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EDLA309

Assessment Task 3
LITERACY UNIT PLANNER

Ashleigh Grech S00129130

Topic: My Place: Charles 1818 Episode 20: Fencing



GRAMMAR FOCUS: (levels)

Year Level: 5

1. Whole text structure of an Information Narrative

Information

Orientation: An introduction in which the characters, setting and time of the story
are established. Usually the answers to who, when and where are provided in this
part of the narrative.
Complication and series of events: the situations, activities and events involving
the main character are expanded upon. These events are written in a fluent and
cohesive sequence.
Resolution (ending): the complication is resolved satisfactorily but not necessarily
happily. (Wing Jan, 2009, pp. 235).

Language features for the text-type:

Text type and mode

Term: Weeks:
Listened to

Spoken

Read

Date:
Written

Viewed

Produced

Narrative

Steps in Teaching and Learning Cycle: (adapted Derewianka, 1990/2007)


1. Building topic knowledge
2. Building text knowledge/Model the genre
3. Guided activities to develop vocabulary and text knowledge
4. Joint construction of text
5. Independent construction of text
6. Reflecting on language choices

Adjectives and related groups of words (e.g. adjectival phrases and clauses) Frequently used Literacy Instructional Strategies: Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
Language Experience Approach (R/W) Picture Chat Read to Shared R/W Guided R/W
to provide rich description of nouns (e.g. characters, setting)
Modelled writing Interactive writing Independent R/W Literature Circles Reciprocal Teaching
Adverbs and related groups of words (e.g. adverbial phrases and clauses)
Mini lesson Roving conferences
to add extra information about the verbs (to describe how, when and
Teaching techniques: Think Aloud, Text analysis, Cloze exercises, Note-taking,
where events take place)
Graphic Organisers: T-chart, Y-chart; Venn diagram, Data grid, Sunshine wheel, KWL chart, Flow
chart, Story map, templates for text-types for planning,
First or Third person pronouns

Dialogue

Tense changes (present tense in dialogue, usually past tense in remainder


of text)

(Wing Jan, 2009, pp. 235-236).


Section 1 Focus and rationale for planning:


CONTEXT: Overview of series of lessons and background information
http://www.myplace.edu.au/home.html
http://www.myplace.edu.au/teaching_activities/1878_-
_before_time/1818/episode_landing_20.html

Episode 20 | 1818: Charles Unit focus: English Year Level 5
Episode Clip: 1: Fencing
Episode Clip 2: The Convict
Episode Clip 3: Being a Lady

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3

Ashleigh Grech S00129130

Subthemes: Family and community, gender roles and stereotypes, lifestyle, chores,
business and employment, social order and education, life of a convict.

I have selected this section of the My Place website as a basis for my planning as it
covers a range of subthemes which will be addressed throughout the unit. It
provides students with the opportunity to engage with Australian history, whilst
building topic knowledge and actively making connections between life in the
st
1800s and life as it is in the 21 century. It also serves as an effective exemplary for
the text-type information narrative. Students can deepen their understanding of a
factual topic, which will contribute to their development of language skills achieved
through oracy and writing activities.
Pre-assessment of students skills and knowledge:
Standardized tests for reading/writing/ NAPLAN
Profile of Data Progression of Reading Development
Conferences/interviews
Student written work samples
Self-assessments
Literacy Learning intention: We are learning the structure and relevant language
features of an information narrative, to inform our ability to construct an
independent information narrative.
Learning behaviours: I need to use the My Place resources to develop my
knowledge of the context of the 1800s era. I will use a range of listening, reading
and viewing, oracy and writing techniques.
Success criteria: I know Im doing well if I can
Deconstruct an information narrative
Identify and provide examples of the relevant language features of an
information narrative
st
Compare and contrast life in the 1800s to life in the 21 century
Extend my vocabulary using topic knowledge and text-type specific words
Construct an information narrative (plan, draft, edit and publish)
Work collaboratively with my peers
Challenge myself to explore wonderings

Four resource model (Freebody & Luke, 1990/1999): Code Breaker; Text Participant/Meaning
Maker; Text User; Text Analyst
Comprehension Strategies: Predicting; Visualising; Making connections; Questioning; Inferring;
Determining important ideas; Summarising; Finding evidence in the text; Understanding new
vocabulary; Synthesising; Comparing and contrasting; Paraphrasing; Recognising cause and effect;
Skimming and scanning; Five semiotic systems: linguistics, visual, auditory, spatial, gestural.
Question types: self-questioning; 3 levels; (literal, inferential, evaluative); QAR
Thinking Routines: See, Think, Wonder; Headlines; +1, Three word summary, 5VIPs, Give One, Get
One (refer Ritchhart, R., Church, M., & amp; Morrison, K. (2011). Making Thinking Visible: How to
Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners. eBook online)

Topic-specific vocabulary for the unit of work:


Era, decade, history, convict, work/employment, child labor,
education, gender roles, equality, farming, chores, culture, family
values,

Resources:

Wing Jan, L. (2009). Write ways. South Melbourne;


EPISODE 20: Charles, 1818. English teaching resources downloaded on 11 October 2014 from
www.myplace.edu.au/.
My Place website www.myplace.edu.au Video clip 1,2,3 Episode 20; ABC3 MyPlace
http://www.abc.net.au/abc3/myplace/

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3



Specific vocabulary related to text-type:
Introduction, orientation, setting, series of events, sequence,
complication, resolution, reorientation, characters, descriptive
language, dialogue, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, tense (past, present,
future), first person pronouns, third person pronouns, conjunctions
Analysing
Checking
Classifying
Cooperating
Considering options
Designing
Elaborating

Estimating
Explaining
Generalising
Hypothesising
Inferring
Interpreting
Justifying

Listening
Locating information
Making choices
Note taking
Observing
Ordering events
Organising

Performing
Persuading
Planning
Predicting
Presenting
Providing feedback
Questioning

Reading
Recognising bias
Reflecting
Reporting
Responding
Restating
Revising

Ashleigh Grech S00129130

Seeing patterns
Selecting information
Self-assessing
Sharing ideas
Summarising
Synthesising

Testing
Viewing
Visually representing
Working independently
Working to a timetable




TEACHING & LEARNING
CYCLE
(Identify step in the T & L
cycle and the literacy
learning intention or
sessions focus )

We are learning to ...

1. Building topic
knowledge
Charles 1818:
Fencing
We are learning to
identify key ideas from
a video clip.


WHOLE CLASS
Hook or Tuning In
(Identify a strategy or a tool
to help activate prior
knowledge and/or to
introduce the topic.)


MINI LESSON
(Explicitly model the use of a new
strategy or a tool to assist with the
literacy learning intention or focus
of the session and to prepare
students for successful completion
of the set task. Reference to Wing
Jan include page details)

Brainstorm

Modelled Writing

Think-Pair-Share

Generate a brainstorm
about life in the 1800s
era with students. Record
responses on the IWB.
Focus Questions:
What do you think
the lives of children
living in the 1800s
were like?
Do you think there
may be some
similarities between

Watch First Fleet video clip


(from beginning- 1:30).
http://www.abc.net.au/btn/story/s393
4600.htm

Using a T-chart (See Appendix


1), model how to view for
specific information and
write brief notes. (Wing
Jan, 2009, pp. 128).

Lay emphasis on the


difference between taking

INDEPENDENT
LEARNING
(Extended opportunity for
students to work in pairs, small
groups or individually on a set
task. Time for teacher to probe
students thinking or work with a
small group for part of the time.
Reference to Wing Jan include
page details)

In pairs, students will view the


clip for a second time. They will
add any necessary information
to the T-chart, and justify their
entries to their partner.

Teacher Focus Group:
Watch the clip again. Students
will complete a theme tree,
(See Appendix 1.2) as inspired
by a fact tree, with a focus
selected by the teacher. (Wing

SHARE TIME AND


TEACHER SUMMARY
(Focussed teacher questions and
summary to draw out the
knowledge, skills and processes
used in the session)
Link back to literacy learning
intention and key points of
effective reading/writing,
speaking, listening and viewing.

ASSESSMENT
STRATEGIES
(should relate to literacy
learning intention or focus of
the session. Includes how &
what you will use to make a
judgment on students
attempt/work)
Success criteria written for
students to know what the
minimum expectation is.

Share Time

Teacher will assess students


working in the focus group
through observation and
anecdotal notes. Students
will be assessed on:
Active contribution
Ability to effectively
identify key ideas of the
clip
Supporting individual
responses with a
sufficient justification,
such as providing
evidence from the

Display a blank learning chart


on the IWB. (See Appendix
1.3). Allow students the
opportunity to contribute to
the learning chart. Students
are required to explain their
response. Prompt students if
necessary.
Make specific reference to the
themes presented in the clip,
and identify (and record) the
fundamental themes as a

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3

now and then?


Can you identify any
differences between
now and then?
Prompt students to
think about school,

chores, family,
lifestyle, and gender
roles and parents
roles.

notes in dot point form as


opposed to full sentences.
This allows students to
note down a range of
themes and ideas.

Jan, 2009, pp. 130).


Ashleigh Grech S00129130

class.

video.
Responding to and
building on peers ideas

Watch the Fencing clip as


a whole class.
http://www.myplace.edu.au/teac
hing_activities/1878_-
_before_time/1818/1/fencing.ht
ml

Students will complete a T-


chart, filling in key ideas
and wonderings. (See
Appendix 1)

Brief Lesson 1:
Building Topic
Knowledge:
We are learning to
explore our
wonderings of all
aspects of life in the
era of the 1800s.
Brief Lesson 2:
Building Topic
Knowledge:
We are learning to
identify and explore
wonderings and the
meaning of topic-
specific words.
2. Building text
knowledge/Model
the genre

We are learning to
review the

Students have the opportunity to record their individual wonderings on the aspects of life in the era of the 1800s. Students will develop their
wonderings in accordance with the themes as identified in the previous lesson. (For example: gender roles, family values, chores, and work).
These will be added anonymously to a wonderings well and will be explored as a class.
Whilst exploring these wonderings, start constructing a word wall, with language specific to the era of the 1800s.

Using a screenshot from the second clip, Charles 1818: Episode 20, The Convict, facilitate a See-Think-Wonder. Prompt students to begin
thinking about what events may take place following this clip. Encourage students to focus on vocabulary used in the 1800s.
Continue to explore wonderings identified in the Wonderings Well, and add to the Word Wall.

Review

Display a variety of well


known narratives (See
Appendix 2) on the floor.
Have students sit in a
circle surrounding these

Think aloud

Model how to deconstruct


and annotate aspects of
the structure of an
information narrative,
using The Relatives Came

Narrative Ropes

Students will construct a


narrative rope. They will create
several symbols, which will
represent specific features of
the text that form the

Reflection Circle

Bring students back together


and facilitate a class
discussion. Revise the key
features of the structure of
narratives (orientation,

Collect student work


samples of narrative ropes.
These can be used to
evaluate students current
understanding of the

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3


structure of
narratives.

Brief Lesson 3:
Building text
knowledge
We are learning to
review the language
features of information
narratives.

texts. Ask students to


pass these around and
briefly analyse them.

Focus question: What do
all of these texts have in
common?
Identify the structure of a
narrative: Orientation,
Complication and series
of events, and
Resolution. Prompt
students if necessary.

(See Appendix 2).


On a large sheet of paper
write a short narrative as a
class. This can be on any
topic, as voted by students.
Have students deconstruct
the text, by highlighting
the structure of a
narrative.
Ensure the text has been
separated into relevant
sections.

Ashleigh Grech S00129130

structure.
complication, a series of
structure of a narrative.
Students are required to
events, resolution and possible
incorporate:
reorientation).
Use these as a resource for
Structure (Introduction,

individual student
complication and series of Students have the opportunity portfolios.
events, resolution)
to share their narrative ropes.
Plot (beginning, middle,
Explicitly identify the structure
end)
of narratives on work samples.
Characterisation
(descriptions of main
characters)
Setting (time and place)
Resolution

Key vocabulary
Sentence starters

These will serve as a scaffold
for future writing.

Teacher Focus Group
Using one of the texts from the
beginning of the session, work
with the group to deconstruct
the text (See Appendix 2) on
the IWB (with specific sections
and labels)(See Appendix 2.1).
Ask students to identify the
relevant sections with the
corresponding label. Students
are required to justify their
choice. (Scott, 2014, sample)
Recap the structure of a narrative. Revise the language features relevant to the narrative text-type. Review the meaning of: descriptive language, dialogue,
tense. Explore verbs, adverbs, adjectives, past tense, present tense, first person and third person. Get students to work in small groups and individually to
explore these language features, providing examples for each feature.

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3


Brief Lesson 4: Guided
activities to develop
vocabulary and text
knowledge
We are learning the
differences between a
narrative and an
information narrative.
3. Guided activities
to develop
vocabulary or
specific language
feature
We are learning to
use adjectives to
provide a rich
description of
nouns.
We are learning to
use adverbs to
provide extra
information about
verbs.

Analyse the difference between a narrative and an information narrative.


Focus Questions:
What is fiction? What is non-fiction?
What are some examples of fiction texts? Non-fiction texts?

Picture Chat

Display a screenshot
from the Being a
Lady clip. (See
Appendix 3).
Allow students 1
minute to analyse
the image.
Provide students
with individual sticky
notes.
Ask students to
record their
perceptions and
interpretations of
what is happening in
the image.
Collect these
descriptions.
Generate a brief
discussion and note
the common
perceptions on the
IWB.

Back-To-Back Viewing

Model how to conduct a back-


to-back viewing, using the
Being a Lady video clip, 2:15-
2:39.
http://www.myplace.edu.au/te
aching_activities/1878_-
_before_time/1818/3/being_a_
lady.html
Students will work with a
partner, and each pair will
complete a back-to-back
viewing.
The first student in each
pair will watch the first half
of the clip (beginning-
1:30).
As this student views the
clip, they will use
descriptive language to
explain what they can see.
The partner will jot down
notes of what the other
student articulates.
Students will then swap
roles.
Prompting questions:
What is happening in the clip?
How do you think Charles is
feeling?
What emotion/s is Liam

Readers Theatre

Allocate students into small


groups. Each group has a short
time to explore the following
resource, providing background
information to A day In the life
of a convict.
http://sydneylivingmuseums.co
m.au/stories/day-life-convict
Using this resource as a basis,
students are required to create
a script whereby the speech of
each character is highlighted.
(Wing Jan, 2009, pp. 247).

Each script must have a


central focus on the use of
adjectives and adverbs.

Students are reminded to


use their prior knowledge
of the 1800s era to assist
the incorporation of
adjectives and adverbs
throughout the script. (For
example, descriptions of
clothing, descriptions of
characters movements).

Groups are invited to turn


their script into a role-play,
however it can remain as a
Readers Theatre if

Share Time

Ashleigh Grech S00129130

Each group will present their


readers theatre/role play.
Following each presentation,
each group will list the
adjectives and adverbs they
use on the IWB. Use these
words to develop a word bank.

Focus Question:
How does the language you
used in your readers theatre
compare to your everyday
vocabulary?

Observation

The teacher will observe


and make anecdotal notes
throughout the session, and
as the groups present their
role-plays. The teacher will
note students ability to
incorporate and successfully
identify the use of adjectives
and adverbs within their
script.
Teacher will note students
individual ability to identify
and substitute adjectives
and adverbs for those
working in the teacher focus
group.

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3


showing?
What does this clip tell us
about Charles nature?
How would you feel if you were
Liam?

Ashleigh Grech S00129130

necessary.


Teacher Focus Group:
Synonym Substitution

As a group, rewrite a known


story on the IWB. Substitute
synonyms for the adverbs and
adjectives. (Wing Jan, 2009, pp. 246).
For example: Charlotte waited
patiently as her brother slowly
walked to the car.
New sentence: Charlotte
tolerantly lingered as her
brother wandered to the car.

4. Guided activities
to develop
vocabulary or
specific language
feature
We are learning to use
first-person pronouns.

Reveal Yourself

Ask students to stand or


sit in a circle. Each person
(starting with the
teacher) will complete
the following sentences:

My name is.
I like to..(hobby or
interest)
My favourite animal is

At the conclusion of the
game, ask students what
type of language was
being used in each
sentence.
Revise first person
pronouns and list
examples/forms on the
IWB.

Singular: I, me, my, mine

Dictogloss

Read the work sample Diary of


a convict (See Appendix 4) to
students. Do not allow access
to pen and paper.
Read through the text a
second time, and without
providing students with the
text, ask students to
individually write down key
words, phrases, necessary
dates and any other
information they deem
relevant.
In pairs, students will share
their notes and try to make
these complete.
Each pair will reconstruct
the text in their own
words. (Emphasis on use of
synonyms for adverbs and
adjectives).


Independent Writing

Students will use their


knowledge of the 1800s era
and the language features of a
narrative (for example:
adjectives, adverbs, verbs, use
of tense, first person pronoun)
to construct a diary entry.
Criterion:
Diary entry will be written
from the perspective of a
convict, the night prior to
their escape.
Reasons why you are
escaping
A plan of your escape
Any fears you may have if
you are recaptured or
become lost in the bush
(My Place for Teachers: Episode 20,
1818: Charles, Teaching Activities
Resource, pp. 2).

Reflection Circle

Bring the class back together.


Generate a class discussion,
and provide students with the
opportunity to reflect on the
session. This can be achieved
through short presentations of
individual work samples.
Prompt students to articulate
specific vocabulary used in
their diary entry, and ask them
to share their thoughts on
what they believe life, as a
convict, would have been like.

Teacher will collect work


samples of diary entries.
Collect student work.
Students will be assessed
on:
Ability to effectively use
adverbs to provide
extra information about
verbs
Ability to effectively use
adjectives to provide a
rich description of
nouns
Ability to successfully
use first-person
pronouns
Ability to effectively
incorporate the correct
use of tense
Current knowledge of
the 1800s era: Do
students fully
understand what it

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3


Plural: We, us, our, ours


Join each group with

another pair, now forming


groups of four. The new
group will reconstruct the
text once again.
Compare texts with the
original. (Wing Jan, 2009,
pp. 113-114).


Brief Lesson 5: Joint
construction of text
We are creating a
storyboard for our
information narrative.
5. Joint construction
of text
We are learning how
to construct an
information narrative.


Teacher Focus Group

Ashleigh Grech S00129130


meant to be a convict?
Use these as a resource for
individual student
portfolios.

As a group, construct a detailed


description of the character
Liam.
Be sure to include personal
traits as well as physical
characteristics to ensure there
is an emphasis on the
application of adverbs.

Student Self-
Assessment

Students will complete an


individual self-assessment
proforma. (See Appendix
4.1).

After exploring all three video clips of the Charles episode, students should have a deep understanding of his character and persona. As a class,
create a storyboard for an information narrative based on Charles character.

Revisit Storyboard

Briefly recap the


information mapped out
on the storyboard as
created in the previous
class. Clarify any queries
and add any necessary
information.

Shared Writing

The teacher and students will


construct an information
narrative using the storyboard as
a planner.
Ensure the text follows an
information narrative structure:
Orientation
Complication and series of
events
Resolution (ending)
The text must also include the
relevant language features:
Descriptive language
(verbs, adverbs, adjectives)
Dialogue
Tense (past, present,
future)
First/ Third person
pronouns

Wacky Tales

Allocate students into mall


groups of 3-4 members.
Assign each group with a list
of characters, providing brief
descriptions of each
character. (Each group will
use the same characters).
Each group member is
responsible for writing a
section of the narrative.
Introduction
(orientation)
Complication (Series of
events)
Resolution (Ending)
Students will write these
independently and
combine these at the
conclusion of the writing
period to discover their
Wacky Tale. (Wing Jan,
2009, pp. 248).

Teacher Focus Group:

Share Time

Bring the class back together.


Each group will have the
opportunity to share their
Wacky Tale. Discuss the
importance of having a
sequential order when
writing.

Focus Questions:

Does your story make
sense?
What does this tell us
about planning?
How does this inform
your knowledge about
information narratives?
What will you consider
before planning your
information narrative?

Exit Ticket

Provide students with


individual sticky notes. Each
student must answer the
following questions on their
sticky note and submit it to
the teacher as an exit ticket
out of class.

Focus Questions:

What do you know about
life in the 1800s?
What do you think life, as
a convict would have
been like?
What is the structure of
an information
narrative?
Identify 3 language
features of an
information narrative.

These will inform the teacher

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3

Conduct a guided writing


session with a small group of
students. Complete the
Wacky Tales task.

Ashleigh Grech S00129130


of students current
standpoint in the unit. It will
provide a succinct summary
of the students
understanding of the topic
knowledge, and structure and
language features of the text
type. This is an effective
resource to indicate which
students are ready for the
independent writing stage.

Brief Lesson 6:
Independent
construction of text

Students will independently research one of the following convicts:


Mary Bryant
Alexander Pearce
William Buckley
John Porter
Martin Cash
William Swallow
John Graham
Once students have obtained sufficient information; they will create character profiles to inform their future construction of an information narrative.

Brief Lesson 7:
Independent
construction of text

Students will independently plan, draft, edit and publish an information narrative based on their selected convict.
The prior lessons have scaffolded students knowledge of the structure and specific language features relevant to this text type. This unit of work has also built
students topic knowledge on the era of the 1800s, and has essentially provided them with an insight to the life of a convict.
Students will have access to their prior work samples such as narrative ropes, and character profiles to assist their development in constructing an information
narrative.

We are researching a
convict for the basis of
our independent writing.

We are independently
constructing an
information narrative.


Reflecting on
language choices

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EDLA309 Assessment Task 3

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Appendices


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Appendix 1

T-Chart































Key Ideas

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Wonderings

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Appendix 1.2
Theme Tree












Family Values





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Gender Roles

Childrens Chores

Life in the 1800s

Work (manual labour)


Note any other key ideas in this section:

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Appendix 1.3: Learning Chart


Key ideas from the video clip


























































What I have learnt

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What I would like to investigate


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Appendix 2:
List of Narratives

The Relatives Came
Rylant, C., & Gammell, S. (1985). The relatives came (1st ed.). New York: Bradbury Press.

The Very Hungry Caterpillar
Carle, E. (1987). The very hungry caterpillar (1st ed.). [New York]: Philomel Books.

Where the Wild Things Are
Sendak, M. (1963). Where the wild things are (1st ed.). [New York]: Harper & Row.

Hairy Maclary from Donaldsons Dairy
Dodd, L. (2002). Hairy Maclary (1st ed.). London: Puffin.

The Cat In The Hat
Seuss, Seuss, & Seuss,. (2007). The complete Cat in the Hat (1st ed.). London: HarperCollins Children's.

James and the Giant Peach
George, R., & Dahl, R. (2007). James and the giant peach (1st ed.). New York, N.Y.: Puffin Books.



Appendix 2.1



Orientation (Introduction)
Complication and Series of events

(Middle)



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Resolution (ending)

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Appendix 3

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http://www.myplace.edu.au/teaching_activities/1878_-_before_time/1818/3/being_a_lady.html






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Appendix 4

Ashleigh Grech S00129130


http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/File/1c3231b1-e3bd-48fc-b61a-3fd969427a66
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority,. (2010). Work Sample: Diary of a Convict (p. 2). ACARA.
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Appendix 4.1

Name:


Date:

What I think about my writing:

What I would like you to notice


about my writing:

What I would do differently next


time:

What I know about this type of


writing:


Title:

Ashleigh Grech S00129130


Text Type:

(Wing Jan, 2009, pp. 89-90).


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Justification for Instruction

The classroom is a shared space whereby teachers and students explore, interact, collaborate, enquire and develop towards achieving learning goals. The
prevailing aim of education is to build students knowledge in an appealing and motivating environment, in which they are inspired to explore concepts and
philosophies. The unit of work has been designed to develop students competence in acquiring the essential skills to successfully integrate the appropriate
language features of an information narrative. As students have diverse abilities, learning styles and various ways of understanding concepts, a range of
activities has been incorporated into the unit to enrich students understanding of the content. The unit promotes active student involvement through self-
directed learning. It is important for learners to recognise themselves as the core participants in the learning environment. Moreover, students are
encouraged to become self-regulated learners when the learning environment is oriented around the significance of learning, whereby individuals develop
metacognitive skills such as monitoring, evaluating and enhancing the acquisition and use of knowledge (De Corte, Schneider & Stern, as cited in Slavin,
2010).

As the unit is focussed on the text-type of an information narrative, several lessons are based on developing students understanding and knowledge of the
text structure and language features applicable to this text-type. The use of descriptive language has been selected as a core focus for this unit. More
specifically, students will extend their knowledge of adjectives and adverbs. Students will extensively integrate the use of adjectives and adverbs throughout
the unit. It is vital that students are provided with the opportunity to develop their oracy skills before applying this knowledge into their writing. The
development of oracy skills not only scaffolds students vocabulary and expression, it provides students who experience difficulty in constructing a coherent
piece of writing the opportunity to articulate their thoughts and interpretations of a concept. A study conducted by Oliver, Haig and Rochecouste (2005),
found oral language is considered beneficial across the curriculum amongst several teachers. The general consensus implies oral language can improve
students general literacy, deeming it an integral quality of global linguistic competence.
A similar study conducted by Tichapondwa (2008) found learners whose teachers had enhanced language awareness showed evidence of improved ability to
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negotiate learning better than counterparts. These results indicated classroom environments benefit from a conscious fortification of oracy skills, thus
improving learning results (p. 59). Ultimately, the acquisition of oracy skills allows students to formulate their ideas through discourse. This also supports the
accurate use of speech, and essentially builds confidence in learners. Oliver, Haig and Rochecouste (2005) also acknowledged the importance of oracy skills in
a social context, which is particularly crucial for students as they complete a higher level of education and eventually enter the workforce whereby social
interaction is obligatory.

The forms of descriptive language adjectives and adverbs are built upon throughout the unit. As stated earlier, there is quite a large variation in the
learning activities designed to build knowledge on these language features. The unit involves a range of learning styles, which is directly associated with
Gardners theory of multiple intelligences (1997). The theory details the fact that individuals have various intellectual strengths, and these strengths are
imperative to the way in which children learn. This directly impacts ones cognitive processing, and the way this information is understood and
communicated. The learning activities such as Readers Theatre/ Role Play and Reveal Yourself directly capture the attention of bodily/kinaesthetic
learners. On the other hand, learning activities such as the diary entry, character profiles and construction of an information narrative appeal to linguistic
learners. Visual and spatial learners have the opportunity to engage with constructing narrative ropes and making comparisons using learning charts and T-
charts.

Another significant activity, which appeals to many learning styles, is viewing and responding to a video clip. This appears as an activity of choice amongst
students, as opposed to reading a text. Students are introduced the third clip, Being a Lady through the capture of a screenshot. Students are presented one
still image, and are asked to interpret what they believe is occurring during this scene, and are asked to visualise what might happen next. Students are then
shown the video clip in two sections. This essentially allows students to begin their focus on decoding the story, and making meaning of the text. Being a text
meaning-maker includes searching for meaning (Hill, 2006) in the scenery, character expressions and body movements, sentence structure and tone. Even
though there is no physical text, students still have the opportunity to act as a text code-breaker, which essentially involves understanding the text structure,
(Freebody & Luke as cited by Emmitt, Zbaracki, Komesaroff & Pollock 2011, p.225). Students will recognize the structure of the text (video), which will enable
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them to identify the plot, setting, characters and theme whilst watching the short clip. Students have the opportunity to listen to dialogue, view body
language, eye contact and facial expressions, essentially providing a basis for the development of descriptive language.

The second focus language feature is first-person pronouns. Students will have prior knowledge of this language feature, however, they may not be familiar
with its formal label. The unit provides students with several opportunities to apply the use of first person pronouns, each time they are asked of their
individual opinion, interpretation, or perspective on a concept. Moreover, students will build on this language feature through the development of oracy skills
before applying it to their writing. The diary entry and game Reveal Yourself are primary examples of how this language feature is scaffolded to apply the
correct use of language in meaningful contexts, in both oral and written forms. In turn, students have the opportunity to improve their comprehension skills,
build on their knowledge of text structures, purpose and the authors intent. This will assist students in structuring their information narrative, and ultimately
improve writing skills.


Effective teaching for students with low cognitive abilities incorporates purposeful instruction in viewing, reading and writing, access to an extensive variety
of texts (print and digital), motivation for work, and authentic opportunities to practice rich reading and writing learning activities on a daily basis (Fisher and
Frey, as cited in Lin & Cheng, 2010). The effective use of the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model upholds this statement. The process of introducing a
text-type or concept through modeling, moving towards guided practice and finally advancing to independent practice is beneficial for the learning of all
students. This process moderately scaffolds students knowledge and ability to engage with and acquire the skills necessary in relation to the relevant unit of
work. In this unit of work, students are gradually introduced to the structure and language features of an information narrative. In accordance with the GRR
Model, students have the chance to extend their topic knowledge on Australian history, build knowledge of language features, enhance reading
comprehension and learn how to effectively construct an information narrative. Teaching text structures is an effective means of improving reading
comprehension. A study lead by Meyer and Wijkumar discovered that teaching text discourse patterns and structures through the use of model texts- and
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then applying these in childrens writing helped them to simultaneously improve comprehension and writing composition (as cited in Clark, Jones & Reutzel,
2012).



Collaboration is defined as an active process and a coordinated effort by which learners pursue joint goals, solve problems, and build a mutual
understanding of a particular issue (Schratzenstaller, 2010). This unit of work allows students to work collaboratively to achieve a specific learning goal.
Students can support one another and feed off peers ideas, perceptions and understandings. A learning environment that advocates collaborative learning,
allows students to take responsibility for their own learning, particularly when group members are assigned individual tasks (tvoparents, 2010). Essentially,
students are provided with the opportunity to engage in rich learning activities in a collegial manner, whilst maintaining a self-regulated approach.

Word Count: 1250


















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References


Clark, S., Jones, C., & Reutzel, D. (2013). Using the Text Structures of Information Books to Teach Writing in the Primary Grades. Early Childhood
Education Journal, 41(4), 265--271.


Emmitt, M., Zbaracki, M., Pollock, J., & Komesaroff, L. (2010). Language and learning: An introduction for teaching. (5th ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

EPISODE 20|1818 Charles English teaching resources downloaded on 4th of October from
www.myplace.edu.au/. My Place website www.myplace.edu.au Video clip Episode 20; ABC3 MyPlace http://www.abc.net.au/abc3/myplace/



Gardner, H (1997). Big Thinkers: Howard Gardner on Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-howard-gardner-
video
Hill, S. (2012). Developing early literacy: Assessment and teaching (2nd ed). South Yarra: Eleanor Curtain.

Lin, N., & Cheng, H. (2010). Effects of gradual release of responsibility model on language learning. Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1866-1870.
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.1000

Oliver, R., Haig, Y., & Rochecouste, J. (2005). Communicative Competence in Oral Language Assessment. Language And Education, 19(3), 212-222.
doi:10.1080/09500780508668675


Schratzenstaller, A. (2010). The Classroom of the Past. In K. Makitalo-Siegl, J. Zottmann, F. Kaplan & F. Fischer (Eds.), Classroom of the Future: Orchestrating
Collaborative Spaces (pp. 15-39). Netherlands: Sense Publishers.


Slavin, R. (2010). Co-operative learning: what makes group-work work? The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice, OECD Publishing.
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Tichapondwa, S. (2006). Oral interaction and the guided construction of knowledge. Language Matters, 37(1), 59-80.
doi:10.1080/10228190608566252


Tvoparents. (2010, February 18). Does Group Work Work?: Is It the Best Way for Children to Learn? [Video file]. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tdt-b4yMp-M

Wing Jan, L. (2009). Write ways: Modelling writing forms (3rd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: Oxford University Press.

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