ is when those with traits better fitted to the
environment survive better than those that do not.
Word Bank: Adaptations
Overproduction

Survival of fit individuals


Variations

Lesson 5- Origin of a New Species


Vocabulary:

Natural Selection

Unit 8: History of Life on Earth

Biological species: a group of interbreeding organisms that can produce


fertile offspring.
Speciation: the origin and formation of a new species

Notes:

Species Scientific Name


1. Genus and Species (Example: Homo Sapien)
Carolus Linnaeus: created the binomial nomenclature
Speciation
1. Populations become totally separated.
2. They cannot interbreed.
3. They adapt to the different environment over long periods of time. They
become so different they can no longer produce fertile offspring.

Lets Practice!
Use the terms above to answer the following questions.

1. What are the two parts of a species scientific name?

2. Who created the binomial nomenclature?

3. What is the term for a group of interbreeding organisms that can produce fertile
offspring?
4. The origin and formation of a new species is called

Lesson 6- Development of Life


Notes:

The four major eras of Life on Earth are:

Unit 8: History of Life on Earth

1. Cenozoic
2. Mesozoic
3. Paleozoic
4. Precambrian
The oldest is the Precambrian and it lasted for 4.1 billion years.
Plants colonized the land and fish/amphibians developed during the Paleozoic
Era.
The Mesozoic Era is known as the age of reptiles.
The current era that we are in is the Cenozoic Era and it is known as the Age of
Mammals.
Lets Practice!

Number the four eras in order that the occurred, with 1 occurring first, and 4
being the present era.

Precambria
n

Mesozoic

Paleozoic

Cenozic