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TIGDUDA TAZZAYRIT TAMAGDAYT TAERFANT ALIF N ULMUD

UNNIG D UNADI USSNAN


TASEDDAWIT AKLI MEND ULA N TUBIRET
AGEZDU N TUTLAYT D YIDLES AMAZI

Master 2 L.M.D

Asentel:

S ur:

S lmendad:
BOUBHIRA Hayet
BOUCHOUKA Malika

Mass : LAOUFI Amar

2012/2013

Di tazwara ad nesnemmer Rebbi


i d-a-d-yefkan afud d tebest
akken ad nessali amahil-agi-nnte.
Seg ul yefan ara nesnemmer
Mass Laufi mer
i d-yellan di lmendad n umahil-agi-nnte
Seg wasmi yebda almi yekfa.
Tanemmirt i yiselmaden-nne yal yiwen s yisem-is
I yinelmaden n useggas amenzu (2012-2013).
Tanemmirt i yimawlan-nnte i yellan er tama-nnte
Nessaram-asen tezi n lemer.

Abuddu
Ad budde amahil-agi i yimawlan-iw
zizen fell-i, i emmle aas :
Baba azamul n tisas d laman
Yemma asgen n lenana d sser.
I watmatn-iw : Rafik, Akli, Nassim, Aissa.
I weltma : Nassima
I lamr-iw, i win ara cerke tudert-iw
I wergaz-iw Walid
I twacult-iw d twacult n wergaz-iw
merra anda ma tella.
I temdakkult-iw Malika i yellan yid-i
Seg tazwara almi d taggara
I yiselmaden yal wa s yisem-is
I yinelmaden n useggas amezwaru
n ugezdu n tutlayt d yidles Amazi
n tesdawit n Tubiret.

Hayat

Abuddu
Ad budde amahil-agi i yimawlan-iw
zizen fell-i, i emmle aas aas, Baba
azamul n tisas d laman akk d yemma asgen
n lenana akked d sser.
Iwatmaten-iw d yesetma akken ma llan
Iwid akk i a-a-d-yefkan afus n lemawna
A lada iselmaden n ugezdu d tutlayt tamazit
Ad budde tazrawt-agi i werfiq n wul ( A )
Mebla ma ttu ad budde tanemirt tameqrant
I temdakelt-iw Hayet i d-yellan er tama-w
Deg umahil i nexdem d lwaid seg tazwara
Almi d tagara-s
Abeddu ameqran i wid yefkan tiwiin
I wakken ad yidir lael n tmazit
Akk d wid mazal ass-a ttnaen
ef tmazit seg wul

Malika

Aawas
Tazwart tamatut ...................................................................................................

Tamukrist ...............................................................................................................

14

Tasnarrayt ..............................................................................................................

15

Ixef amenzu: Tsekla d wungal .......................

17

Tazwart ..

18

1. Amezruy n wungal di tsekla .

18

1.1. Ungal di tsekla tagralant ........................

18

1.2. Ungal di tsekla taqbaylit

20

1.2.1. Ungal aqbayli s tenfalit tefransist ..................

20

1.2.2. Ungal aqbayli s tenfalit taqbaylit ...................................................

22

2. Tameddurt n umaru Brahim TAZAART .............................................

25

3. Awal ef ungal Inig Aneggaru .............................................................

26

4. Agzul n wungal .........................................................................................

27

Tagrayt ...........................................................................................................

30

Ixef wis sin: Timiranin n teri ...............................................................

31

Tazwart ..........................................................................................................

31

1. Tasensiwelt ...............................................................................................

33

1.1. Tabadut-ines ...........................................................................................

33

1.2. Tarda n tsensiwelt .................................................................................

34

1.3. Iferdisen n tsensiwelt ...........................................................................

36

2. Ullis ............................................................................................................

39

2.1. Timiranin tigejdanin n wullis ............................................................

40

2.2. Taessa n wullis

41

2.3. Tuddsa n wullis ......................................................................................

42

2.3.1. Takayt ...............................................................................................

43

2.3.2. Tasiwelt. ..............................................................................................

46

Tagrayt ...........................................................................................................

46

Ixef wis tlata: Tiri n tsiwelt deg wungal .................................................

48

Tazwart ..........................................................................................................

48

1. Tasiwelt .....................................................................................................

48

1.1. Tabadut-ines ...........................................................................................

48

1.2. Tala n tsiwelt ......................................

50

1.2.1. Tasiwelt s umatar n layeb

51

1.2.2. Tasiwelt s umatar win yettmeslayen ................

51

1.2.3. Tasiwelt s umatar win i wumi nettmeslay

51

1.3. Amsawal d lenaf-ines .........................................................................

52

1.3.1. Lenaf n umsawal .

52

1.3.2. Tiwuriwin n umsawal .......................................................................

54

1.4. Tallunt

54

1.5. Akud ....................................

57

1.5.1. Akud agensay ...

57

1.5.2. Akud aniri

58

1.5.3. Amsefer n wakud

59

1.6. Tifukkes n tsiwelt

59

1.6.1. Iswiren n tsiwelt .

60

1.6.2. Akud n tsiwelt ..

60

1.7. Iwudam

64

1.7.1. Tawuri n yiwudam

66

1.7.2. Azenzi amesgan

66

Tagrayt ..

70

Ixef wis reba: Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru ..................................

72

Tazwart ..........................................................................................................

72

1. Aric n tekayt ........................................................................................

72

1.1. Tugzimt ...................................................................................................

73

1.2. Takerrist .................................................................................................

76

1.3. Azenzi imsemmes ................................................................................

77

2. Aric n tsiwelt ..........................................................................................

79

2.1. Seg tama n tala .....................................................................................

79

2.2. Amsawal ..................................................................................................

81

2.3. Taslet n tallunt d wakud ...................................................................

84

2.4. Tiffukas ...................................................................................................

90

2.4.1. Iswiren n tsiwelt ...............................................................................

91

2.4.2. Akud n tsiwelt ....................................................................................

93

2.5. Taslet n yiwudam ...............................................................................

105

Tagrayt ...........................................................................................................

112

Tagrayt tamatut ....................................................................................................

114

Amawal ...................................................................................................................

122

Tibula ....................................................................................................................

126

Tazwart tamatut
Tazwart tamatut:
Yal timetti, yal akud, gar tgemi d wansay, ibennu umezruy assaen gar
yigduden yebnan ef yisuaf i tettak tsuta i taye, s wakka tasekla d lsas n lebni
n yinumak ittezririgen ef yissafen n tussna, tettawi lawhi deg tudert n wumdan.
Tasekla d agerruj, d asafu n tafat; wa yettak-it i waye. Tasekla tettawi-d ef
tmetti, ef lewayed-is, tettawi-d dien ef yimdanen d wassaen yettilin garasen, akked wassaen yellan gar tmettiyin, s umata tasekla tettbeggin-d udem n
tmetti. S tsekla i nezmer ad d-nefk udem n tmetti, ama s lewayed-is ama s
yiulfan-is ne s tektiwin-is. Tettbeggin-d dien lila n tsertit d tdamsa (1).
Lemmer ad nsuk ti ef tsekla tamazit, ad naf ur temgired ara ef
tsekliwin tiberraniyin acku amur ameqqran deg-sent rrant lmil er tsekla
timawit. Tasekla n tmazit tansayt tella d timawit, tetteddu seg yimi er
tmezzut. Ayen i d-yeqqimen deg-s d aberruy amecu seg wayen i d-an
yimezwura, imi aric ameqqran iru am wakken yettwattu am tmucuha,
tamedyazt, inzan, lemun, timseraq. Ahat aberruy-agi i d-yegran tura, yegra-d
acku erzen-t-id s tira, maca drus mai ma nqquren-it er wayen tekseb yakan
tasekla-agi n tmazit.
Tasekla tamazit ebsen leqrun akked yineruyen n umzruy deg tallit
timawit, tesmedez akken ad tual d lemri i ugdud acku tuget n tsekla-agi
tsenned kan ef tira tawezlant am tmedyazt, inzan, timucuha (ulama annect-a ula
d netta s wazal-is). Leqrun hemjen deg wayen i d-snulfan yimezwura-nne,
ebban-t deg wugni n tatut. Cwi-nni i a-id-yewwen ur yezmir ara ad yefk
udem aeqqi ef wamek ddren lejdud-nne ne ef wamek tella tidmi-nsen ne
sani i yewehha useked-nsen.

OUGOUAG-KEZZAI, (CH.), La rflexion sur la littrature orale , In: El Insane No01, Ed CRAPE, 1983, P
19. Daprs cette littrature, une image du groupe ou de la socit qui la produite, de la socit dans sa
totalit, avec sa reprsentation du mode, ses normes, ses sentiments, ses aspirations et ses idaux, ainsi que son
mode de fonctionnement avec tout le contexte social, conomique, politique, et le sens de son mouvement .
1)

Tazwart tamatut
Aulfu s tmettant yeggunin aar, yessak-id nnif n kra n yimnuda akken ad
d-ssuksen ayen i d-yegran di tsekla tamazit seg tuccar n tatut akked ebbu. Seg
Boulifa er Mouloud Mammeri, eddi ef Mouloud Feraoun, Belaid Nat Ali,
Jean El Mouhoub Amrouche, Malek Ouary, Taous Amroucheatg. Aas n
wayen nnan yimezwura-nne i ietqen di tmettant s demma n unadi-nsen akked
tira-nsen. I tikkelt tamezwarut, tasekla taqbaylit (tamazit imi leqdic-agi irea
leqrar ula di temnain nnien n tamaza) tekcem adlis, tufa leqrar di tira. Akken
ad yihriw usalu ad yual d abrid, tenulfa-d tjerrumt ara igen ilugan i tira.
Timetti taqbaylit d tin i yettwasnen aas s yidles-is d umezruy-is, tettwassen
dien s tsekla-s. Ma yella tasekla tamensayt taqbaylit d tin i yellan d timawit
kan, yerna tiwsatin-is d tid i yerzan anagar tamedyezt, timucuha, inzan d
temseraq. Maca, di taggara n lqern wis ttaac (19) d tazwara n lqern wis ecrin
(20), tegga asurif er zdat, imi aas n wid yuran tasekla tansayt, llan wid i dijemen ayen yellan di timawit, awden-as tira am: S. Boulifa, ad d-naf dien
Hanoteau i yuran Posie populaire de la kabylie du Djurdjura , s tutlayt n
tefransist, deg-s ijem-d 621 isefra. Llan wiya, jemen-d ayen yellan di
timawit, rnan senfalin-d s ur-sen, seg tallit-nni er wass-a yella-d umaynut,
yella-d wayen yellan d atrar, am Belaid At Ali i yeran asalu s tira-s d usuffe n
kra n tmucuha d tullisin, i wakken ad yerez tutlayt d yidles amazi. I wakken
tutlayt-agi ur tkeem ara di temda n tatut. S waya, i tebda tsekla n tmazit
tkeem di tira, banent-d deg-s tewsatin timaynutin am: amezgun, tullist, ungal.
Tasekla tatrart tella, akken dien tettnarni, ayagi issebgan-d d akken tettara-d s
waas ef wayen tewa tmetti (1).
Ungal* d tawsit n tesrit, tcudd er tira.(2) Ungal di yal tasekla d tanfalit ef
tmetti, ef umezruy, ef wayen akk tesedda n yieblan n tegrawliwin,.atg.
1)

CHAKER, (S.), La naissance dune littrature crite, le cas berbre (kabylie) , In: Bulletin des tudes
africains, No 17-18, Ed Inalco, Paris, 1992, P 17.
2)
REUTER, (Y.), Introduction lanalyse du roman, 2 Ed, Armand Colin, Paris, 2006, P 06. Il sagit duvres
crites, en prose .

10

Tazwart tamatut
Aneggal yettara-d deg ungal-is ef lewayed, akked d wansayen n tmetti-is. D
tawsit yettawi-d deg-s uneggal ef yineruyen n tekayt anida yessaxdam kra n
yiferisen n tilawt, lamana yessexdam dien asugen, yettawi-d deg-s
tiawsiwin ur nelli ara d tidet di tilawt. Ahat tiawsiwin-agi ttwaeban-t, yeba
uneggal ad tent-id-yessekfel ne ad tent-id-yessebggen, ne tiawsiwin-agi
xuent di tmetti-is, yeba ad tent-ibeddel, ne ad tent-id-irnu er tmetti-is.
Aneggal* i wakken ad d-yessefhem agbur n wungal-is, yesselay tidyanin
n tekayt s uglam n tudert n wumdan ungali, d wanda yettidir, d tallit melmi i
ran ineruyen-agi.
I wakken ad d-yerr uneggal ef tmetti-is, yettak azal meqqer i yiwudam-is
ungaliyen. Seg-sen i nezmer ad nefhem tamuli-nsen ef wayen akk isen-dyezzin, ef tmetti-nsen, ef yiulfan-nsen. Aneggal yettaf iman-is deg ungal-is,
imi s yimru-is i ittekkes lijab ef waas n tawsiwin i yezdin timetti-is. Yella
anda aneggal yettawi-d kra n tawsiwin eant, llant di tilawt, yettak-d uneggal
azemzi iean n yineruyen. Tikwal yettak-d ismawen n yimdanen i yellan di
tilawt, n wid ikecmen deg umezruy. ef wannect-a i yettili umeri takayt n
wungal tera-d d e.
Ungal di tsekla n tmazit, d tawsit tatrart, akken kkan iteddu ad trei
tirkkizin-ines, tnulfa-d deg yiseggasen n tmanyin (80), anida bdan yimyura n
tmazit ttaran lwelha-nsen er tira, lada ad suffen tamazit seg timawit i
wakken ad as-rren azal.
Di tallit-agi n tmanyin (80) aas n tedyanin i d-yeran, tugdi, lebus,
taessirt,atg. Tamurt tenneqlab, ssber yewwe er ledd-is, d lawan i wakken
ad fsin leqyud, s waya i d-tban tefsut n yimazien, di 20 yebrir 1980, i yesan
azal d ameqqran deg umezruy n leqbayel, yis-s i d-yuki ugdud.

11

Tazwart tamatut
Ayen yezdin akk ungalen i d-yeffen s teqbaylit s umata d isental, ad naf
tuget deg-sen wwin-d ef taluft n tmazit, tumast akked wayen tettidir tmurt n
leqbayelatg.
Di lawan-nni, yal wa d acu n ubrid i yefer i wakken ad d-yessebggen leis, llan wid yeffen er yiberdan, wiya xtarren abrid n tira, lemmer aha-t ad
awen er cwi seg wayen suturren. Di tewsit-agi d tiya i d-ttawin ef wayen
yeran di tallit-nni, ttawin-d s umata ef umennu n tmanyin (80), ef tutlayt d
yidles amazi. Ttawin-d dien ungalen n tmazit ef yisental nnien am:
usenqed n tmetti, rrebreb, tayri.
Ma nerra tamuli-nne er tezrawin ef ungal amazi, ad naf ur ugtent ara.
Kra wwint-d ef tutlayt i sseqdacen deg ungal; ad naf kra n yimagraden am win
Sinikka Loikkanen(1), kra ef usental; am yimagraden n Dahbia Abrous(2) i dyewwin ef ungal n Rachid Alliche Asfel d Fafa , akked I d wass d
Tagrest n uru n Amer Mezdad). Kra n tezrawin d yinadiyen deg uric-agi n
tsekla yuran, d tin gan isdawiyen ama d tin n nnig n turagt, ne d tin n turagt,
nezmer ad nebder tid yettwaxedmen ef wungal s umata am I d wass ,
Tagrest n uru , Ass-nni n Amer Mezdad, Asfel , Fafa , n Rachid
Allicheatg.
Ma negga-d tamuli er tezrawin yettwaxedmen ef ungalen n Brahim
TAZAART ad ten-id-naf ef Salas d Nuja , d wungal Ljerrat atg. Ma
yella ef ungal-agi aneggaru i d-yessuffe deg useggas n 2012 i wumi isemma
Inig Aneggaru, imi d ungal amaynut mazal ur ttwaxedment ara fell-as
tezrawin, aha-t nekkenti gar tmezwura ara as-ixedmen tazrawt.

LOIKKANEN, (S.), Vocabulaire de roman kabyle (1981-1995), une tude quantitative in EDB, No15-16, Ed
Edisud, Marseille, 1998, PP 85-196.
2)
ABROUS, (D.), Rachid Alliche, in Hommes et femmes de kabylie, Ed ina-yas/Edisud, Aix-en-Provence, 2001,
PP 33-34.
1)

12

Tazwart tamatut
Tizrawin-a yettwaxedmen ef wungal aqbayli ad naf tuget deg-sen rzant
taslet n yiwudam, akked d wadeg, kra wwint-d ef tutlayt i sseqdacen
wungalen, kra ef yisental n tmagit deg ungal, kra nnien ef ukenni gar sin
ungalen, dien llant tid ef usemres n tiriwin yemxallafen am teri tasimyutikit
(tiri n unamek), d teri asnazmul (smiologie), d teri tasmirest
(Intertextualit), ma deg wayen yenan tiri tasensiwelt, imi d tiri wessien deg
yiferdisen i d-yettakken tuddsa n uris ur d llint ara s waas. Ihi seg tama-nnte
nere ad nawi tazrawt-nne ef yiwen n uferdis seg yiferdisen-is d aferdis n
tsiwelt d teslet-ines deg wungal n Brahim TAZAART.
Deg yiberdan n tezrawin d umgired-nsent di teri, ad nere seg tama-nne
ad nkemmel deg wubrid n teslet s wudem nnien, d taslet ara ad yilin ef
useqdec n yiferdisen n tsensiwelt deg ungal n Brahim TAZAART Inig
Aneggaru lada ayen yenan aferdis n tsiwelt, imi yal aneggal yemgarad d
waye deg wayen yesseqdec n yiferdisen i wakken ad yalles, wa ad yessawe
tiktiwin-ines.
Uqbel ad nessiwe ad nefk tamukrist-nne, nera kra n yidlisen n tsenarayt
ara a-d-inejren abrid er yiswi-nne, wa ad teddu tazrawt-agi-nne akken ilaq
njem-d kra n yidlisen i d-yezzerwen ef wungal, ama s tefransist ama s tarabt
am:
- RAIMAND, (M.), Le roman, 2 Ed, Armand Colin, Paris, 2005.
- REUTER. (Y.), Introduction lanalyse dun roman, 2 Ed, Armand Colin,
Paris, 2006.
- REUTER, (Y), Lanalyse de rcit, 2 Ed, Armand Colin, France, 2005.
- SCHAEFFER, (J.M.), La narratologie in nouveau dictionnaire
encyclopdique des sciences de la langue, Ed Seuil, 1999, Paris.

13

Tazwart tamatut
.1998 ) ( " " -Tamukrist
2 " "
2000. 1 ( ) " " .2003
Seg turi-nne i yidlisen-agi, asteqsi i ef tessa tazrawt-agi-nne d wa :
-

Amek i d-yella usqerdec n tsiwelt deg ungal Inig Aneggaru n

Brahim TAZAART ?
I wakken ad nerr ef usteqsi-agi neba tazrawt-a ef reba yixfawen.
Ixef amenzu ad d-nawwi deg-s awal ef wayen yenan ungal di tsekla
tagralant d teqbaylit s umata.
Deg yixef wis sin ad d-nemmesli ef tmiranin tigejdanin n teriwin n
tsekla (Tasensiwelt, Ullis, d wayen iten-yerzan). Ma yella deg yixef wis tlata ad
d-nawwi awal s telqayt ef teri n tsiwelt deg wungal s umata.
Ma yella d ixef aneggaru d win ara ad d-yilin ef teslet n sin yiricen:
takayt d tsiwelt deg wungal n Brahim TAZAART Inig Aneggaru .
Di taggara n tezrawt- ef agi-nne ad tili tagrayt tamatut, d tagrayt wayen i
d-nebder yakkan d wayen i er neawe, rnu er-s amawal aseklan d tibula.

14

Tazwart tamatut
-Tasnarrayt
Ssebbat i d-a-yean ad nefren asentel-agi ur d-yelli ara kan akka, ne d
aab i d-a-yeeb, maca afran yesa assa d yiswan i cceben anadi, yettaba
dien aettam usnan, leqdic usnan yealab seg umnadi ad yerr deg tama
tunmasit-ines, ne ayen i d-as-yeqqar wul-is, ilaq ad ya abrid n usikked, akked
teslet i wakken ad d-yekkes ayen yeffren d wayen i icubken. Ihi deg ubridagi, ula d tasekla n tmazit tewa annect-agi.
Afran n usentel-agi ibedd ef waas n tmental ad nebder gar-asent:
Timentalt tagejdant d tin yerzan tamuli er tsekla tamazit yuran (Seg
wasmi i d-terna tira er tutlayt tamazit akked tlalit n tmetti, akked d tsekliwin n
ddunit i d-islalayen tewsatin timaynutin am: umezgun, ungal, tullist). S ubrid
n yiwet n tussna i wumi neqqar tasensiwet, i yellan d aqerreb ne d taslet
tagensayt ne taessant n uris. Aya ad yili d addad iehden i tezrawin i
yessexdamen inekkmar nnien. S wakka, ma nesdukkel inekkmar-agi ad yili yal
wa yettkemmil i waye.
Timentalt tis snat terza tifrat i tezmer ad d-tefk teri n tsensiwelt labeda
assaen i yettilin gar wakud, tasiwelt akked d umsawal i kra n tewsatin n wullis,
taslet tagensayt i tewsatin-agi tettara tilisa gar tewsatin ne tettak-d kra n
tulmisin n wungal am wakken ara ad nwali di teslet n tsensiwelt deg wungal
Inig Aneggaru n Brahim TAZAART.
Timentalt tis tlata d tasekla tamirant yuran, tefka-a-d tagnit i wakken ad
nwali tagnut akked yiferna n wullis n yal uneggal.
Ma nual er yiswi-nne i neba ad nawwe seg tazrawt-agi i nexddem d
wigi:

15

Tazwart tamatut
- D assebgen n tira tamaynut d lebni asiwlan n wungal aqbayli deg tallit-agi
tamirant; Neba ad ner ma yella amsawal Brahim TZAART yessawe ad yerr
iferdisen n tsiwelt deg wungal-ines; Neba ad nebgen amek id yella uselu n
yineruyen d tedyanin n wungal-a Inig Aneggaru ama deg wayen yenan
aric n tekayt ne aric n tsiwelt .
as akken nemlal-d ugar n wuguren, lada ayen yerzan adlismu akked
umgired n tesnimert i yesseqdec yal ameray deg teri n tsensiwelt. Deg turinne i yidlisen-agi n tefransist ne n tarabt, nxeddem yal abrid tasuqilt er
teqbaylit. Di tsuqilt-agi nufa-d aas n wuguren, imi tuget n wawalen si tenfaliyin
n tefransist ne n tarabt ur sin ara inumak s teqbaylit, ur ten-id-nettaf ara ula
deg yimawalen n tmazit. Nemmuger-d dien uguren di tezrawt-agi-nne,
tea-d akken tewer, acku ur uqten ara yidlisen i d-yewwin ef tezrawt-agi n
tsensiwelt.

16

Ixef amenzu

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

Ixef amenzu: Tsekla d wungal


Tazwart
Uqbel ad d-nemmeslay ef wungal, yessefk di tazwara ad neg amgired gar
tsekla taqburt d tsekla tamirant. Zik, tasekla tedder di timawit, tamusni taseklant
wa yeqqar-itt i wa, s yimi er tmezzut. Di lqern wis 19, timawit ur teqqim ara d
taerfit imi tettwasseqdec ula d tira, di tmusni taseklant (amedya n Boulifa). Di
lqern wis ecrin (20), seg tama tlul-d tsekla s tira (littrature crite), si tama
nnien, tasekla timawit yellan d taerfit tual tetteddu s wallalen itraren, teqqel
d ayen iwumi nessawal ass-a Oralit mdiatise. Ihi, amgired gar tsekla taqdimt
d tsekla tamirant d wa: tasekla taqburt tedder di timawit taerfit, ma yella d
tasekla tamirant ur-s sin wudmawen: d timawit (tamawant/orale) ne tettwaru
(1)

.
Tis snat, gar tewsatin tiseklanin (les genres littraires) tesseqdac tsekla

tamirant d ungal, imi ungal yufrar-d ef tewsatin nnien. Ihi deg uric-a amenzu
nare ad d-nawi awal ef umezruy d tlalit n wungal di tsekla, ama di tsekla
tagralant, ama di tin n taqbaylit, tabadut-ines, asissen n wungal n tezrewt-nne,
awal ef tmeddurt n umaru Brahim TAZAART d wegzul i wungal-a Inig
Aneggaru .
1. Amezruy n wungal di tsekla
1.1. Ungal di tsekla tagralant
Ungal iedda-d seg timawit er tira, asnulfu-is icudd er tira, ur yual ara d
agralan almi d tazwara n lqern wis 13, ungal si tallit er taye yemgared deg
usuffe-is, akked d yisental-is. Ibend i tikelt tamenzut di tama tagralant di
(1)

AMEZIANE, (A.), Asseqdec n tsekla taqburt deg ungal I d wass n Amer MEZDAD, sur http://www.
tamazgha.fr, consult le 18/03/2013 10h30.

18

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

lEspagne akked d lItalie; yufrar-d s waas n lenaf gar-asen: Ungal aulfan, i


d-ibanen deg useggas n 1607, enf-agi yena afrayen n tayri, am wungal
Fleuve n Honore dUrfe. Iefr-it-id wungal n tesa i d-yefen seg useggas n
1651 alama d aseggas n 1657, enf-agi yerra-d udem n tilawt s tesa d
ustehzi.(1)
Yennerna di lqern wis 18, tallit-agi d tin iwumi semman Tallit n tafat,
deg-s yerra-d wungal tafrara deg tira d usnulfu n lenaf nnien, am wungal
Epistolaire, i deg i d-iban wungal n Hoderlos de laclos, isemma-s Les Liaisons
Dangereuses, i d-yefen deg ussegas n 1782.
Talalit tamenzut n wungal di tsekla, am wakken i d-yenna Reuter (Y.) deg
udlis-ines : Ungal d adlis yettwarun di tesrit s tefransist, tulmisin-ines ur dbanent ara armi d tasekla tatrart .(2)
Tamhazt n tsekla s umata, di tallit talemmast s wayen i d-iwwin
yinagmayen d yimyura deg tutlayt n yidlisen, i wakken ad as-fken azal er
yimeri, d wayen i d-rnan d amaynut seg lqern wis 19. Wigi kra n yimyura i
yuran ef waas n temsal yenan timetti d umezruy, s tutlayt n tefransist: Balzak
(1836), Victor Hugo (1878), Emil Zola (3).
Annect-a dien yegla-d s tewsatin nnien timaynutin deg tsekla am:
wungal, tullisin, amezgun d tmedyazt yettwarun. Seg tsekla tafransist, aas i
yessawen ad d-fken tibuda-nsen i tewsit-agi n wungal, gar-asen amaru
Raimond (M.) deg udlis i wumi isemma Le roman yenna-d belli: Ungal d
taqsit yettwarun, bab-is yettwellih amdan mi iselle iricen n tekayt, d uglam
di tmeddurt n yimdanen d tnefsit-nsen akked kra n tawsiwin i cudden er-sen.
(1)

Http:// www.Etudes-littraires/ histoire-roman. Consult le 14/03/2013 18h30.


REUTER. (Y.), Introduction lanalyse dun roman, Armand Colin, 2 Ed, Paris, 2006. Il sagit duvre
crite, en prose et en franaisPourtant ces caractristiques nont merg que progressivement P 06.
(3)
Http:// www.Etudes-littraires/ histoire-roman, Consult le 14/03/2013 14h.
(2)

19

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

Yerna yenna-d amezruy n wungal iedda-d seg timawit er tira, deg lqern wis
17, anda beddlent twuriwin-ines akked wayen i d-as-rnan am tesnilest, leqdic n
yierbazen d tsertit (1).
Deg yidlisen yettwarun s tutlayt n tarabt ad naf anagmay Mustafa Aawi
di tketabt-ines ef tsekla n umaal deg ixef wis sin (taqsit, ungal, takayt), di
enf-agi n wungal yenna-d: Ungal yesa tlata n tegnatin, tazwara d ugur, tis
snat d taluf ne takerrist, taggara d tifrat n wugur (2).
1.2. Ungal di tsekla taqbaylit
Amezruy n wungal di tsekla taqbaylit d win i d-yewwin ef waas n temsal,
inaggalen myefaren di tira-nsen, uran ef tutlayt, tamagit, d tudert n wemdan
aqbayli di tmetti-s. Tira-agi tuz aas n lenaf n tsekla am: tullisin, timezgunin, d
ungalen, enf-agi n wungal iban-d s snat tenfaliyin:
1.2.1. Ungal aqbayli s tenfalit tefransist
D ungal i d-ibanen di tallit n umnekcam arumi, d tin it-ettem tlalit-is
akken ad sutren yis-s yimyura n tallit-a timsal yurzen er tudert d tlelli n tmurt.
Gar wid i efren abrid-agi ad naf:
FERAOUN Mouloud
D amaru aqbayli, azzayri, d amaru s wazal-is yura s tefransist, yera er
yiselmaden irumiyen di tallit n temhersa, tira-ines tamezwarut tban-d deg
useggas n 1934, yessuffe-d ungal iwumi isemma Le fils du pauvre deg
useggas n 1950. D ungal ameddurman, yettmeslay-d ef tudert n umaru, d
wayen yedder di tmetti taqbaylit. Ikemmel issuffe-d ungal wis sin isemma-s
La terre et le sang deg useggas n 1953, ungal nnien Les chemains qui
(1)

RAIMOND, (M.), Le roman, 2 Ed, Armand Colin, 2005, Paris, PP 13-38.


"2000 ( - ) 3 .( 2
.10 " :

20

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

montent. Ungalen-a s umata xas akka ttwarun s tutlayt n tefransist maca


tektiwin iten-yezdin ttmeslayen-d ef tmetti taqbaylit d liala n tmurt ilmend n
lggera(1).
MAMMERI Mouloud
Daen d amaru aqbayli, azzayri, yettaru s tefransist, yera er yiselmaden
iumiyen di tallit n temhersa, yura ungalen i d-yettmeslayen ef tmazit akked
tmetti taqbaylit. Ungal amenzu isemma-s La colone oublier deg useggas n
1952, kra iseggasen deffir-s 1955, issuffe-d ungal le sommiel du juste, rnu
er-s ungalen nnien (2).
KATEB Yacine
er tama n Feraoun d Mammeri, yella umaru Kateb Yacine i yerfden asalu
n tira s tefransist ef tutlayt d yidles amazi, as iac d waraben maca tektiwinines nant timetti taqbaylit d tzzayrit, deg useggas n 1950 yebda tira n wungal-is
Nema yessuffe-it-id deg useggas n 1956. Amaru-agi yella gar wid yekkaten
ef tmazit iwakken ad tidir, yessuffe-d dien ungal nnien isemma-s Le
polugone toil di 1966 (3).
AMROUCHE Taous
D tamarut taqbaylit, tura s tutlayt n tefransist, maca ayen i ef tettmeslay
deg ungalen-ines icudd er tmazit, tessuffe-d ungal amenzu tsemma-s
Jacinthe noiredeg 1749, terna-d waye di 1969 tsemma-s Rue des
Tambourainsatg (4).

(1)

HADDADOU, (M.A.), Introduction la littrature berbre, suivi dune introduction la littrature kabyle, Ed
les Oliviers, 2009, PP 26-27.
(2 )
HADDADOU, (M.A.), Op cit, P 28.
(3)
Idem, P 32.
(4)
Ibidem, PP 30-31.

21

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

Seg tama n wungalen yettwarun s tefransist ef tmazit, yella-d usuqqel n


wungalen-agi seg tefransist er tmazit, ad nebder gar-asen:
- Le fils du pauvre isuqqel-it-id Moussa Ait Taleb, deg useggas n 2004.
- la colone oublier isuqqel-it-id Abd Elrrehman Bouguermouh.
1.2.2. Ungal aqbayli s tenfalit taqbaylit
Amezruy n wungal yuran s teqbaylit yu aar deg yiseggasen n 1940, mi
akken yura Belid At li aris-ines "Lwali n wedrar", i d-jemen yimraben
iumiyen deg useggas n 1964 (amaru yewwe lefu n Rebbi uqbel mi ara dyeffe uris-a), deg udlis i wumi fkan isem Les cahier de Belaid ou de kabylie
dantan. er Muand Akli Sali d mer Ameyan d Said Cemmax, d wa i d
ungal amenzu yuran s teqbaylit imi aris-agi yewwi-d ef limarat n wungal (1).
Aas n yimyura ama d igralaniyen ne d izzayriyen wwin-d di tira-nsen
ef tewsatin n tsekla taqbaylit, anda aren ad ggen tamawt i tewsit-a taneggalt
lada tallit n temharsa am Genevois Henri, Martinet, Dallet Jean Marie, Adolf
Hanoteau... atg. Seg tama ad naf Camilla Lacoste Dujardin temmeslay-d ef
tsekla taqbaylit belli d tagejdant n timawit, imi tamensayt-a timawit tesseqdec
assenfar n tira deg wayen i d-glant n tamawt, di lewhi-s timawit d tanfalit ur
nettwaru ara maca tatrart tettwaru tettwaffe-d s tala-agi n wungal (2).
Lada di tewsit-a tamaynut i d-ibanen, amaru Boyer (A.M.) yenna-d deg
wawal-is: Ungal gar tewsatin tineggura i d-ilulen di tsekla taqbaylit. as ma

(1)

SAADI, (N.), Lexpression de lidentit dans le roman Tafrara de Salem Zenia , mmoire de Magister, 2009,
universit Tizi-Ouzou, P 153.
(2)
LACOSTE, (D.), Discours sociale et contexte de production, passage de loralit lcrit, Ed LAOB, 1979, P

22

Ixef amenzu
yella yedda-d yakkan deg wansay aseklan aqbayli,

Tasekla d wungal
maca s wudem nnien

yettili-d deg-s wallus, ama s tala n tmucuha d tumgisin(1).


Daen s ur inagmayen d yimyura imazien i yeswesen annar n unadi ef
tewsit-agi n wungal, gar-asen Mouloud Mammeri i d-yemmeslan s telqayt ef
uric n tmedyazt taqbaylit ambed aseggas n 1871 yenna-d: Asnulfu udyiz di
tmetti tamensayt yessaxdem aas n yimeskaren d tewsatin timensayin i d-yeddan
s tenfalit-a tamaynut, s tenfalit n tsiwelt (2).
eddan acal d isuggasen seg wasmi i d-yeffe Lwali n udrar, annar n
wungal yuran s teqbaylit yeqqim d asuki armi d aseggas n 1981 i deg id dyessuffe Racid ellic ungal-ines amezwaru, Asfel, aris-agi, efren-t-id sin
wungalen nnien id d-yeffen deg yiseggasen n 1983, amezwaru d ungal n Said
Sadi isemma-s Askuti yeffe-d deg tazwara d iricen seg tesunt Tafsut. Ma
d wis sin, d Faffa d Racid ellic it-yuran daen. Deg yiseggasen n 1990, d
azrar n wungalen i d-yeffen, mai d yiwet ne d snat n temsal i ef i d-wwin,
ef tmagit, tayri, tallit n temharsa, timetti taqbaylit, ansayen d lewayed,
lerba...atg(3).
Imi ungalen-agi s umata cerken-d yiwet n tallit akked tedyanin yuen
tamurt n leqbayel, Dehbiya ebrus tere di tezrewt-ines ad d-teqqen gar-asen.
as ulama ayen akken yeran di tmurt n leqbayel yesa afus deg tallit n wungal,
nettat tettwali d akken tilawt tugar aya-agi. Ungal yuran s teqbaylit ur i d-ilul ara
seg ulac, mi akken id d-ffen wungalen imezwura, tasekla taqbaylit tella tettidir
imiren yiwet n tallit ideg i d-tezger i tqenert yettawin gar timawit d tira. Deg
uzrug-agi, seg tsekla timawit er tsekla yuran, yu lal ddeqs n yirisen i dibanen, amezwaru d adlis n Boulifa La mthode de langue kabyle, i d(1)

BOYER, (A.M.), Elment de littrature compare, Forme et genres, Hachette Livre. 1996, Un genre tardif, le
dernier des genres natre. P 57.
(2)
MAMMERI, (M.), Pome kabyles anciens , Ed Maspero, Paris, 1980, P 12. La production potique a t en gros
lapplication des facteurs et des genres anciens aux expriences nouvelles, sapplique galement la production narrative
(3)
AMEZIANE, (A.), Les formes littraires traditionnelles dans le roman kabyle : du genre au procd, in Actes
du colloque La littrature amazighe, oralit & criture, spcificits & perspectives, IRCAM, Rabat, 2005.

23

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

yeffen deg useggas n 1913, wis sin yena irisen i yura Belid At li ama d
timucuha, ama d tulisin, ama d ungal (mi akken i d-ffen yirisen, ur d-banen
ara lenaf-agi akken iwata). Deg yiseggasen n 1970, tebda tettifrir-d tmedyazt
yuran, lulent-d tecqufin n umezgun sya usya, gar-asent iban-d wungal yuran s
teqbaylit (1).
Rnu er-s irisen n wungal wwin-d tektiwin timaynutin, fkan-d udem
nnien ef tsekla taqbaylit, ffen si enf n tmacahut, yerna wwin-d tiawsiwin
tijdidin: am temsalt n tasnimant n yiwudam*. Acu kan, imeskaren ur seren
ara lxi d tsekla taqburt. Yella wanda i d-ttualent timsal n tensayit deg
wungalen amedya n wungal I d wass n Amer Mezdad (2).
Ungal s umata d aris ezzifen, yettawi-d ef wayen yellan di tmetti, akken
i d-nenna di tazwara d tawsit tagejdant n tesrit, aya-agi d ayen i d-nufa di
tbadutin Muend Akli Sali deg wawal-is: Ungal d tawsit n tsekla temxalaf ef
tullist, yettili-d deg-s aas n weglam, iwenniten d yiwudam (3).
Ma nessegza-d ayen id d-nnena ef tenfalit n wungal di tsekla taqbayilt ad
yili s wakka la sab n tfelwit-a yellan ddaw: (4)
Tawsit n ungal

Ungal aqbayli s tenfalit n

Ungal aqbayli s tenfalit n

Tefransist

teqbaylit

Amaru

D aqbayli

D aqbayli

Adeg

Tamurt n leqbayel

Tamurt n leqbayel

Tutlayt yettwasxedmen

Tafransist

Taqbaylit

(1)

SAADI, (N.), Op.cit, PP 154-155.


AMEZIANE, (A.), Asseqdec n tsekla taqburt deg ungal I d wass n Amer MEZDAD, sur http://www.
tamazgha.fr, consult le 18/03/2013 10h30.
(3)
SALHI, (M.A.), Petit dictionnaire de littrature, Ed lOdysse, Alger, 2012, P 71.
(4)
AMEZIANE, (A.), Les formes littraires traditionnelles dans le roman kabyle : du genre au procd, in Actes
du colloque La littrature amazighe, oralit & criture, spcificits & perspectives, IRCAM, Rabat, 2005, P 66.
(2)

24

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

2. Tudert n umaru Brahim TAZAART


Brahim TAZAART d amaru s tutlayt n tmazit, ilul ass n 15 yebrir 1966
di temnat n Bgayet, aswir-ines amenzu d ulemmas n unelmad yera-t di
tezmalt, ma yella d tesnawit deg Uqbu (Debbi Crif), anda i yeual d aselmad
urmid deg umusu amazi. Deg useggas n 1987 ixdem deg wammas n usile
adeblan am waken i yettiki deg usuffe n tesunt i yettwarun d kra n tutlayin
Rivages i d-itt-wazergen s ur tadukla n uxxam n yidles n tezmalt, syin akin
ikcem er yiwet n terbat n umezgun qqaren-as Tarwa n Ssumam.
Ma yella deg useggas n 1989 yella d aselway n umsekrired n temsizelt n
tmedyazt n (MCB), netta akked Said xellil, Sadeq Aqur, Nadir Jarmum, Naer
erban. Di 20 yebrir heggan-d yiwet n tmara, maca ur teffi ara akken ban,
maca s yisem n tdukla Tazarrat, ma yella deg useggas n1991 ixdem d
adamsan deg tesmawit n tmezrit, aseggas n 1994 yual d aselway ef unagraw n
tesmilin tielnawin n MCB anda i d-qeden ay-nsen d akken ad yili ( Le
Boycotte).
Brahim TAZAART deg useggas n 1995 yekka deg usarag aelnaw n
MCB/CN i yeran deg uxxam n Mulud Memmri, Tizi-Ouzou, asarag-a ur
yessawe ara ad yefk rrabul n umussu, Brahim TAZAART yea tiskiwin n
usarag n MCB yual er tira, deg useggas n 1997, yeffe-d seg tesnawit n
tmerit, ,a yella deg useggas n 1998 issuffe-d tumutt deg umis n Le matin
azwel-is (MCB, lpreuve de llection prsidentielle), anda id d-yenna
Tamazit d tutlayt taelnawt, tunsibt n lezzayer.(1)
Ayen yenan aric n tira, adlis amenzu yura Brahim TAZAART d amud n
tullizin tid i wumi isemma Lerrat 2003, yesa dien amud isefra isemmaasen Akkin i tira 2006, dien yella yettaru i yimisen ef tmuliwin-ines i kra
(1)

Http:// www.transcript-review.org/fr, consult le 14/03/2013 14h.

25

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

n temsal, am waken nera tullisin-ines llant deg yidlisen n tmazit n yinelmaden


ierbazen n tmurt-nne. Ma yella deg yiseggasen-agi ineggura yessuffe-d di 20
yebrir 2004 ungal-ines amenzu i wumi isemma Salas d Nuja, maca yeeb
imusnawen n waric-agi n tira, da ef waya yettunefk-as warraz deg tfaska
taelnawt n udlis i d-ierrun myal aseggas di tmanat n tmurt-nne (1).
Di 2005 yeer yiwet n la foire n yidlisen n tmazit i d-itt-wasudsen s ur
HCA deg useggas-nni, netta, Muend At Iil, Kamel Bumara, Jamel Ixlufi,
xedmen-d amazday n yimyura imazien (CALA), di Magu 2006 yettekki i tikelt
tis kra deg la foire n yidlisen n tmazit deg Wahran, di Yunyu 2006 dien
yettekki deg tfaska n tmedyazt deg lezzayer tajmilt i Jamal amrani, ma yella
deg useggas-agi n 2012 rnant-d tezrigin n tira ungal nnien i d-yessuffe
isemma-as Inig Aneggaru.
3. Awal ef ungal Inig Aneggaru
Ungal Inig Aneggaru gar wungalen ineggura i d-yeffen s teqbaylit,
yesa mitin utmanya usebin n yisebtar (278), yeba-t Brahim TAZAART ef
xemsa (05) yiricen:
- Aric amenzu: Anafag ebban Raman (07sb-24sb)
- Aric wis sin: Timlilit (25 sb -84 sb)
- Aric wis tlata: Tiersi (85 sb -172 sb)
- Aric wis reba: Gar yiberdan (173 sb -210 sb)
- Aric wis xemsa: Gar rwa d tualin (211 sb -277 sb)

(1)

BALOULI, (F.), amagrad ef Salas d Nuja, Tamazit tura No 05, Ed HCA, Alger, 2010, P 37.

26

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

4. Agzul n wungal
Tiziri d tameut n Mehdi teffe-asen-d l Visa, ruen er unafag ebban
Reman iwakken ad unagen er tmurt n Fransa. Tinigt d tirga, d asirem n Tziri,
aas i tera iwakken ahat ad d-yas wass ideg ara tbeddel fell-as teswit, ad
tawwe er lmerub-ines, wa ad tidir tudert n zzehu d lez.
Zzwa n Tziri d Mahdi ur d-yelli ara s lebi n wul, imi Tiziri yezga
ttaxmim-ines ef wayen nnien d ayen ur yezmir Mehdi ad tt-yefhem deg-s.
Mehdi d Tziri uqbel timlilit-nsen llan d iseddawiyen. Mehdi yella yessen Nayla
d tamdakkel-is di tseddawit n Setif d tarabt, tezga ikccem-itt wugur d akken
imawlan n Mehdi ur qeblen ara ad illi zzwa-a gar-asen (tamsalt n nnesba gar
leqbayel d waraben). Lamena yal tikelt yeqqar-as edd ur yezmir ad ibedd
zdat lebi-s.
Maysa d tasdawant, d tamdakelt n Tziri, tetteki di tdukla n tlawin, mlalent i
tikelt tamenzut di teflist n Ticci, akken kan is-eddant ussan n umaris, Tiziri tufa
iman-is akked Maysa, tekka-as-d ef wayen itt-icuben,ef asmi tella di
tsennawit, asmi yebda wul-is yettissin lbanat d yiulfan n tudert. Di tesnawit
tessen Yuba tezdi-ten tayri, kecmen tasddawit, almi d aseggas aneggaru iqqesd Yuba ababat n Tziri Si Sliman abugau i nessba.
Tiziri tkemmel tekkud i Maysa ef wasmi yugi baba-s nnesba n Yuba,
as akken yella d mmi-s umdakkul-is Meyan ziz fell-as, maca yugi nnesba-agi
acku tawacult n Si Sliman d imraben. Yuba d agujil n ubabat, yettidir d
yemma-as ela er xwal-is.
Si Sliman d abugau n taddart, yedder tallit n tegrawla, aas n latab i
yesedda, asmi yella d ilemi ihemmel ela yell-is n Dda Qiqi, akken i d-kkren
deg yiwet n taddart, asmi tggu twacult n ela, msefraqen.

27

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

Tiziri ur tumin ad yeru waya, baba-s ad yagi nesba n Yuba, yezen wul-is,
teqqar-as i Maysa abrid-a i d-efre mai d nekk i tamenzut, aas n tlawin
iacen aya uqbel-iw, rray yettual er uqqeru n uxxam, wama tameut ur tesi
azref ad textar ne ad tawe er wayen teba, d tagi i d timetti taqbaylit.
Taluft-a n zzwa gar Tziri d Yuba tuqqel d ugur ameqqran, ur as-d-ufin
tifrat, Si Sliman yeef deg wawal-is ala nnesba-agi ur nettili ara, as akken
zizet fell-as yelli-s lemmer yettaf ad as-yefk ula d u-is. Salas gma-s n Tziri
win yellan di Fransa, imi i yesla swayen yeran, yemmesla d baba-s, yere
amek ad tiqne belli zzman ibeddel, zik d lenaya n yimraben i teddun, ma
yella tura timetti tezdi-tt dduwla, leqwani, d tezmert n tedemt. Si Sliman deg
ul-is yesa belli ammer d tamsalt n lewayed d wansayen n lejdud tili ad tenyeez, lamena tamsalt d ayen nnien.
Deg useggas ideg ifak Yuba leqraya-ines teffe-as-d Lvisa dtudes er
tmurt n Fransa, uqbel ad iu yemlal-d tziri, meren, mahaden tayri iten-yezdin
ad tkemmel er zdat wa ur itettu wa. Tiziri yezen wul-is mi tesla s rrwa n
Yuba, yea-tt-id deg wafrasen. Ula d yemma-s n Yuba ela tezen ef lefraq
n mm-is awid ur tesi waye deffir-s.
Yuba ihi di Fransa. Asmi zrin kra n yiseggasen, Yuba yeqqel d aqemqum,
axeddim, aurdi, lehna d zehhu di temdint n l Paris, xas akka ussan-is imenza
isedda-ten berriket, maca yual yeffe er litte. Mi i d-yewwe er tmurt
yerna icegge xal-is Belqasem er Si Sliman, lamer ahat ad iger udem i xal-is
imi yella gar yemdukal n Si Sliman. Dda Belqasem yere ad yessemlil gar-asen
lamena aya-agi d ayen ur d-nelli ara.
Yuba yual er Fransa, yeqse Dda Yidir at Muqran i yellan d amdakkul n
Belqasem akked Si Sliman yettidir di Yam di tmurt n Fransa, immesla-as ef
wassa-is d Tziri, yekker yenna-as: ru ad tnai taye, Tiziri ur ak-id-tettsa,

28

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

acimi, amek, D acu d ssebba? Ur ttnadi ad tfehme.(1) Yuba yewhem acimi i


d-as-yenna imeslayen-agi. Acku dda Yidir yera taqsit yeran gar Sliman d
ela, imi yiwet n tikkelt iru Sliman ad yesseqsi ef umdakkul-is Meyan deg
uxxam-is, tmugrit-id ela tenna-as: Meyan ullac-it, ....Kcem-d ad teswe
lqehwa, ni d aberrani i telli(2). Yera-d ayen yeran gar-asen, seg tama d
tallalit n yiulfan i tikkelt nnien, seg tama d Meyan ur nseu ara dderya
yezga yessarem ad yesu win ara ixelfen aar-is.
Asirem n Yuba mazal-it, azekka-nni yessawel-d i yemma-s, immesla-s ef
zzwa-is, tefra, teslilew ur tumin mmi-s awid yewwe d argaz, tura ad
iemmer wexxam-is. Testeqsa-t d anta-tt, yenna-as d yellis n Sliman At Senus,
tserra i tilifun tali, tuen teqqim sin wussan deg ussu ur tekkir, wis tlata
temmu-t, uqbel ad temmet temmesla d Muend gma-s, tweat ef Yuba, terna
tesirem ad d-yelli zzwa-a gar-asen, acku d atmaten a yellan.
Yuba ambed lmut n yemma-s, ibeddel tikli yual yessen Inas, yezzwe
yid-s san sin warrac, acen deg Fransa, ma yella d Tiziri tessen Mehdi i yellan
d amejjay, tezzwa yid-s mebla lebi, imi Yuba yezga ul-is yual-as inig er
Fransa d asirem, d targit-ines.
Mehdi yezga yettmeslay d yiman-is amer teba ad tecrek ddunit yid-is tili
ad tili anda yella fiel ma tunag, yerna netta yeba ad yidir di tmurt-is, asmi
yesla s lamala-ines i Yuba yellan di Fransa, yewwi-as-d l visa, mi i d-yewwe
lawan n lmerwa yenna-as: D lawan ad true, kker, adder it-tettu(3).
Terkeb Tziri tamsrifegt tru er tmurt n Fransa maca di temsrifegt yera-d
uxssar, rekben ula d irebraben i d-yeglan s lmuta n yimnigeyen, asmi i d-wwen
qrib er Marseille yeneq yiwen n urebrab yenna-as ad nual er tmurt n
(1)

TAZAART, (B.), Inig Aneggaru, Ed tira, Alger, 2012, P156.


TAZAART, (B.), Op cit, PP 169-170.
(3)
Idem, P 246.
(2)

29

Ixef amenzu

Tasekla d wungal

lezzayer, Tiziri ur tebi ara aya imi tere ad ters seg temsrifegt yena-tt
urebrab. Ma yella d Mahdi di lawan ideg terkeb Tziri, yemlal-d Nayla deg
unafag, da akken ikemlen tudert-nsen d lwaid.
Tagrayt
S umata d wigi i d iferdisen i d-yeddan deg ixef-a amenzu, ama d ayen
yenan amezruy n wungal di tsekla tagralant d teqbaylit, ama d asissen n
wungal d unaggal, nfak-it-id s wegzul.

30

Ixef wis sin

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

Ixef wis sin: Timiranin n tiri


Tazwart
Anadi usnan n yinagmayen izzayriyen deg unnar n tiri ur ugtent ara,
bexlaf kra n tezrawin n yimnuda n tkatut n lmagister ne n Doctorat, yerna drus
mai id d-yessazergen tizrawin-nsen d yidlisen. ef waya ad d-nefren yiwen n
wedlis kan i d-yettewessuzergen, i d-yewwin awal usrid ef yinumak d tbadutin
n kra n tmiranin icudden er tsekla, d adlis id d-yessuffe Muend Akli Sali
di tezrawt-ines ef tsekla. Seg tama nnien, iwakken ad nessebggen s lberz
timuliwin d tikta yettwarun ef timiranin-agi n tiri nefren-d dien s waas
idlisen n yinagmayen igralaniyen i d-yewwin ef enf-agi n tsekla am:
Vladimir Propp, Gerard Genette, Algirdas Julien Greimas, Tzvitan Todorov,
Reuter Yves, Adam Jean Michel, Raimond Michel atg. Akken ma llan eren
ad ssazergen di tira-nsen kra n tiriwin ef tussna n tsensiwelt d yiferdisen-ines.
Uqbel ad d-nawi awal ef tmiranin-a tiseklanin, issefk di tazwara ad
nesbadu d acu i d tiri n tsekla? Di lewhi n Sali Muend Akli d ayen akk i dyessefhamen d acu i d tasekla, d yal asmeren ef wayen yettwasaben d
tasekla, asmeren-a yettili ama ef twuri n tsekla (i wacu-ten yerisen-a?), ama
ef tessa n yirisen (Amek ttwabnan? ), tettili tiri d tawurant mi ara tessegzi
azal n umaru di tmetti, dien mi ara tesle assaen yellan gar tmetti akk d tsekla,
dien mi ara tezrew amiq n tikta (tifelsafiyin, tisnektiyin) di tsekla, tettili teri
d taessant mi ara tele iferisen i d-yeslalayen irisen n tsekla(1), ayen yezdin
innawen n tussna, am tussna-agi n tsensiwelt.
S umata yal tiri amek tettwali ullis, gar teriwin-a ad naf tiri tasimyutikit,
tasimyulugit , tasnilsant, tasentlant, tiri tasensiwelt, taneggarut-a tettnadi deg
uris aseklan ef waas n yiferdisen n tsiwelt (iwudam, adeg, akud), seg tama(1)

SALHI, (M.A), Petit dictionnaire de littrature, Ed Lodysse, 2012, Tizi-Ouzou, P 70.

32

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

nne ad nare ad nezrew deg ixef-a ullis s tiri tasensiwelt, wa ad nefk


tibadutin yemgarden di tira n yinagmayen d yiricen icudden er-sent.
1. Tasensiwelt
1.1.Tabadut-ines
D tussna n tsiwelt, d tazrewt ef yiferisen i d-yettaken aris n tsiwelt s
timmad-is, am umsawal d tewsatin-ines, am tkerrist d wakudatg. Tban-d
tamirant-agi n tsiwelt di tlemmast n lqern wis ecrin (20), ma yella d awal i dyemmalen tazrewt-a yesnulfa-t-id Tzvitan Todorov deg yiseggasen n 60

(1)

. D

tamirant iwumi yefka Todorov anamek-a: Tasensiwelt d tussna n wullis (2).


Tasensiwelt* s unamek nnien i d-yeddan di kra n tbadutin, d tazrewt i
weris asiwlan s tmuli tagejdant (vise principale) ef wallus n tekayt, ef
tessa d leqwani i ef yettwabna wullis, aya yettili-d ama s tmuli tasentlant
yenan (agbur ne tala n tsiwelt), s lmena nnien, d taslet ef wamek i yellaq
ad nesken leqwaleb n takayt. Tasetta* tamenzut n tsensiwelt tella-d s waas ef
tkerrist tasiwlant akked unamek n wamag*, ma yella di taggara-agi tisetta akk i
d-ibanen ttawin-t-id ef tenfalit n wullis alada ayen yenan ugur n tagnit n
tmenna (3).
Deg udlis n Reuter.Y iwumi isemma Lanalyse du rcit, yemmesla-d s
telqayt ef unekmar asensiwlan*, imi di lewhi-s d tussna yenan imenzayen
(principes) igejdanen n wesle agensay deg wullis (4).

(1)

SALHI (M.A.), Op cit, P 60.


SCHAEFFER, (J.M.), La narratologie in nouveau dictionnaire encyclopdique des sciences de la langue, Ed
Seuil, 1999, Paris, P 228. La science du rcit.
(3)
Http: //www.Fabula.org, quelque deffenitions, consult le 14/03/2013 9h30. Narratologie tude de textes
narratifs (cest--dire : dont la vise principale est de raconter une histoire, et dont la structure obit aux lois du rcit) que
cela soit dans une optique thmatique (question des contenus narratifs) ou formelle, cest--dire une analyse du mode de
reprsentation de lhistoire qui implique alors une prise en compte de la spcificit du mdium. La premire branche de la
narratologie repose en grande partie sur la conception dune squence narrative minimale (elle-mme discuter) et sur
la notion dactant, alors que la seconde, axe sur lexpression, porte son intrt sur le problme de linstance nonciative .
(4)
REUTER, (Y), Lanalyse de rcit, 2 Edition, Armand Colin, 2005, France, P 09. Les principes essentiels de
lanalyse interne des rcits .
(2)

33

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

Ma yella di tezrewt n Louis Hbert ef tarrayt n telet taseklant yesbadud: Tasensiwelt tefka azal i tessa n tekayt yettwalsen deg uris, s tessa-nni n
wullis, s unamek nnien, s tsiwelt-nni i d-yettakken takayt mi ara myekcament
snat n tassiwin-agi war gar-asent, takayt tettban-d am uzrar yeuren d
yineruyen d taggayin, imi gar-asen i d-yettili usiwe n wullis, tasensiwelt tefka
azal alada er umsawal, tugna* i deg i d-ttwales takayt i wumsiwal* (1).
Maca tasensiwelt ur tezzerew ara iferdisen i yiman-nsen, tzerrew assa-nni
i d-yettbegginen seg yirisen-nni yakan, assa-a yeggar aris deg tsekla n
wullis(2).
Di lewhi n umaru Gerard Genette, tasensiwelt d adewweni ef wullis,
lmena-s d ayen i er teawe tezrewt ara yettwaxedmen ef tsiwelt, d wayen i
d-yeddan deg-s n taliwin (3).
S umata tasensiwalt d tussna i yezerwen tifukkas d teskiwin icudden er
weric n tsiwelt deg yirisen n tsekla ne deg taliwin nnien yurzen er wullis.
1.2.Tarda* n tsensiwelt
Yekkat umdan ad d-isefhem d acu i d tasekla seg wasmi i yebda yesnulfuyitt-id, imi tiriwin deg unnar aseklan, tamenzut deg-sent akk i ef i d-yecfa
umezruy di ddunit, yefka-tt-id ufaylasuf Aristote (uqbel talalit n Sidna issa), di
tazwara, yella bab n tiri yettnadi kan ad yefk iberdan ara yefer umesnulfuy
deg usnulfuy-ines, ef waya-agi timuliwin tirayanin timenza ef tiri d
(1)

HEBERT, (L.), http://www.signosemio.com/documents/mthodologie analyse-litteraire, pdf, Universit du


Qubec Rimouski (Canada), 09/02/2013, P 43. La narratologie sintresse la structure de lhistoire narre dans les
textes, la structure du rcit, cest--dire de la narration qui est faite de lhistoire, et aux interactions dynamiques entre
ces deux structures. Lhistoire est entendue comme lenchanement logique et chronologique des tats et processus
(actions). Puisque cest entre eux que se fait la transmission du rcit, la narratologie sintresse en particulier au narrateur,
linstance qui raconte lhistoire, au narrataire, linstance qui lhistoire est raconte .
(2)
SCHAEFFER, (J.M.), La narratologie in nouveau dictionnaire encyclopdique des sciences de la langue, Ed
Seuil, 1999, Paris, P 232.
(3)
Http//: www.narratologie.com, consult le 14/03/2013 9h. La narratologie cest un discours du rcit , cest-dire le rsultat raisonn dun travail dabstraction au cours duquel on aura dgag.

34

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

tiriwin timesluganin. Yeqqim enf-agi armi d lqern wis 18, syin akkin bdant
ad ttnulfuyent aas n teriwin tigelmanin (1). Am tiri-agi n tsensiwelt i yualen d
tussna wessien deg unnar n teriwin n tsekla.
Deg tazwara, Platon d Aristote i d-yewwin ef wullis alada deg mi i d-gan
tanmegla gar sin n yiricen deg tewsatin n tsekla i yellan deg tallit n teglest
(mimesis- digsis), as akken llan wid i yeggan tizrawin ef wullis, lamana
almi d tazwara n lqern wis XX i d-as-rran azal, banent-d aas n tmuliwin
tirayanin n tsensiwelt (2).
Timuhal* timenza yettwaxedmen ef tussna n tsensiwelt d tizrawin
tiseklanin i d-ibanen ef yifassen n yimseliyen Irrusiyen* di lqern wis ecrin
(20) d nutni itt-id-yesnulfan s unamek-ines atrar, di terbat-agi n yimseliyen
llant tezrawin yexdem unagmay Victor Chklovski deg udlis yura isemma-s
Tiri n tsekla (3) d Boris Eichenbaum, abeda deg wayen yenan tasentlant* n
tmucuha n Russe, s yin er da tual tmirant-agi tesa azal d ameqqran deg
usmeren ef tsekla, ef-itt-id si Fransa armi d Lalman, Legliz d Marikan.
Tazrewt n Vladimir Propp i d-yessuffe d adlis isemma-s Morphologie du
conte deg useggas n 1928 yu amkan s tahri di enf-agi, yettwassen i yis-s
alada di tmurt n Fransa, eddan 30 n yiseggasen mi i d-yeffe wedlis-a yual d
lsas i tezrawin i d-ibanen ambad, rnu er-s teri taessant n Claud lvi-Strauss,
akked d Algirdas Julien Greimas di teslet-ines ef tmucuha yessuffe-d ayen
iwumi isemma Azenzi n yimesgan* (4).
Di taggara n lqern wis XIX di tmurt n Lalman i deg nernan-t tezrawin ef
tsiwelt alada seg tezrawin yexdem Franz Karl Stanzel d Kte Hamburger. Ma
(1)

SALHI, (M.A) , Tiriwin n tsekla, timsirin tiseddawanin, 2012-2013, Bouira, P 01.


SCHAEFFER, (J.M.), La narratologie in nouveau dictionnaire encyclopdique des sciences de la langue, Ed
Seuil, 1999, Paris, P 228.
(3)
SALHI, (M.A.), Op Cit, P 02.
(4)
Http://www.narratologie.com, consult le 02/02/2013 9h30.
(2)

35

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

yella di tmurt n Fransa tussna-agi tennerna s tuget di taggara n yiseggassen n


1960 s tmentelt n yisskawanen (structuralisme), syin akkin deg 1969 yekker
Tzvetan Todorov, yessekcem tamirant-agi di tjerrumt n dcamron. Deg 1972
er 1983 yufrar-d Grard Genette di tezrawin-ines ef tussna n tsensiwelt,
yewwet amek ara issemgired gar tlata n temiranin (Histoire -Rcit- Narration),
iswi-s ad d-issebggen assa yellan gar-asent. Grard Genette yesbadu-d
timiranin tigejdanin n tsensiwelt yerna yessens (appliquer) akk tizrawi-ines ef
tewsatin n tsekla ama d timucuha ne d ullisen s uxeddim-agi n tussna n
tsensiwelt (1).
1.3.Iferdisen n tsensiwelt
Aas n yinekmar (approche) d tarrayin yettnadin deg uric n tsensiwelt, i
wakken ad d-segzin wa ad d-sbeggnen ayen yefren deg wullis am wakken id dyenna Reuter.Y: tasensiwelt d taslet n yiferdisen igensayen i yellan deg
ullisen(2). Llan inekmar inirriyen am: asnimetti, asnalsan, asniman..., ma yella d
anekmar agenay tella teri n tsensiwelt i yettwaban s timad-is ef sin n
yiricen: tasensiwelt tasentalt d taskarant.
1.3.1. Tasensiwelt tasentlant*
Tzerrew ayen icudden kan er tekayt, tettwaba dien ef kra n leqwaleb:
a) Lqaleb asimyutiki asiwlan (smiotique narrative)
Tasimyutikit s umata d tiri tamatut ef lemani n yirisen, gar wid iefren
tussna-agi ad naf Saussure, Peirce, Barthes, Greimas, Eco, Rastier..., er (C.S.)
Peirce yenna-d: D tussna, tzerrew talilt n yinumak (signification) ef taulin n

(1)
(2)

GENETTE, (G.), Frontire du rcit Communication No 8, Ed Seuil, 1981, PP 158-169.


REUTER. (Y.), Op Cit, P 09. Les principes essentials de lanalyse interne des rcits.

36

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

wussnan akked tsekla(1), am tault n timettisent* ne tiklisent*, tafelsuft,


tasnilest*....atg.
Ma yella tasimyutikit tasiwlant* tzerrew anamek n tekayt, yerna takayt d
amsefer n tigawin i xeddmen yiwudam, di tazwara, isemyutikiyen i efren
abrid-a di tezrawin-nsen ttwalin d akken amag (awadem) d aglam i wayen
ixeddem n tigawin d yineruyen, maca taggara-agi tettwabeddel tikli, tban-d
tmuli tamaynut i wamag(2), aya-agi d ayen i d-yettwabegnen s telqayt deg yiwet
n tmuli tamaynut i d-yesnulfa Greimas (A.J.) deg wayen yenan imesgan*,
amag di lewhi n Greimas imal-d tawuri ne tamlilt* n uwadem di takayt, mai
lewayef-ines, amek yegga ne d acu ixeddem, rnu er-s awadem yezmer ad dyili d amdan, d aersiw, yezmer ad yili d tillawt ne d asugen, ne d ayen i dyesnulfa walla n wemdan am wazen, tteryel, amar azemni, talafsa..., ne d
iulfan am: tayri, tismin, lqer, lfer... Di tmuli n Greimas ayen akk i izemren
ad yefk tawuri, yezmer ad yesu lmana d unamek-ines di takayt (3).
Ihi, ma yella Greimas yeba azenzi-ines ef setta (06) n yimesgan
(amsifa/ anermas, amgay/ taawsa, amalal/amnamar), ilmend n wassa yellan
gar-asen, yettban-d ef lasab n unamek-nsen d akken amalal d umnamar mai
d imesgan d aaen (les acteurs), isemma-asen imawnen*, yezmer ad iawen
amalal, ne ad iare amnamar amgay, ihi seg waya ad naf tiri n yimesgan n
takayt er Greimas trea ef tlata, amgay, amsifa d tawsa i unermas. S
umata d tawuri n uwadem i d-yettaken lmana-s. Ayen iwumi semman
isemyutikiyen Anamek asimyutiki( 4).

(1)

Le petit Larousse, Edition Entirement Nouvelle, Paris.1998, P 93. Etudes des pratiques signifiantes dans les
divers domains, scientifiques et littraires.
(2)
COURTES, (J.), Smiotique narrative et discursive, Hachette Suprieur, 1993, P 18
(3)
SALHI, (M.A.), Op Cit, P 31.
(4)
Http:// www.narratologie.com, consult le 03/03/2013 14h.

37

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

Seg tama nnien ad naf amaru Jean-Claude Coquet, deg udlis iwumi
isemma La qute du sens, iawed-d ayen i d-yenna Greimas lamana s wudem
nnien, imesgan (actants), yeba-ten ef tlata, amag amezwaru, amag alemmas
d wamag wis tlata (prime actant, second actant et tire actant), d nutni i yettaran
imesgan nnien di rrif, deg ubeddel n twuri d wassa d wugbur askaran
(pouvoir, savoir, vouloir) i d-tettban tmerna tulmist n la smiotique (1).
b) Lqaleb n usnazmul (modele smiologique)
Tasnazmulit d awal i d-yesnulfa Ferdinand Saussure i wakken ad
yessefhem tussna n tesnilest di tallunt tamettit* ef lasab n tussna n yinumak,
rnu er-s Roland Barthes gar yimnuda di enf-agi n tesnazmulit(2), s umata d
teri n lemani dien, tzerrew tikli n uwadem imi yettunasab dima d
amesnulfuy n lemani, deg uric n tsiwelt tzerrew yiwen gar iferisen n takayt,
am iwudam, akud, adeg..., s tawil n uzamul asnilsan i d-yettualen d azmul n
wullis.(3)
c) Lqaleb smio-pragmatique
Izerrew awadem effet de lecture d wayen i d-yessegray deg walla n wid
i t-yeqqaren(4).
Di lewhi n Vincent Jouve iwudam zemren ad banen ef tlata n lenaf
yemgarden di turi n umsiwal i wullis: Awadem yezmer ad yili d tallalt n
umyeres*, ne d amsezlu (aqeddic/service) n usenfar ara yexdem umyaru deg
ungal-ines, yezmer ad yili dien d inelan* n wemdan, am wakken i yezmer ad
yili di tfakult n uflali n usayes, i d-issereg wemssirew, s umata nezmer ad

(1)

COQUET, (J.C.), La qute du sens, le langage en question, chapitre Instances denonciation et modalits,
Edition PUF, France, 1997, PP 154-155.
(2)
Http:// www.Fabula.org, consult le 03/03/2013 14h.
(3)
Http:// www.narratologie.com, 03/03/2013 14h.
(4)
Wikipedia, http:// Narratologie, consult le 07/03/ 2013 18h.

38

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

nessegzen aya s tlata n turiwin-agi : asemdu anewrik (leffet-personnel),


asemdu n umdan (leffet-personne), d usemdu n tfakult (leffet-prtexte) (1).
1.3.2. Tasensiwelt taskarant (Modal)
Tzerrew s telqayt assaen yellan gar tekayt d tsiwelt, yerna ta temgarad
ef leqwaleb i d-nebder yakkan, nutni ttaran tamuli s waas er tala n uris,
ma yella d taneggaru-agi tettnadi deg ugbur-ines.
S umata leqwaleb-agi akken ma llan, s wazal-nsen, yal yiwen deg-sen
izerrew yiwet n tama seg tsensiwelt, ttaran tussna n tsensiwelt d tamerkanit,
ssihriwen akk iferdisen i d-iteddun deg-s d wayen akk zemren-t tezrawin n
yimnuda d yinagmayen ad tt-id-suksen seg tussna-agi. Maca tazrewt-nne tcudd
s waas er lqaleb wis sin (modal), i yettabaten am wakken i d-nenna deg
ugbur-ines.
2. Ullis*
Deg uric n tsekla, gtent tezrawin i d-yemmeslan ef uris aseklan, aas n
yinagmayen i yessawen ad d-fken tibadutin d tmuliwin-nsen ef wullis.
Tzvetan Todorov ibeggen-d annect-a imi i d-yenna: Inaw ef tsekla, ilul-d
yakan asmi i d-tlul tmuli tamenzut ef tsekla.(2)
Tizrawin-a slalen-t-d aas n yinekmar: wid n tesnilest, tasnalest, tussna n
tmetti, tasnimant...atg. Aris aseklan yettili deg waas n tewsatin am: tmucuha,
ungal*, amezgun, umyi, tanqist...atg. Tuget deg-sent ttasen-t-d s tala n wullis
am wakken i d-yenna Roland Barthes: S taliwin-ines ur nettfakka, ullis yettili

(1)

Http:// www.narratologie.com, consult le 03/03/2013 14h. Selon Vincent Jouve les personnages peuvent
induire trois types diffrents de lecture: "Un personnage peut se prsenter comme un instrument textuel (au service du
projet que sest fix lauteur dans un roman particulier), une illusion de personne (suscitant, chez le lecteur, des ractions
affectives), ou un prtexte lapparition de telle ou telle scne. On nomme respectivement ces trois lectures : leffetpersonnel, leffet-personne et leffet-prtexte.
(2)
TODOROV, (T.), La potique, in Encyclopdia Universalis, Dictionnaire des genres et notion littraire, 2001,
P 106. Le discours sur la littrature nat en mme temps que la littrature mme .

39

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

di yal tallit, di yal amdiq, di yal timetti, ullis yedda-d yakan akked d umezruy n
talsa* (1). Ullis* ihi yettili yid-nne deg tudert n yal-ass. D tala yellan ama deg
tsekla timawit ne di tin n tirawit. Rnu er tama, ad naf M.A Haddadou ullis
er-s d aris aseklan yellan si zik, yettawi-d ef umezruy n talsa i d-yeddan s
ubrid n timawit er tira (2).
Deg tbadutin i d-yefka Jean-Michel Adam yenna-d: Ullis d agenses n
yiwen ne n waas ineruyen(3). Anamek d usebgen-ines yettili-d ama s tawil n
tugna ne s usaru, ma yella d alles-ines yettili-d s yimi ne s tira.
Ullis d tarrayt tagejdant i swacu nezmer ad d-nessebggen tigawin d
tugniwin n tekayt, yerna yiwet n teakayt tezmer ad ttwales s wacal n
yiberdan, am umsefer n wakud* deg ullis, di yal tikelt ilaq ad ner ma yella
ifer-it umsawal ne xai (4).
2.1.Timiranin tigejdanin n wullis
Ssawen yimarayen n wullis ad d-ksen tulmisin i yellan deg-s, tid id dyettilin di yal aris i d-yettasen s tala n wullis, tulmisin-agi ttbanent-d deg
reba (04) n yiberdan :
a) Takayt tesa taessa: D ayen icudden er tedyanin amek i d-rant d wamek
msefarent d ubeddel-nsent seg waddad n tazwara almi d addad n taggara, rnu
dien tugzimin akk d usdukkel-nsent.
b) Takayt zdin-tt yismilen: D ayen yenan iwudam d umsawal.
c) Takayt tesa akud: Yena akud n tedyanin akked wakud n wullis.
d) Takayt tesa adeg: I deg rant tedyanin (5).

(1)

BARTHES, (R.), Introduction lanalyse structural des rcits, Ed Seuil, Paris, 1977, P 08. Sous ces formes
presque infinies, le rcit est prsent dans tous les temps, dans tous les lieux, dans toutes les societs; le rcit commence avec
lhistoire mme de lhumanit.
(2)
HADDADOU, (M.A.), Introduction la littrature brbre, Ed les Oliviers, Tizi-Ouzou, 2007, P 147.
(3)
ADAM, (J.M.),Le rcit, Paris, 1984, p10. le rcit est la reprsentation d (au moins) un vnement.
(4)
Http:// www.Fabula.Dfinition.com, consult le 07/03/ 2013 18h.
(5)
ACHOUR, (C.) & BEKKAT, (A.), Clefs pour la lecture des rcts, Edition du Tell, Blida, 2002, PP 37-60.

40

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

2.2. Taessa n wullis*


Di tezrawt-nne ef wullis yessefk ad nerr lwelha er tessa-s, imi taessa
d lsas i ef yettwabna, yis-s i nezmer ad nessemgired tawsit n wullis ef tewsain
nnien, di tazwara ullis yettwabna ef tessa-agi iwumi isemma Sali (M,A)
Imebdi , ayen iwumi qqaren s tefransist Incipit , d awalen imezwura i
yettilin deg uris, zemren ad ilin d awalen idduklen d tifyar akken zemren ad
ilin d taseddart ef umenzu n wedlis am wayen yecban ullis, yesa imebdi azal d
ameqqran, deg-s i d-ttbanen yiwudam igejdanen n weris, ne ef wacu ara ad
d-yawi umsawal aris-ines(1).
ef tessant-agi dien ad naf aas n yimnuda i d-yemmeslan fell-as s
telqayt, gar-asen ad nebder G.Genette deg udlis-is alada ef tjeumt d tessa n
wullis, ssawen netta akked Greimas ad d-inin d akken ullis mai d tawsit gar
tewsatin n tsekla ne d idles, maca d yiwet n tewsit ur nettbeddil ara yettwabna
ef yiwet n tessa i yesselayen takayt(2). Rnu er-s asuffe n tessa n wuris
yessishil tigzi n lebni-ines, d yiwen n leqdic agejdan i wakken ad d-nissin akken
iwata aris i neba ad t-nesle, acku asuffe n tessa d allal mai d iswi (3).
er tama nnien ad naf kra n yimnadiyen am Adam (J.M.), Greimas a
ladaa Larivaille ssawen ad d-suffen yiwen n uzenzi aessay i wumi
semman Azenzi imsemmes* n wullis i yellan d taessa tameqqrant deg kra
n yiferisen igejdanen, ihi iferdisen i ef yettwabna d wigi (4):
Addad n tazwara: D addad n talwit anda tidyanin mazal ur bdint ara, yal
taawsa deg umkan-ines.

(1)

MUHEND, (A.S.), P46.


ADAM, (J.M.), in Encyclopdie Universalis, Dictionnaire des genres et des notions littraires, Ed Seuil, Paris,
P 632.
(3)
ACHOUR, (C.) & REZZOUG, (S.), Introduction la lecture du littraire, Ed OPO, 2005, Alger, P 186.
(4)
REUTER, (Y.), Analyse du rcit, Ed Armand Clin, 2005, P 21.
(2)

41

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

Aferis n urway: D timentalt ne d aferdis i yettbeddilen tikli n wullis, s


ussexreb n waddad n tazwara.
Taneflit n tedyanin: Deg-s yettili-d umaz n tkerrist yettbeddilen tikli n
wullis.
Aferis n ureqe: D timentalt ne d aferdis yettaraen ad d-yaf tifrat i
yieblan d wuguren yellan deg wullis.
Tualin er waddad n tazwara (tifrat): Di tegnit-a tidyanin ttawent er
taggara-nsent, d tualin er waddad n talwit.
S umata, nezmer ad nessegzi iferdisen-agi s uzenzi-a, la sab n wamek ityexdem Reuter:
Addad

Addad n

Addad n

Addad n

Addad n

Addad n

tazwara

tazwara

tazwara

tazwara

tazwara

Seg tama ad naf ayen iwumi qqaren Amsefer n wullis*, imi amsawal
yessefk fella-as ad yefren amsefer iwatan, i swacu ara ad ibeggen ineruyen n
wullis-ines, ay adra yedbe amsefer-a ne ala (1).
2.3. Tuddsa n wullis*
Ullis di tuddsa-ines, yettwaba ef yiwen n uferis agejdan d yiswirenines, yenna Tzvitan Todorov deg wawal-is ef akken it-id-yebder Christian
Achour: Aris aseklan d takayt, yettbeggin-d kra seg wayen yellan di tilawt, d
(1)

Http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schma_actantiel, consult le 13/04/2013 11h.

42

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

yineruyen i d-yettilin s ur iwudam Maca, aris dien d inaw, yella umsawal


i d-yettalsen takayt, seg tama-s yella imeri i as-isellen ne yettwali-t, deg
liala-agi mai d yineruyen ne d tignatin i yesan azal er yimeri, lamena
d tarrayt n umsawal amek i d-yettales, d netta i yettaan imeri ad d-tyessin wa
ad d-yessin ayen i d-yeqqar (1). Ihi tuddsa n wullis tebna ef tudsa n tekayt d
yiswiren-ines, akk d tsiwelt.
2.3.1. Takayt*
Takayt, deg uris aseklan akked tmuli tasensiwlant, d tadeyyant i dyeggaren taddeyant nnien s tmesla d usnimer* n tigawin, masub tigawin-agi
teddunt, leunt s ya er da d axel n takayt

(2)

. D aric seg wullis, teskan-d

amaal yesseqdec umaru deg uris am wakud, adeg, iwudam s umata yettban-d
deg usatal n uris aseklan ne deg wakud i deg neqqar(3) .
Takayt tettwab ef sin yiswiren:
Tugzimt*
D aric deg tekayt, d ayen icudden er umsefer n tedyanin d yineruyen
deg wullis s tmela*. D ayen akk i nezmer ad nekkes seg umsefer n tigawin ta
sdat ta, yerna yal taggara n tugzimt tleddi-d tazwara n tin i d-iteddun.
Am wakken i d-yenna Reuter: Deg wayen yerzan tasnarrayt, talet tseu
uguren, tezmer ad tili s lmendad n sin yiswiren, deg tama iferdisen ugten
ttwabnan-d ef tilawt am tigawin, seg tama nnien d iferdisen imadwanen
(1)

TODOROV, (T.), cit par ACHOUR, (C.) & REZZOUG (S.), Op cit, PP 185-186. Luvre littraire est histoire, dans
ce sens quelle voque une certaine ralit, des vnements qui se seraient passes des personnages () Mais luvre est en
mmes temps discours, il existe un narrateur qui relate lhistoire; et il y a en face de lui un lecteur qui la peroit. A ce
niveau, ce ne sont pas les vnements rapports qui comptent mais la faon dont le narrateur nous les a fait connatre
(2)
HEBERT, (L.), http://www signosemio.com/documents/ mthodologie analyse- litteraire.pdf, Universit du
Qubec Rimouski (Canada), 09/02/2013, P 25, consult le 13/04/2013 11h. L'histoire, dans un texte littraire et
dans la perspective de la narratologie, est l'enchanement logique et chronologique des actions et tats
thmatiss (cest--dire vhiculs par le contenu du texte).
(3)
Http://signosemio.com/Genette/narratologie.asp, consult le 13/04/2013 11h.

43

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

imesduklanen ne d iricen n uzenzi imsemmes. ef waya tugzimt d tifrat i


wuguren-agi(1).
Ihi tugzimt tettili s sin yiswiren, ur telli meiyyet ur telli ezzifet,
yessegza-d Reuter deg wawal-is d akken ugtent tarrayin i swacu nezmer ad
nekkes tugzimin si yal ullis, yal aris yesa tarrayt i d-as-ilaqen. Ma nezzi-d er
tarrayt ara ad nessaxdem i leqdic-nne ad tt-id-naf d tin i d-yessegza Reuter, imi
i d-yeqqar: Tugzimt tettili-d yal mi ara ad d-nekkes tayunt n wakud, adeg,
tigawin ne iwudam, ilaq seg tama-nne ad d-nefren ayen ilaqen ilmend n
weris i nezrrew(2).
Ma nezzi-d awal er tuddsa n tugzimt*, ad naf Bremond (C) yere amek
ara ad yaf tarrayt s wayes uddsent tugzimin deg tekayt, isenned si liha-s ef
tikli n wullis s umata, aya yella-d s usddukel n tektiwin-is er wayen yexdem
V.Propp d waas n yissensiwal nnien, d tayunt taddayt n wullis d tawuri
yettwassemersen i tiggawin d yineruyen, dduklent d tugzimin d ayemmi i dttakent ullis. Yerna asdukkel n waas n tugzimin meiyen ttakent-d tugzimin
tuddzayanin*(3). S umata llant aas n tarrayin i wusddukel n tugzimin, maca yal
aris yesa tarrayt-is, rnu er-s aris-nni ara ad nefren i telet d netta ara a-dyemlen d acu n tarrayt iwatan.
Takerrist*
D amsefer d usuddes n yineruyen akken i d-ttwakan deg tekayt (ama d
ungal, ama d tullist, ama d amezgun). Takerrist, teqqen mli er tsiwelt d
usuddes n wakud deg tekayt: zemren yineruyen ad d-twakun akken
(1)

REUTER, (Y.), Op Cit, P 26. Dun point de vue mtodologique, lanalyse demeure cependant tiraille entre
dune part des units multiples et en grande partie calques sur le rel, les actions et, dautre part, des units
trs abstraites et globalisantes, les tapes du schma quinaire. Dans ce cadre, la notion de squence peut
constituer une rpense intressante en tant quunit danalyse intermdiaire .
(2)
Idem, P 27. Il y a squence ds que lon peut isoler une unit de temps, de lieu, daction ou de personnage.
Il sagit alors de slectionner le critre le plus opratoire en fonction du texte considr .
(3)
ACHOUR, (C.) & BEKKAT, (A.), Op cit, P 43.

44

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

msefaren; zemren ad d-ttwakun akken nnien(1). Takerrist d iers n tmela i


yesdukulen imela n waddaden d tiggawin n tekayt.(2)
Rnu er-s yal ullis yesa takerrist acku seg iferdisen igejdan i er icudd
wullis, am wakken dien d tagnit anda i d-yettili ubeddel deg tedyanin n wullis s
umata. Aas iqedcen ef tault n tsiwelt gar-asen Veldmir Propp deg udlis
Morphologie du conte deg useggas n 1928, d amezwaru i ierden ad d-yessile
takerrist n wullis deg leqdic-is ef tmucuha n Russ, imi yessawe ad yessuffe
31 n twuriwin yemgarden anda s ya er da tettban-d deg-sent tkerrist(3).
Seg tama, ad naf ayen i ur ssaween kra n yimnuda am: Adam, Greimas,
alada Larivaille er yiwen uzenzi s wazal-is, deg-s iferdisen ne tignatin i dikemen deg usuddes n tkerrist akked wullis(4).
Ungal dien yebna ef tiggawin i d-yettaken asuddes n tkerrist, taneggaruta tesnulfa-d tugzimt, lmena-s azrug-nni i d-yeslalayen iferdisen n wadeg, akud
d tigawin n yiwudam, ullisen s umata tezmer tkerrist ad tban deg-sen s tala n
uzenzi asiwlan* yettwabnan ef ineruyen-a: tagnit n tazwara i d-yettmalen
akatar n tkerrist*, arway n yineruyen (vnement perturbateur), addud n
yiwudam (situation des personnages), ineruyen imneknan (vnement
quilibrant) akked tegnit n taggara(5).
Rnu er tama, takerrist tettwaba ef tlata lenaf:
Takerrist tasuft (lintrigue unique)
Temmal-d taqidt n yiwudam, seg wasmi yebda wugur n tkerrist almi d tifrat,
enf-agi yuget s waas di tullisin.
(1)

SALHI, (M.A.), Petit dictionnaire de littrature, Ed lOdysse, Alger, 2012, P 54.


HEBERT, (L.), Op Cit, P 25. Lintrigue est le fil logique qui unit les diffrents tats et actions de
lhistoire .
(3)
REUTER, (Y.), P 21.
(4)
Idem, P 23.
(5)
Http://www.espace francais.com/analyser-un-roman/.13/04/2013 12h00.
(2)

45

Ixef wis sin

Timiranin n tiri d tesnarrayt

Takkerist tasemlalt (lintrigue complexe)


Temmal-d aas n tkerras mcuddent war gar-asen, anda imeri wades yezmer
ad d-yedbe akk tiqiin n yiwudam ef wakken lleunt, enf-agi d win yugten
deg wungal.
Taddyant i d-yeggaren taddyant nnien*
D annerni n tkerras war gar-asent, tessekcam takerrist di taye,

tettara

takerrist tassenant d axel n tkerrist tagejdant, alada mi ara i d-iekku uwadem


taqit-ines.
2.3.2. Tasiwelt
Tasiwelt* gar yiricen igejdanen n wullis d lsas-ines, akken yebu yili
yinan n wullis, d imawi ne d irawi ad t-naf d win i d-iekkun tidyanin, ef
waya aas n yimyura i d-yemmeslayen ef yiricen d yiferdisen n tsiwelt alada
Grard Genette, Reuter Yves,...atg aya-agi s umata d ayen ief ara ad nessuget
awal s tuzi, ad nemmeslay fell-as s leqayt deg yixef i d-iteddun imi fell-as ara
nebnu tazrewt-nne.
Tagrayat
S umata, d wagi ihi i d awal s tewzal ef tmiranin tigejdanin i yerzan
tussna n tsensiwelt, ixef i deg nessawe ad nbeggen inumak, d tbadutin, d
turdiwin n tmiranin-agi. Rnu er-s tiriwin d tarrayin n yimarayen i dyemmeslan ef waya, deg unadi, d tezrawin, i d-yeddan deg yidlisen.

46

Ixef wis tlata

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

Ixef wis tlata: Tiri n tsiwelt deg wungal


Tazwart
Ungal gar tewsatin tigejdanin i ef yerra umesnulfuy ne umaru lwelha-s,
d enf yuen tunti-s d temkant-is deg unnar n usnulfu aseklan, imi aas n
tulmisin d twuriwin i t-yezdin, yufrar-d ef lenaf nnien alada deg wayen
yenan tasiwelt*, d tumant (Phnomne) tamaynut yesan azal d ameqqran deg
uris aseklan, acku tasiwelt d tarrayt n umsawal, deg-s i yettaf iman-is iwakken
ad yessenfali, ad yessefruri tiktiwin-ines ef ineruyen d tiggawin n tekayt,
annect-a akk nettaf-it-id yal tikelt deg wungal.
Aric-a d aferdis agejdan seg yiferdisen n tsensiwelt, tasugna d tmiraninines s umata. Ur yeshil ara iwakken ad neg tilas ger tsiwelt d tekayt ne gar
tsiwelt d weglam n yineruyen. Tasiwelt d yiferdisen-ines myekcamen war garasen, ef waya ad nere seg tama-nne deg yixef-agi wis tlata ad d-nemeslay
ef tiri n tsiwelt d wayen itt-yezdin, wa ad nare ad d-nefk tibadutin id dyewwin fell-as, as akken mxalafent gar yinagmayen, yal wa d acu n tbadut i das-yefka, s yin akkin ad naddi er wayen yenan iferdisen-is.
1. Tasiwelt
1.1.Tabadut-ines
Tasiwelt* temmal-d tigawt n umsnulfuy n wullis, anda i yezmer ad
yezrew tamuli timant n usiwal i d-yewwi seg kra n yimarayen i d-yesbadun
tagnit n usiwel (1).

(1)

Http:// www.Fabula.org.definition, consult le 14/03/2013 9h30. La narration dsigne lacte producteur

du rcit (et peut donc tre tudie du point de vue de lnonciation) la source duquel certains thoriciens
identifient une instance nonciative.
48

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

D abrid i yefer umsawal akken ad d-yeku ineruyen n tekayt. Yezmer


umsawal (netta di tilawt d tamsalt yeqqnen er lebi n umaru imi ayagi d tamsalt
n ufran n uanib) ad d-yeku (ad d-isawel) ineruyen akken msefaren di
tekayt, yezmer ad isizwer ineruyen ef wiya. Yezmer ad isifses tasiwelt ne
ad tt-yerr d taayant, ad tifsus tsiwelt mi ara ttemsefaren yineruyen wa deffir
waye, ur yili d acu i ten-id-ebsen. Ma ulac aas n uglam, ulac aas n
yiwenniten d waas n yineruyen gar yiwudam, ad tili tsiwelt fessusset. Ad
teay tsiwelt ma yella umsawal ittwessif-d aas (ama d iwudam, ama d adeg,
ama d ayen nnien), yerna isenaq-d aas iwudam n tekayt, yerna dien ittak-d
iwenniten (ama ines ama n wiye). Mesub, taggara n wawal: d aglam d
yiwenniten d yidiwenniyen ur nettaa ara ineruyen ad msefaren wa deffir
waye, d nutni i ten-iferqen akken ad tizif tekayt yerna ad taay tsiweltines(1).
Reuter dien yesbadu-d tasiwelt yenna-d: Tasiwelt teskan-d tifran
tigejdanin n tfukkas i yesseddayen tuddsa n tekayt d axel n wullis(2).
Ma yella Achour d Bekkat di lewhi-nsen, tasiwelt d annar yenan tarrayt n
ekku d wallus(3). Gerard Genette tasiwelt er-s d inaw asiwlan*, d lsas n teslet
n uris deg ullis(4).
Raimond (M.) seg tama-s immesla-d ef tsiwelt belli, d ayen akk
yettwabnan, yettwalqem-d seg wamud n tedyanin s yimeslayen i d-yettilin s
uanib usrid (5).
Rnu er-s Jean-Michel Adam yenna deg wawal-is: Tasiwelt, akken ma
tella tleu s sin leqwani, amenzu yurrez er enf n uris am wullis, wis sin
(1)

SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, PP 62-63.


REUTER, (Y.), Analyse du rcit, Armand Clin, 2005, P 40. dsigne les grands choix techniques qui
rgissent lorganisation de la fiction dans le rcit qui lexpose .
(3)
ACHOUR, (C.) & BEKKAT, (A.), Clefs pour la lecture des rcts, Ed du Tell, Blida, 2002, PP 60-61.
(4)
GENETTE, (G.), Figure III, Ed le Seuil, Paris, 1972, PP 71-72.
(5)
RAIMOND, (M.), le roman, Ed Armand Colin, Paris, 2005, P 150.
(2)

49

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

yurrez er unagraw i yesseqaden ullis-agi, ef wacu ibedd d wamek i dyettwagenses (reprsentation) (1).
Deg wayen yenan idlisen yettwarun s tarabt ef tsiwelt, ad naf tabadut i
d-yefka umaru Bakr Amin yenna-d: Tasiwelt s unamek-ines wessien tena
allus n uneruy ne n waas ineruyen i yezmer ad ten-id-yesnulfu umsawal ama
d ineruyen n tilawt ne n usugen, am wakken tena dien ayen ara ad d-yales
umsawal s yisem n yemsiwal, s umata tasiwelt d abrid-nni i s wacu i d-ttwales
takayt tettili-d deg ungal. Aya akk nezmer ad t-id-nesseggzen s uzenzi-a:(2)
Amsawal

takayt

Amsiwal

Deg udlis nnien n Sala Brahim yewwi-d ef tsiwelt, d akken: "D talalt n
usnulfu n yineruyen isewlanen(3), yis-s i yettnerni uxeddim n unaggal, yis-s i
yezmer dien ad yual di rrif, annect-a yettual er tezmert n umsawal d tmusniines deg ussexdem n yiferdisen n tsiwelt akk d wassa-ines d yiwudam, aya-a d
ayen ara ad yeen imeri ad yeqbel axeddem-agi wa ad as-yejeb.
1.2.Tala n tsiwelt*
Tasiwelt s timad-is tettas-d s tlata n taliwin yemxalafen, am wakken nera
imataren di tutlayin akken ma llant ttwabant ef tlata: Amenzu d amatar
Nekk win yettmeslayen, wis sin d amatar Ke win i wumi nettmeslay,
aneggaru d amatar n layeb netta win i ef nettmeslay, deg waya ihi amsawal
yettual di tsiwelt-ines er-sen, imi taliwin-agi ttwasnent si zzman aqdim armi
d tallit n tura am teqsit n Kalila d Dimna yettwasnen si zik, ma nual-d er
tumgzin tierfaniyin tirabin ad tent-id-naf d tid i d-yettasen di tuget s tala tis
tlata n layeb. S yin akkin tasensiwelt tennerna di tallit-agi tamirant, tbeddel tikli
(1)

Http:// www. la narrathologie.pdf, consult le 31/03/2013 10h00.


34 -33 1998 ( ) " " ( 2)
2003 1 ( ) " " ( 3)
124 .
50

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

ualen yimsiwal ssaxdamen tala n win yettmeslayen d win i wumi nettmeslay,


aya-agi s umata yennerna s tawilat i d-yettnulfun deg tfukkas d tewsatin n
tsiwelt yewaen amaynut, taliwin ihi d tigi:
1.2.1. Tasiwelt s umatar n layeb: Netta
D tala yettwasnen di tallit n zik, tettwasexdem s waas deg usiwel imawi,
Fourman Ferdeman yesbadu-d tarrayt-agi yenna-d: D takayt i d-yettales yiwen
n uwadem(1), d tala ifazen imi tettrekkiz ef leqdic asiwlan i d-yezzin i
wungal, ma yella d Sayed Ibrahim, tasiwelt yettwabnan ef umatar n layeb
tekka-d seg uswir d tmusni talayant yekseb umsawal d tiktiwin-ines tilayanin i
usiwe n tikta-s i yimdanen.
1.2.2. Tasiwelt s umatar n win yettmeslayen: Nekk
Seg tama n wazal yettas-d d wis sin deffir umatar n layeb,
yettwassexdem di tsiwelt n tekayin n at zik am tekayt n Cahra Zad akked
"Alef lila wa lila, amsawel deg usexdem-ines i umatar yettara amek ara ad
yefsi amgired-nni yellan gar wakud n tsiwelt, gar-as d yiwudam, am wakken
dien yettban-d umsawal d awadem agejdan deg ungal, acku yettmeslay-d s
yiles n uwadem agejdan, asa*, d yiwudam isenaniyen, d netta i yesselayen
ineruyen d tigawin n yiwudan ef akken yeba.
1.2.3. Tasiwelt s umatar n win i wumi nettmeslay:Ke
Yettas-d d wis tlata, d tala tamaynut deg tala n tsiwelt, d ayen
yettwasnen s waas, yettili-d d alemmas gar umatar n layeb d win yettmeslayen,

" 2002 ( ) " " ( 1)


195"
51

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yettara umsawal seg-s ad yeglem liala n yiwudam, seg tama nnien ad


yesnerni tutlayt swacu i d-yessawal deg ungal-ines(1).
S umata ajme gar tlata taliwin-agi, d tamsalt n ucebba n wawal d
yinawen mai d tanamekt*, d taliwin kan mai d lsas n tsiwelt, amsawal d
ilelli yezmer ad d-yessexdem tala i d-as-yehwan, aya-agi mai d netta ara ad
yesnernin i tira ma yella txus maca yessaxdam-iten umsawal iwakken ad yeflali
uxeddim-ines.
1.3.Amsawal d lenaf-ines
Amsawal d awadem amezwaru i d-yettbanenn deg ullis (2). Amsawal* d win i
d-yessawalen (i d-iekkun) takayt (deg uris n tsiwelt). Amsawal, yemxallaf
ef umaru. Amaru, d amdan yettidiren deg tilawt, ma d amsawal yettili kan deg
uris. D taect-nni i d-iekkun deg uris (ama d ungal, ama d tullist, ama d
tamacahut ne d enf nnien n uris n tsiwelt). Amaru, yesnulfuy-d takayt, ma
d amsawal iekku-tt-id. Llan tlata n lenaf n yimsawalen: amsawal anir,
amsawal agensay d umsawal awadem(3).
1.3.1. Lenaf n umsawal
a) amsawal agensay*
D amsawal i d-iekkun takayt ideg netta s timmad-is yettekki: d awadem
gar yiwudam nnien. Yessen ayen i ssnen akk yiwudam nnien, mai am
umsawal aniri(4). Yerna ma yella umsawal ittekki deg tigawt yezmer ad yesu
aas n wudmawen: Amsawal d asa n tekayt s wudem amenzu Nekk,
amsawal d inigi, d awadem asnay (secondaire), s wudem n wesget Nekkni,
yezmer ad iban dien s wudem wis reba netta, yettmeslay-d ef iman-is
. 232-231 2002 ( " ")
Http:// www.Fabula.org.definition, consult le 14/03/2013 9h30.
(3)
SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 32.
(4)
Idem, P 32.

(1)

(2)

52

Ixef wis tlata

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lamena s wudem-agi, yettban-d d akken d netta i d ameskar n wayen i dihekku(1) .


b) Amsawal aniri*
D amsawal i d-iekkun takayt ideg ur yelli ara d awadem. enf-a n
umsawal ierr akk ayen yellan deg tekayt; ayen yessen d wayen yera yugar
ayen ssnen d wayen ran yiwudam yettikkin deg tekayt i d-iekku. Mi ara yili
enf-a n umsawal, yettili aas ussexdem n wudem wis tlata asuf (amatar
udmawan y ne t deg yimyagen ne dien amqim ilelli: netta (t), tin
yernan er-s amsawal yettban-d d netta i d akerwa (patron) n tekayt, as akken
ulac-it deg tekayt, lamena d netta id d-yekkan nnig n yiferdisen n tekayt (2).
c) Amsawal-Awadem*
Yettusemma umsawal d amsawal awadem mi ara tili tekayt i d-iekku d
takayt-is (d ayen yeran yid-s). lmena-s da, d awadem i d-yessawalen takaytines. Mi ara yettwasexdem enf-a n umsawal, yettili s waas usexdem n
yimyagen deg wudem amenzu (amatar udmawan , akken yettili s waas
umqim ilelli nekk . Ixef amezwaru n wungal Askuti n Said Saadi, d
amsawal awadem i d-yekan (d Meyan i d-yekan amek yeffe s adrar d
wamek i yesedda tallit n tegrawla n Lezzayer. D wamek yedder iseggasen
imezwura segmi tzureg (testaqel) tmurt(3).

Http://www.espace francais.com/analyser-un-roman/.13/04/2013 12h.


ACHOUR, (C.) & BEKKAT, (A.), Clefs pour la lecture des rcts, Edition du Tell, Blida, 2002, PP 63-64.
(3)
SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 34.
(1)
(2)

53

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Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

1.3.2. Tiwuriwin n umsawal*


Genette gar yinagmayen i d-yewwin ef twuriwin n umsawal, yeba-tent ef
xemsa twuriwin tigejdanin i d-yettbegginen tafesna n tnekcimt (degr
dintervention) n umsawal di tlemmast n wullis, ad nebder (1):
1. Tawuri tasiwlant ( La fonction narrative): D tawuri tagejdant, yis-s i
tleu tsiwelt, madam yella wullis, amsawal iban-d ne ulac-it isefk fell-as ad
ibab tamlilt-ines (assume ce rle)
2. Tawuri n uwellah: Deg-s yettarad umsiwal ad yejbed lwelha n wid iwumi
i ekku, wa ad ier ma yella unermis* (contact) gar-asen ne ala.
3. Tawuri n taywalt (La fonction de communication): Amsawal deg wayen
akk i d-yettales, iswi-s ad yebnu assa gar-as d yimeriyen, ayen ara ad yexdem
umsawal ad yili yeqsed i yis-s srid imsiwal (narrataires).
4. La fonction testimoniale : Amsawal yettbeggin-d tidet n tekayt i dyettales, ama deg tsiwelt, deg ineruyen ne di tmuliwin-ines, tawuri-agi
tettban-d s waas deg usenfali n umsawal ef wafrayen-ines, d ayemmi i dyeslalay assa gar-as d tekayt-is.
5. Tawuri tasnaktant (La fonction idologique): Amsawal tikwal igezzem
takayt-ines, i wakken ad yessefhem kra n temsal s tmusniwin d tektiwin-ines
yenan ullis-is.
1.4. Tallunt:
Adeg ne tallunt* d aferdis agejdan anda i d-errunt tedyanin, d tuddsa n
wadeg yellan deg ugama yerna yettili-d ef lasab n tilit n umdan, amsawal
yezmer ad d-yemmesli ef tallunt i deg yettidir, xas ma yella di Fransa ad yaru
ef imukan-ines, tezmer ad tili tallunt dien d ayen i d-ixlleq walla n umsawal
mai d ayen yellan deg ugama.
(1)

Http://signosemio.com/Genette/narratologie.asp.
54

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Tallunt di lewhi n umaru Louis Hbert tettwaba ef xemsa n yiferdisen


igejdan gar-asent: Tallunt n usnulfu (tesddukel amsiwal d tira-s, adeg i deg yura,
ne i deg yettidir), Tallunt tasentlat (asnulfu n tallunt la sab n wayen yewa
usentel), Tallunt n uskan (montr), Tallunt n ubdar (yettili-d deg-s abdar n
yimukan mana mai s telqayt, am uwadem i yettmennin ad yili deg waba
imukan). Tallunt n ttutfa (rception) d adeg i deg i d-nettaf awadem di lweqt n
termast, anda i yettili unermas di lawan n termas, imukan i deg ttidiren, d wid i
wulffen (1).
Di lewhi n Muend Akli Sali adeg d aferdis deg teslet n tsiwelt. D adeg
i d-yemmalen anda terru tigawt. D netta dien i d-yeskanen, deg waas n
tegnatin, amek igga uwadem.Yettili-d wannect-a s uglam n wadeg (ismawen d
lewsayef n yimukan) anda terru tekayt(2).
Mitterand (H), yenna-d ef wadeg: D aferis yis-s i tbed tiggawt(3). Di
tbadut-agi ad nefhem belli adeg d aferdis icudden s waas er tiggawin.
Ma yella d tabadut nnien i d-yebder Achour (C) d Simone (R), nnan-d d
akken deg uris, tallunt d tageruma (ensembles) n yizamulen i d-yeskanayen
ineruyen n tgensest (4).
Seg tama ad naf Reuter yefka-d awal ef tallunt yenna-d : Tallunt d
aferdis agejdan

i d-yettbanen s waas

deg wungal, tezmer ad tban s sin

(1)

HEBERT, (L.), http://www signosemio.com/documents/ mthodologie analyse- litteraire.pdf, Universit du


Qubec Rimouski (Canada), 09/02/2013, P 25. En fait, on peut y distinguer cinq principales sortes despaces
: (1) espace de la production (associ lauteur et lcriture : lieux o il crit, lieux qui l habitent , qui
lont habit); (2) espace thmatis dans la production : (3) espace montr ou reprsent, (4) espace voqu
(par exemple un personnage en prison (espace reprsent) rve la plage (espace voqu)); (5) espace de la
rception (lieux o se trouve le rcepteur au moment de la rception, lieux qui lhabitent, qui lont habit) .
(2)
SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 11.
(3)
MITTERAND, (H.), Le discour du roman, Ed PUF, Paris, 1980, P 201. Lespace est lun des operateurs par
lesquels sinstaure laction .
(4)
TADIE, (J.V.), cit par, ACHOUR, (C.) & REZZOUG, (S.), Introduction la lecture du littraire, Ed O.P.O,
2005, Alger, P 209. Dans le texte, lespace se dfinit comme lensemble des signes qui produisent un effet de
reprsentation .
55

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wudmawen, tamenzut deg wassaen tesa akked d tilawt, tis snat di twuriwinines d axel n uris(1).
Goldestein (J-T) er-s tallunt tesa tazrirt* ef wanya n wungal, deg kra n
wullisen yettual d ameskar ne d bab n yinelan*(2).
Achour Christiane d Bekkat Amina di tmuli-nsen er tallunt: D asuzef
n tudert, d askan, d aqerreb er wadeg anda i d-tteflalint termitin(3).
Deg ullis nezmer ad nebu adeg ne tallunt ef reba n wudmawen,
amenzu d adeg araklan (gographique) d win id d-yettlalen deg wallus (ekku),
anda iwudam ggaren tigawin-nsen, wis sin d adeg n uris yerza adeg n tira n
idlisen, wis tlata d adeg anamkan tettili-d deg-s tugna id d-yettlalen deg tutlayt n
umsawal d wayen i d-yettaa n yinumak, aneggaru d adeg i d-yettmalen tarrayt
s wayes yezmer umaru ad yesselu tulsa d wullis(4).
Deg wungal ad naf di yal tikelt anaggal yettara amdan ad yinig yid-s akin,
imukan, payasage..., am waken i d-yenna J.GEORGE: Gar wudmawen insayen
i d-yellan seg zik, seg wasmi tebda tira n wungal, d win i d-yettilin s tufa akkin
berra i ukudan d ureklan (temporel et gographique)(5).
Deg uris, tallunt tesa azal d ameqran deg ullisen akken ma llan, deg waya
yenna-d Genette yewer aas ad naru mebla ma neka-d akter ma neka-d mebla
ma nura, lmana n waya d akken ma yella umsawal iekku-d isedday-d akk ayen
yenan tallunt acku d ayen yettwali i d-iekku, maca ma yella yettaru-d,
(1)

REUTER, (Y.), Op cit, P 55. Lespace mis en scne par le roman, peut sapprhender selon deux grandes
entres: ses relations avec lespace rel et ses fonctions lintrieure du texte .
(2)
GOLDSTEIN, (J.T.), cit par, ACHOUR, (C.) & BEKKAT, (A.), Op cit, P 51. Mais surtouts lespace influe
sur le rythme du roman, dans certains rcits, lespace devient agent de la fiction .
(3)
Idem, p52. Lespace est la dimension du vcu, cest lapprhension des lieux o se dploie une exprience .
,2000 , , 2. "" , . ( 4)
:
:
. : [...]
12 .
(5)
GEORGE (J.), Le roman, Ed Seuil, Paris, 1971. P 190.
56

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Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

yettimi deg yiwen n umkan iekku-d kan ayen i d-irezzun s ala-ines. Tin
yernan er-s tallunt deg ungal tezmer ad tesu assa d tilawt am wakken i
tezmer ad tili d asugen kan d ayen i d-yesnulfa walla n win i d-yettalsen(1).
1.5. Akud*
D aferdis deg teslet n tsiwelt. Yettban-d wazal-is deg ubeddel swayes i dgellun yineruyen n tekayt. Llan sin n lesnaf n wakud deg teslet n tsiwelt:
akud agensay d wakud aniri.
1.5.1. Akud agensay*
D akud i yettilin kan deg uris n tsekla. Deg-s sin n lesnaf: akud n uferri
(ne n tekayt) d wakud n tsiwelt.
a) Akud n tekayt
d amsefer n yineruyen deg mi ara tebdu tekayt alama tekfa.Tenna-d
Achour (C.) d Rezzoug (S.): D lawan i d-tettak tigawt i wakken ad teru(2).
b) Akud n tsiwelt
d amsefer n yineruyen akken i ten-id-yeka umsawal. Yezmer ad yeffe i
wakud ef wakken i yella deg tilawt (tekayt). Tenna-d Achour (C.) d Rezzoug
(S.):Tasiwelt tettbeddil asenfali n wakud, acku amsawal yettextiri amek
msefarent tedyanin"(3).
Zemren ad edlen sin n lesnaf-a n wakud, akken dien zemren ad mxallafen.
Ad edlen ma yella ineruyen yeka-ten-id umsawal akken msefaren deg
(1)

SAADI, (N.), Lexpression de lidentit dans le roman Tafrara de Salem Zenia , mmoire de Magister,
2009, universit Tizi-Ouzou, P 119.
(2)
ACHOUR, (C.) & REZZOUG, (S.), Introduction la lecture du littraire, Ed O.P.O, 2005, Alger, P 216. Le
temps de lhistoire est la dure de droulement de laction .
(3)
Idem, P 216. La narration bouleverse lexpression du temps en choisissant un ordre dvocation des
vnements .
57

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tekayt. Ad yemxalaf wakud n tsiwelt netta d wakud n tekayt ma yella


amsawal ur d-yeki ara ineruyen akken msefaren deg wakud.
1.5.2. Akud aniri*
enf-a n wakud, yettwellih-d er tallit ideg yedder umaru d yimeriyen-ines.
D aniri acku ur yeqqim ara er uris, yena lweqt ideg d-yura umaru adlis-ines
akked lweqt ideg yeqqar umeri. Taslet n wakud aniri ad tili ef tegnatin ideg i
d-yettwaru uris; ad d-tili d anadi ef taliwin n usnulfu d yiberdan n tira n
lawan-nni ideg yedder umaru. Ad d-tili dien ef tegnatin n turi n uris (lawan
ideg ran aris). Tignatin-a, sant azal d ameqqran imi ssishilent ne ttarant tilin
i uris.
Akken ad tgerrez tarrayt n teslet n wakud aniri, yessefk ad yefreq yiwen gar
wakud n umaru d wakud n umeri. Sin-a n lesnaf n wakud aniri, zemren ad
edlen (ma yella amaru d umeri ddren deg yiwet n tallit) akken zemren ad
mxallafen (1).
Tomachevski deg wawal-is ef uferis n wakud yenna-d: Tasiwelt tettbeddil
aas deg usenfali n wakud, acku amsawal iferren amek ara msefarent
teddyanin(2).
Ma yella ZADIG ef wamek it-id-yebder Achour d Rezzoug d akken yere
seg tama-s ad yefk tabadut n wakud, imi yessawe ula d netta ad yessuffe sin n
lenaf igejdan i ef yettwabna wakud, amezwaru d akud aniri ur yeqinen ara er
d axel n uris, d aferis yettwellihen er wayen yedder umaru d yimeriyen-ines
am wakken dien yerza tagnit i deg yettwaru uris-nni, yeba-t ef tlata:
amenzu d akud n umaru, wis sin d akud n yimeri d wakud amezray, ma d wis
tlata d akud agensay, di lewhi-s yerza tagnit anda ierrunt tuget n tedyanin, d
(1)
(2)

SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, PP 24-32.


TOMACHEVSKI, cit par ACHOUR, (C.) & REZZOUG, (S.), Op cit, PP 200-201.
58

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

akud yellan d axel n uris, d aferdis yesan azal deg teslet n tsiwelt, yettban-d
wazal-a deg ubeddel i d-gellun ineruyen n tekayt (1).
1.5.3. Amsefer n wakud*
Yal ungal iteddu-d deg-s ayen iwumi qqaren akud n uferri*, aferri am
wakken i t-id-yebder Muend Akli Sali d azal n yini ittunesaben amzun akken
immal-d ayen yeran s tidet di tilawt, iferdisen ieen aris, am wakud tikwal
ur yettili ara d tidet, lamena ttkellixen i yis-s imeri ttaran-d ineruyen n
tekayt amzun akken ran s tidet di tilawt, abada ma yella yessawe win akken
yeqqaren ad yeg assa gar wayen yellan di tekayt d wayen yellan di tilawt ideg
yettidir

(2)

.Rnu er tama akud n tekayt Akud yettwalsen , d akud yerzan

lawan n tidet, akken i tezmer ad teru deg tillawt, d amsefer i yesan tamela*
n yineruyen n tekayt seg mi ara ad tebdu almi tekfa, s umata d lawn i deg
tettimi tigawt akken ad teru.
Amaru J.P Goldenstin, ikemmel ef unamek-a yenna-d: Akud n
tekayt, d akud, yettak-d tanzagt* n wamek leunt tiggawin(3), lmena-as
lawan-nni id d-yettilin gar tigawt d taye (4).
1.6. Tifukkas* n tsiwelt
Ma nezzi-d awal er tffukas yezdin tasiwelt ad naf aas, d tid i zemren ad
ggent assa ger umsawl d wayen i d-yeddan deg wungal-ines, tiffukas s umata d
amud n yiferisen i ef i d- yettkal umsawal iwaken ad yeglem ineruyen-ines
wa ad ten-iselu akken i wata, ihi gar tffukas-agi ad nebder:

(1)

ACHOUR, (C.) & BEKKAT, (A.), Op cit, P 85.


SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 16.
(3)
GOLDENSTIN, (J.P.), Lire le roman , Collection Savoir en Pratique, Bruxelles, De Boeck et Ducolot,
1999, P 125.
(4)
GOLDENSTIN, (J.P.), P 125.
(2)

59

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1.6.1. Iswiren n tsiwelt*


a) Taddyant i d-yeggaren tadyant nnien: ( les rcit emboits)
D tafukkest i yessexdam umsawal deg tira-ines, yal mi ara ad yales tadyant
yeggar-d yiwet ne aas n tedyanin nnien, am wakken i d-yenna Reuter deg
wawal-is: Kra n wullisin zemren ad sun yiwen ne aas n wullisin nnien d
axel n yiwet n tkerrist tamatut, yiwen n uwadem ne aas n yiwudam zemren ad
ualen d imsawalen* n yiwet ne aas n tekayin i d-ttarun, i d-ttalsen, ne i
ttargun(1).
1.6.2. Akud n tsiwelt
Am wakken i d-nenna yakkan ullis yerza tamsalt n wakud, yal tadyant tebna
ef wassa i yellan gar wakud n tekayt d wakud n wullis, tasiwelt seg tama-s,
turrez er useggiw (dimension) nnien, d win yenan la temporellit, ullis s
umata yezmer ad yeslal assa gar sin yemazrar (sries) n ukudan: akud, yezmer
ad yili d illaw* ne d asugan*, di takayt yettwalsen akked wakud n tsiweltines, llant reba n tmiranin i yezemren ad awnen-t asle n wassaen-a:(2)
a) Tiremt n tsiwelt*
Grard Genette gar wid i d-yemmeslayen ef waya imi yessawe yenna-d
deg wawal-is, nezmer ad nmeyyez reba n tiremtin yemgarden di tsiwelt: (3)
1- Ultrieur: Ad yales umsawel ambed, ef wayen ieddan.
2- Antrieur: Ad yales uqbel, ef wayen i d-iteddun, ne ayen ara ad yerun.
3- Simultan: Ad yales srid, ef wayen yellan d wayen yeran imiren.

(1)

REUTER, (Y.), Op cit, P 56. Certains rcits peuvent comprendre un ou plusieurs autres rcits embotes: au
sein dune intrigue englobante, un ou plusieurs personnages deviennent narrateur dune ou plusieurs histoires
quils crivent, racontent, ou rvent .
(2)
Idem, PP 56-57.
(3)
Http:// www.narratologie.com, consult le 03/03/2013 14h.
60

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

4- Intercal: D asexle gar wayen yellan d wayen ieddan (prsent et pass).


er tama, ma nerra tamuli i wayen i d-yenna Reuter Yves ur ixulef ara ef
Genette, acu-t kan tiremt n tsiwelt er-s tettwaba ef tlata, yerna tcudd er
tiremt anda i d-ttwales tekayt d wassaen-ines d tiremt anda i tezmer ad teru
tekayt s tidet, ihi iswiren n tiremt d wigi:
Tasiwelt teggra ef tekayt (Ultrieure): Amsawal iekku-d ayen yezrin.
Tasiwelt tedda d tekayt: D aswir ur nelli ara s tuget, icudd er tsiwelt s
wudem amezwaru, deg-s nettulfu am wakken amsawal iekku-d takayt deg
lawan i deg tera.
Tasiwelt tezwar takayt (Antrieure): Ur tugget ara, amsawal iekku-d
ayen ara yerun er zdat, am wakken yezmer ad yili d tirga(1).
b) Tirurda*
Di tfukkest-agi ad nwali amsawal amek i yetturar s wakud n tsiwelt, imi
tikwal yettzeggid tikwal yessenqas i wakud n tekayt s uglam, adiwni d
tedyanin.
Di tsiwelt amsawal iekku-d ayen yeran deg wagguren, deg yiseggasen la
sab n yineruyen s kra n tefyar ne aas, dien yezmer ad yales tidyanin yeran
deg kra n ddqayeq deg kra n yisebar ne ugar, s umata ihi, tirurda n tsiwelt ef
wamek itt-id-yesbadu Reuter: D assa gar tezi n tekayt (Dure de lhistoire) i
yettwaesben (s yiseggasen, s wayyuren, s wussan, s swaye...), akked d tezi n
tsiwelt i d-yettbegginen (s yisebar, s yijeien, s tseddarin...)(2).
Inaggalen s umata d wid ifehmen timsal, yesnen amek ara ad selun
ineruyen d wakud n wullis, tikwal s ruruden (acclrer) tikwal nnien teddun
(1)

REUTER, (Y.), Op cit, P 56.


Ibid, P 56. La vitesse dsigne le rapport entre la durre de lhistoire (calcule en annes, mois,
jours,heures,...) et la dure de la narration ( ou, plus exactement, de la mise en texte, exprime en nombrede
pages ou de lignes) .
(2)

61

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

kan s tawil (ralentir), ef waya ara ad naf tirurda s timad-is tesa tlata n
yiswiren:
Asrured*( acclration): D taffukest i yessexdem umsawal mi ara ad
yebu ad yessenqes i kra n teddyanin n tekayt deg tsiwelt am uglam, assegzel n
tedyant aya akk yettban-d deg utettu* d usdukkel n wayen yellan deg uris (le
sommaire). Atettu yekkat yetteddi,

yessenqas i tedyanin n tekayt, tikwal

nnien i tekkes-itent seg tsiwelt, ma yella d asdukkel n wayen yellan deg uris,
nezmer ad tneseb d agzul n wakud n tekayt tameqqrant deg kra n yijerrien.
Allukkez* (ralentissement): Akken i yella uselukkez-ines yettbin-d s
tullsa n kra n yisalli s weglam.
Asedel*: Yettili-d s ussedel n wakud n tekayt d win n tsiwelt am
udewwni.
c) Timezgit*
Timezgit tena asnigar ne aawed n yineruyen n tekayt, llan ineruyen
i d-yettasen s wudem n usugen wiya d ineruyen n tidet icudden er tilawt, di
liala-ag, timezgit tena ma yella umsiwel yemsawi gar le nombre de fois n
yineruyen n usugen d yineruyen n tidet n tsiwelt(1).
Amsiwal yezmer ad yefren yiwet seg tlata n teskiwin-agi:
1- Alles i wayen yeran yiwet n tikelt ne aas n tikawal (Le rcit
singulatif).
2- Alles n wacal tikkal, i wayen yeran yiwet n tikelt, lmena-s ullis n
uewed (Le rcit rptitif).
3- Tullsa i tikkelt kan, i wayen yeran aas n tikkal (Le rcit itratif)(2).

(1)

Ibidem, P 61.
DUMORTIER, (J.L.), Tout petit trait de narratologie buissonires, Presse universitaire de Namur,
Belgique, 2005, P 88.
(2)

62

Ixef wis tlata

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Seg tama-nne ad d-yili wawal di tezrewt-a, ef yiwet n teskiwt kan, ef


lasab n wacu i yessexdem umaru Brahim tazaart deg tsiwelt n wungal-ines.
d) Amsefer*
Yerza tidyanin n tekayt amek imsefarent d wamek i tent-id-yewwi
umsiwel di tsiwelt-ines, am wakken i d-yenna Reuter: D assa gar umsetbe n
tedyanini d wamek i d-ttwalsent(1), yenna-d dien Scheffer (J-M): Drus n
yirisen isiwlanin anda ttemsefarent tedyanin n tekayt akken i d-yettili
umsefer n tsiwelt(2), tikwal amsiwel di tsiwelt ya ad yeddu er zdad ne ad
yual er deffir. Ihi amsefer yettwaba ef sin yiswiren(3):
Tamuli er zdad*
Amsiwel yettabdar-d ineruyen n tekayt uqbel ad run s useggas ne
akter, yettmeslay-d ef wayen i d-iteddun.
------------------ 3 ---------------- 1 ---------------------- 2 --------------------Tasiwelt tasezwert (narration anticipation)

Tualin er deffir*
Amsiwal ur yetabe ara amsefer n wakud (lordre chronologique),

yessawal-d s tualin er wayen i ieddan.


------------------ 1 ---------------- 2 ---------------------- 3 -------------------------------------- 2 ---------------- 3 ---------------------- 1 --------------------Tasiwelt n tualin (narration retour en arrire)
(1)

REUTER, (Y.), Op cit, P 62. Lordre dsigne le rapport entre la succesion des vnements dans la fiction et
lordre dans lequel lhistoire raconte dans la narration .
(2)
SCHEFFER, (J.M.) & DUCROT, (O.), Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopdique des sciences du langage, Edition
du Seuil, Paris, 1995, P 712. Il nexiste pas beaucoup de textes narratifs o lordre des vnements raconts et
lordre de leur prsentation narratives concident strictement (synchronie) .
(3)
Http://www.espacefrancais.com/analyser-un-roman/.13/04/2013 12h00
63

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

1.7. Iwudam*
D aferdis deg teslet n tsiwelt. Ur yessefk ara ad yessedel yiwen gar
uwadem akked umdan. Awadem, yettili kan deg uris. Tudert-is, teqqen er tin
n uris, tbeddu s wawalen imezwura n tekayt, tkeffu s taggara n turi n tekayt,
akken ad yili uwadem (am netta am umsawal d umsiwal), yessefk ad yili uris.
Ma yella d amdan, yettidir deg tillawt, ur yewa ara aris akken ad yili.
Deg tsekla, imyura semrasen sin n yiberdan i wakken ad d-gelmen (ad dwefen) awadem: aglam usrid d uglam arusrid. Yettili uglam d usrid mi ara ilin
yisallen (abeda ef uwadem) yettak-iten-id umsawal qbala mebla tuzzya deg
wawal. Ad yefhem umeri, mi ara yeqqar, lewayef n win yettwagelmen mebla
ugur ameqqran, imi isallen i as-d-yettunefken fell-as llan-d ilmend n usenned n
uwadem i umeri (yettwaweef-d uwadem akken ad t-yissin umeri, ad ier wi
t-ilan d wamek yemmug)(1).
Awadem d lsas n wullis ur yezmir ed ad isugen ullis mebla awadem,
yettunasab d taneqi tagejdant deg yidlese akk n yinaggalen, yesa tamlilit d
wazal meqqren di tuddsa n tekayt, d netta i yettaken lbenna d lmena i takayt,
yerna takayt akken ma tella d takayt n yiwudam(2), inaggalen s umata s
yiwudam ibennun ungalen-nsen acku d nutni i yesnernayen tiggawin n
yinaggalen (les actions romanesque)(3).
er tama ad naf Tomacheveski yenna-d: Iwudam ttawin-d ayen i wumi
neqqar tignatin tiisanin*, jebbden-d afrayen d lwelha n yimeriyen, ssefraen

(1)

SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 40.


REUTER, (Y.), Op cit, P 27.
(3)
J.P Goldenstin, Lire le roman, Paris, De Boeck et Ducolot ; 1999, p.50.
(2)

64

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

kra n yimeriyen,akken i ssezanen wiya, akken i llan wid i yessaggaden, rnu


yettili-d ufar n win yellan d asa deg tekayt(1).
Ihi iwudam d allal i yessexdam umeskar iwakken ad yerr lwelha n
yimeriyen, jebden-d afrayen-nsen, llan wid ssefraen, wiya sazanen-ten, am
wakken llan wiya saggaden-ten.
Phillipe Hamon isummer-d (propos) azal n setta (06) tulmisin, isahlen mai
i ussebeggen d ussuggem n yiwudam la sab n wacu xeddmen d wamek i dttbanen deg ullis:
1- Amgared di ifat (La qualification diffrentielle): Tena tamagant d
tsmekta n ifat i swacu yettwassen yis-sent uwadem am uglam n tfekka-s,
tanefsit d tmetti-is
2- Amgared di twuri (La fonction diffrentielle) : Ur teni ara kan tilin n
uwadem deg tekayt lamena d tawuri-ines deg wayen ixeddem.
3- Amgared deg Beu (La distribution diffrentielle): Tena tastratigit n
beu n yiwudam yal wa d acu n umkan ideg i t-id-yebdar umsawel, am tnezdut
n uwadem ama yeqreb ne yebed.
4- Tafulmanit yemgarden (L' autonomie diffrentielle): la sab tilin n
uwadem d wayen ixeddem, i tittean ad yemgared ef wiya.
5- La pr-dsignation conventionnelle: D abgan n lila ne tiddas n wayen
ixeddem uwadem.
6- Le commentaire explicite: Adewni i yeggar umsawal gar iwudam.
Rnu er tulmisin-agi, Phillipe Hamon yeba iwudam ef tlat (03) n
taggayin :
(1)

ACHOUR, (C.) & REZZOU, (S.), Introduction la lecture du littraire, Ed O.P.O, 2005, Alger, PP 200-201.
Les personnages portent habituellementune tente motionnelle (...) Attire les sympathies du lecteur pour
certains dautres eux et sa rpulsion pour certain immanquablement sa participation motionnelle aux
vnements expose et son enterait pour le sort de hros .
65

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

a) Iwudam imseluyen (personnages- rfrentiels): D iwudam yellan deg


umezruy ne d wid i d-yetteddun deg tumgizin.
b) Iwudam yettkemmilen er zdad (personnages- embrayeurs) : D iwudam i
d-yeskanayen tilin (prsence) n umaru, n umeri, ne assa yellan gar-sen, d
iwudam de porte-parole.
c) I wudam n tazwara (personnages- anaphores) : D iwudam i d-yettbanen s
sin wudmawen, llan iwudam n tidet yesan assa d tillawt, wiya d wid i dyesnulfa walla n umsawal.
1.7.1. Tawuri n yiwudam
Awadem yesa tamlilt deg ullis, ef waya ma nemmesla-d ef twuri n
yiwudam, ad nemmeslay ef yiwet n tezrewt s wazal-is i yexdem Greimas
yettwasnen s waas, d tazrewt yenan iwudam d tigawin deg tmucuha, imi
yessawe ad yini d akken timucuha akken ma llant sant yiwet n tessa, as
akken mgaradent deg tezi, maca dduklen-t deg yiwet n taggayt n yimigawen
(les actants), d tagejdant i yal takkerrist. Ihi ifren-d aris n tsemlilin n wid
ixedmen tigawin, ittekin deg ullis, awal ef tezrewt n Greimas maca seg tamnnte ad nere ad nefk yimigawen id yettilin deg ullis

(1)

. D wamek i yessawe

Greimas ad yessuffe ayen i wumi isemma azenzi amesgan, aya-agi s umata d


ayen ara ad yilin s telqayt.
1.7.2. Azenzi amesgan*
D lqaleb aessay i d-yewwi Greimas akken ad d-yessefhem tigawin n
yiwudam d wamek uddsent tneqqisin. Azenzi-a, yebna ef setta (06) n
yiferdisen. Iferdisen-a, qqnen d tiyuga, yal yiwent temgarad d waye:
amsifa/anermas, amegay/taawsa, amalal/amnamar(2).

(1)
(2)

REUTER, (Y.), Op cit, PP 44-45.


SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 43.
66

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

Turda ne takti n Greimas i tikelt tamenzut, tella-d ef teslet n 31 twuriwin


tisewlanin i yexdem Propp, yessawe ad tent-id-yessuffe s tualin-ines er
tigawin n yiwudam, yeseb d akken timucuha n timensayin n Russe ttwabnan-t
ef yiwen n laleb yesan seba (07) n yimesgan , yusa-d Greimas yetbe
tarrayt-agi n Propp yessuffe-d seg setta (06) n yimesgan i yualen d tarrayt
yucaen s waas di teslet n wungalen, ullisen d tmucuha(1).
Amsag
D tamirant i d-issekcem Greimas di teslet n tunqqist. Amsag* immal-d
tawuri n umigaw (acteur) di tekayt, d ayen ixeddem umigaw, ne d ayen i asxeddmen. Tawuri-agi, teqqen er enf n tigawt n umigaw: yal enf ittak-d
amsag.
Amsag di tmuli n Greimas d ayen akk ixeddmen tawuri, yezmer ad yili d
amdan, d aersiw (d aqjun, d itbir, d inisi...) ne d taawsa (d tigi, d au, d
asif...), yezmer ad yili dien d ayen yellan di tillawt (amdan, aersiw, taawsa),
akken yezmer ad yili d ayen i d-yesnulfa walla n bnadem ( awazen, tteryel,
amar azemni, talafsa, mm-seba iqerray...) ne d afray (d aulfu am tayri,
tismin, lfer, lqer...)(2).
S umata amsag d ayen akk yesnernayen tanqqist d unamek n tekayt s
tigawin n yimigawen. Di teslet-ines, yekkes-d Greimas setta (06) lenaf n
yimesgan: Amsifa, anermas, taawsa, amgay, amnamar d umalal(3). Tin yernan
er-s Greimas yeba imesgan- agi ef tlata n tgellas tesseddasiyin (trois axes
syntaxiques)(4).
- Sujet vs Objet (modalits de vouloir)
(1)

CAVAZZA, (M.), Narratologie et smantique: Pour une rfondation interprtative, Teesside University,
School of Computing, TS1 3BA Middlesbrough, United Kingdom, P 04.
(2)
SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 30
(3)
Http:// www.Fabula.org. Quelques dfinitions. consult le 14/03/2013 9h30.
(4)
ACHOUR, (C.), & REZZOUG, (S.), Convergences critiques, Alger, OPU, P 183.
67

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

- Adjuvant vs Opposant (modalit de pouvoir)


- Destinateur vs Destinateur (modalit de savoir)
Di tmuli n Greimas, yiwen n umigaw, yezmer ad itekki di sin n yimesgan
abeda ma llan-t snat n tekayin di tneqqist, akken dien zemren ad ilin sin n
yimigawen ne ugar deg yiwen n umsag. Ma nezzi-d awal ef lemani d
yinumak n yimesgan-agi, d acu-ten ad naf aas n tbadutin i d-yettwaxedmen fellasen ad nebder gar-asent tid i d-yefka Muend Akli Sali d wiya :
- Amsifa
Deg uzenzi asimyutiki n Greimas, amsifa* d win i yessuturen i umegay
ad as-d-yawi ayen (taawsa) ara yekksen lexsas ideg yella unermas (1).
- Anermas
Deg uzenzi asimyutiki n Greimas, anermas* d awadem i wumi d-ttawin
taawsa akken ad yettwakkes fell-as lexsas (lexsas-a, yettban-d deg tazwara n
tmacahut). Yezmer ad yili unermas d netta i d amsifa (d netta ara d-yessutren
taawsa i yiman-is), akken yezmer ad yili d waye (d awaden nnien)(2).
- Taawsa
D aferdis deg uzenzi amesgan n Greimas, taawsa* d ayen issefk ad d-yawi
umgay i umsifa, ef wawal-agi n tawsa i tebna tekayt n tmacahut, ma yella
deg ungal tezmer ad tili tewsa d ayen nnien, as akken mi d tinna akken i
yelaq ad t-id-yawi i umsifa, lamena kif kif d ancad ef wayen yeba uwadem
am unadi ef tleli, tmagit,....

(1)
(2)

SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 35


SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 35.
68

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

- Amagay*
D awadem i yefren umsifa akken ad d-yawi ayen (taawsa) ixussen anermas
(lexsas-a yettili-d deg tazwara n tmacahut). Ma yella yessawe umegay ad
ieddi i wuguren (tigawin n umnamar ne imnumar) i d-yemmuger mi yettnadi
taawsa atan d netta ara yualen d asa n tekayt(1).
- Amnamar
Deg uzenzi asimyutiki n Greimas, amnamar* d awadem i d-izeggen d ugur i
win yettnadin (amegay) ef tawsa; yezmer ad yili uwadem-a ula d netta yeba
ad yessiwe ad d-yawi taawsa swayes yeme ad iellet (adrim, lekem,
zzwa, atg.). Yezmer dien ad yili umnamar d aekkur kan deg ubrid n umegayasa deg unadi-ines ef tawsa (lmena-s, ur d-yecli umnamar deg tawsa);
akken yezmer ad yili d ayen ur nesi rru (tigi, asif, adrar, atg.)(2).
- Amalal
Deg uzenzi asimyutiki n Greimas, amalal* d awadem i yettawanen
amegay (ne amegay-asa) deg unadi n kra (tawsa). Yettawan-it ama s
yisallen i as-yettmuddu i wasa ama s uwessi. Amalal, yezmer ad yili d ayen
yesan rru (amdan, aersiw) ne d ayen ur nesi rru (asigna, abla, tiziri,
atg.)(3).

(1)

Idem, P 26
Ibidem, P 27
(3)
SALHI, (M.A,), Op cit, P 28
(2)

69

Ixef wis tlata

Tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal

Azenzi amesgan ( Schma actanctiel )


Amsifa

Taawsa

Anermas

Amalal

Amgay

Amnamar

S umata, ttwabnan yimesgan-agi d azenzi ilmend n wassaen yellan gar-asen.


Tagrayt
S wayen akk i d-nebder yettban-a-d s ttbut tuget n yiferdisen n tsiwelt, di
taggara n yixef-agi nezmer ad d-nini belli iferdisen-agi i ef irea yal ullis, ad
banen akken iwata ixef i d-iteddun ideg ara ad nwali amek i d-tella tsiwelt deg
ungal Inig Aneggaru n Brahim TAZAART? D acu-ten iferdisen i d-yeddan
deg-s, d wanwi ur d-neddi ara?

70

Ixef wis reba

Ixef wis reba

Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru

Ixef wis reba: Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru


Tazwart
Mbed awal i d-newwi deg yixfawen ieddan, deg ixef-a, nare ad
nexdem taslet i wungal Inig Aneggaru , ad nseqdec tiri tasiwlant i ef dnemmeslay, s unamek n telet taseklant d wamek i d-tella deg ungal-a, ideg
ara ad d-nefk ayen i d-yeddan deg ungal n yiferdisen n tsiwelt s teslet
talqayant ef lasab n wayen yezdin irisen n wungal yura Brahim TAZAART.
Tarrayt n teslet i wungal Inig Aneggaru, neba-tt ef sin yericen.
Ambad tauri-nne talqayant i wungal, iban-a-d amek i tezmer tekayt ad
tili deg tilawt ef lasab n wamek itt-yettidir wemdan deg tudert-is n yal-ass,
am zzwa n tmara d twenziwin, tamsalt n umezruy, tagrawla, tutlayt d tnalit,
tamazit, tamsalt n wansayen d lawayed, tamsalt n tayri d yinig ...atg. D
timsal-a akk i ef yebna umaru Brahim TAZAART ungal-ines. Maca, llant degsent tid ideg yessuget awal, tiya d abdar kan, aya-agi mebla cekk d ayen
yellan di tilawt, awal n umaru seg tira-ines yettara imeri ad yeddu yid-s wa ad
iulfu s yiwudam n wungal, imeri mi ara ad ier i Tziri d wid akk marra itticuban, yal yiwen seg-sen ad iulfu yis-s, acku ad d-yaf iman-is deg wayen
akken i d-qqaren.
Maca seg tama, yettili-d umgired-ines ef tsiwelt, amek itt-id-yules
umaru, ef waya i nere ad nexdem taslet i weric n tekayt d weric n
tsiwelt wa ad d-nseddu amgired-a i yeban ta ef taye.
1. Aric n tekayt
Iwakken ad negzu aric-a, nere ad nekkes i tazwara ayen icudden er
tessa n wullis d tmiranin-ines tigejdanin, am tugzimin yezdin ungal s tezi
n yineruyen d tiggawin-ines. Nenna-d yakan, tugzimt d amsefer n tedyanin
72

Ixef wis reba

Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru

ta deffir ta, yal taggara n tugzimt tleddi-d tazwara i tin i d-iteddun, tezmer ad
tili meeyyet am wakken i tezmer ad tili ezziffet. S yin akkin ad neddi er
tukksa n tkerrist, ne tikerras icudden ineruyen n wungal-a, er tagara ad
nessemres azenzi imsemmes i d-yettaken tugna yiwudam ef xemsa (05)
yiswiren-a: Addad n tazwara, aferis n urway, taneflit n tedyanin, aferis n
ureqe d waddad n taggara.
1.1. Tugzimt
Di turi-nne i wungal Inig Aneggaru , nessawe ad nessuffe aas n
tugzimin tigejdanin i d-yeddan deg-s, imi ungal-a n Brahim TAZAART gar
wungalen i iezzifen s waas, yessawe er mitin utmanya ussebin n yisebtar
(278), yeba-ten umaru ef xemsa (05) n yiricen, aya-agi yegla-d s unnerni n
yineruyen d wuguren. Rnu er-s tugzimin-a neba-tent d tiktiwin i ef
yettwabna wungal, yerna newwi-tent-id ef lesab n wamek zemrent ad ilint
deg tilawt d wamek zemrent ad msefarent deg tekayt, mai akken i ten-idyeka deg tsiwelt.
Ihi llant-d s wakka s kra n yimedyaten anda tebda yal tugzimt d wanda
tettfakka:
Tugzimt 01: Timlilit n Tziri d Maysa deg yelil n Ticci ( Bgayet).
[Nekk akked Tziri, ur nemyussan uqbel timlilit-nte deg teflist n Ticci, Tiziri n tezmalt,
nekk d taqesriwt.... akken axir, ula d nekk nwi ad kem-steqsi amek temlale Yuba,
amek it-tessne]. PP 27-32
Tugzimt 02: tayri yezdin Tiziri d yuba ef tezi n setta iseggasen(06).
[Ussan-nni lli qqare deg tesnawit Muemmed Buyaf deg temdint n tezmalt... Akka i
nemlal nekk d yuba, i tebda teqsit n tayri i -yezdin setta n yiseggasen]. PP 33-42
73

Ixef wis reba

Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru

Tugzimt 03: Si Sliman yugin nesba n Yuba, ssebba n waya ayen yeran garas d ela yemma-s n Yuba.
[Ur zmire ad k-nasbe a Yuba a mmi! D awezi ad ak-fke Tiziri... Ur as-rri awal.
Serse tayennat n tilifun ]. PP 53-84
Tugzimt 04: Inig n Yuba er tmurt n Fransa, d tualin-ines er tmurt
[Mxemmame: d ayen, d rrwa, d inig er tmurt taberranit... Ddan yimeawen d
imayanen ef lenak-iw. Iedda-d wudem n Tziri gar wallen-iw tizeggain]. PP 89-94

Tugzimt 05: Dda Belqasem amdakel n Si Sliman ieren ad isemlil Tiziri d

Yuba
[Nekkni d imraben a Belqasem, tawacult-nne ar ass-a n wussan teef deg
lawayed... mi ara ad tawe er Fransa, eddi er 18 yam, ru wali Yidir At Meqqran.
D netta kan i izemren ad as-ibeddel rray. Nnig-s akkin, ulac a mmi, ulac !]. PP 124-133
Tugzimt 06: Timlilit n Yuba d Dda yidir deg Yam (Fransa).
[Azul a Dda Yidir. Nekk d Yuba , mmi-s n Meyan At mellul i as-nni... Mbed
imeslayen-nni, ur d-teqqim tuzzya d tuna] . PP 144- 159
Tugzimt 07: Yuba d Tziri i d-ibanen d atmaten, seg wassa-nni gar ela d
Si Sliman
[Xedme-tt diri-tt ass-a, xedme-tt d tafuant, Sliman At Snus erqen-as imeslayen...
Fki tezdeg-iw fell-ak a Meyan ssamse ise-iw akken ad sirde aar-ik yekkawen].
PP 168-172

74

Ixef wis reba

Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru

Tugzimt 08: Lmut n ela, imi tesla s lamala n Yuba i Tziri.


[Teli Nna ela d tamuint, deg lhedda, sin wussan ur tekkir, ur tei... kkawen
yimeslayen ef yicenfiren-is yeqquren. Yedda rru-is]. PP 165-167
Tugzimt 09: Lerwa n Yuba er Fransa mebla tualin d zzwa-ines d Inas
[Lerba am trewla , tessemna bab-is. Tazla i d wass deg yiberdan n Lparis tessettuy
ula d ttaxmim... Ldi tawwurt, kki amnar er berra. Am twenza iteddun ad temmager
tira-s ]. PP 175- 181
Tugzimt 10: Timlilit n Tziri d Mehdi d zzwa-nsen
[Tilemit yeffen, tewwi yid-s alla-iw, tea-yi-d lexyal-is ad iyi-izde... kri taariwt
d tameyant nezde-itt deg sin am tyuga n yitbiren]. PP 213- 238
Tugzimt 11: Asirem n Tziri, d inig er Fransa
[Awal n Tziri itezzi anagar ef yinig er Fransa... Bi ad rue, ad bedle tamurt, ad
bedle tirga, ad bedle taglimt am nekk am tid mi d-tesa ddunit ] . PP 240-245

Tugzimt 12: Tiziri d Mehdi deg unafag ebban Reman, gar lewa d

tualin
[Nehte. Qerbe er Tziri, sume-tt deg tayet nni-as: Kker, kker d lawan ad
true...Wexxre allen-iw ef tmeut-iw. Ur bi ad wali mi ara tt-tewes tewwurt i
lebda ] . PP 246-249
Tugzimt 13: Lmut n Tziri ef ixef n temsrifegt, ur tewwi ur teqqim

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[Ierer n unafag ilebbu d laci. Yeur d ayen kan, ibulisen refden sla, fen
tiemmar... Tiziri tbed, temmuqel deg temdint n Marsay am tin yettraun; amzun
werin twala tafat deg wassen d-tlul]. PP 266-275
1.2. Takerrist
Am wakken itt-id-nebder deg yixef i ieddan, d acuddu n yineruyen war
gar-asen, tikwal yettifsus ucuddu-a, tikwal yettiwir, ma nerra tamuli er
yineruyen i d-yeddan deg ungal-a n Brahim TAZAART ad naf ugtent, yal
takerrist tettili-d d ssebba i tlalit n tkerrist nnien, wagi d yiwen seg lenaf n
tkerras i d-nebder d takerrist tasemlalt (lintrigue complexe) i d-yettemmal aas n
tkerras mcudent gar-asen, anda imeri wad-s yezmer ad yedbe akk tiqiin
n yiwudam ef wakken lleunt, enf-agi d win yugten deg ungal-a Inig
Aneggaru.
Takerrist 01
Takkeris tamenzut deg ungal-a, tebda-d seg wass-nni i d-yussa Yuba er
ubabat n Tziri Si Sliman iwakken ad yeleb nessba-as, as akken Yuba yella d
mmi-s n umdakkul-is Meyan, ziz fell-as, lamana mai s nessba, netta yezga
yettaf-d sebba belli imi d imraben illan ur issefk ara ad iteddi ef lawayed n
lejdud-is, ad yefk yelli-s i leqbayel, maca Si Sliman deg ul-is yesa belli mai d
tagi i d ssebba, lammer d aya kan tili ad yesma wa ad yeez lawayed-ines,
lamena tamsalt d ayen nnien amek ara ad yefk yelli-s i mmi-s, d awezi.
Takerrist 02
Yuba yeef deg wawal-is, d Tiziri mulac ala, aya-agi d ayen i d-yeglan s
lmut n ela, yemma-s n Yuba, imi ula d nettat ur teqbil ad yeru zzwa-agi
gar-asen. Yuba yeggra-d d awid, iuhed rebbi ad yunag er Fransa mebla
tualin.
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Takerrist 03
Taluft n Tziri ur nesi tifrat, assa-ines d yimawlan-ines yenes, terna
lmana n Yuba itt-id-yean deg wafrasen.
Takerrist 04
Zzwa n Tziri d Mehdi d zzwa n tmara, d tudert n bessif, asirem-ines d
inig er wanda yella Yuba, as akken tewwe er wayen teba, terkeb
tamsrifegt er Lparis, maca ur tewwe er din ur teqqim da, inig n Tziri d
ssebba n lmut-ines.
1.3. Azenzi imsemmes:
Nessawe seg tugzimin d tkerras i d-nessuffe seg wungal-a, ad neg
tidyanin n yineruyen-ines deg uzenzi-agi:
Addad n tazwara:
Di tegnit n tazwara, amaru yefka-d yiwet n tmuli ef tudert n Tiziri d
Yuba i yellan d issenawiyen wwin-d l BAk kecmen er tsedawit. Mehdi dien d
aseddawi iemmel Nayla, akken akk ttidiren ussan n tayri d zehu d twaculinnsen, a lada baba-s n Tziri, iuzzi-tt s waas tufrar-d ef waltma-s.
Addad n urway:
Lefraq i d-yelin gar Tziri d Yuba imi nettat tefruri-d seg twacult n
yimraben, yettwaerrem fell-as zzwa d uqbayli, rnu er-s tamsal n wassa
yezdin baba-s n Tziri d yemma-s n Yuba. Lefraq nnien yella-d gar Mehdi d
Nyla imi nettat d tarabt, netta d aqbayli.

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Taneflit n tedyanin:
Yettban-d deg lmut n ela, i d-yeglan s lerwa n Yuba er tmurt n
Fransa mebla tualin, d tuya-ines i Tziri.
Aferis n ureqe:
Yettban-d ureqe deg zzwa n Tziri d Mehdi, imi til ahat ad ifak latab-is,
wa ad tezueg tudert-ines.
Addad n taggara:
Yella-d deg lefraq n Tziri d wergaz-is Mehdi , d yinig-ines i d-yessegran
lmut-is ef wakal n tmurt n medden (Fransa).
Ma nessegza-t-id s uzenzi-a ad yili s wakka:
Addad
Addad

n Addad n urway

tazwara

Taneflit
tedyanin

n Aferis
ureqe

n Addad

taggara

Tudert

n Beu i d-yelin Lmut

yilmeyen

d gar yilmeyen-a, ela d ying yezdin gar Tiziri Mehdi, d lmut-

wussandeg

n Zzwa n tmara lefraq n Tziri d

nsen sseba-s d tufa n Yuba er d Medi.

ines deg yinig.

tseddawit, deg lawayed d Fransa.

lahna, asirem d wansayen


talwit.

lejdud.
Azenzi (A)

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2. Aric n tsiwelt
Di teslet yerzan aric n tsiwelt ad nere seg tama-nne, ad d-nesle
iferdisen igejdan i d-yeddan deg yixef ieddan ef tiri n tsiwelt deg ungal
Inig Aneggaru, ad d-nwali aselu n umsawal i yineruyen, d acu-ten
yiferdisen ief yettkel deg wallus-ines. Di tazwara, yesfk ad ner tala i
yessexdem umaru di tsiwelt, s yin ad ner amsawal d acu n ifa i s wacu i dyettban (d agensay, d aniri ne d awadem). Am wakken seg tama nnien ad
nsele ayen id d-yettbeginen afras n wakud d wadeg n tsiwelt d axel n wungal,
s yin ad neddi er tukksa n tfukkas n tsiwelt i yerzan iswiren-ines d uselu n
wakud n tsiwelt am tiremt, tirurda, timezgit, amsefer (tamuli er zdad /
tualin er deffir),....atg.
2.1. Seg tama n tala
Tala n tsiwelt ef wakken i d-tusa deg ungal-a temxalaf ef wungalen
nnien, tikelt-agi tettwabeddel aas tira n wungal, amaru Brahim TAZAART
deg usiwel-ines yettban-d am wakken mai d netta i yesseluyen iwudam, yal
wa s yisem-ines, yefka-asen tilelli ad lun akken i d-asen-yehwa, d nutni i diekkun ef wayen iten-yuen d wayen iten-icuben, yal wa yefka-as tagnit ad
isenfali ef tektiwin d yiulfan-ines s timad-is. ef waya i d-tusa tala n tsiwelt
s tala tis snat s umatar n win yettmeslayen Nekk....(), ama d Tiziri i dyettmeslayen ef iman-is ne d Yuba, Si Sliman , Dda Belqasem, Mehdi....atg.
Ma nere ad d-neddem kra seg yimedyaten i d-yeddan deg yirisen n
wungal-a ad naf:

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Md1
Tiziri:Nekk d urgaz-iw nekka-d si Tezmalt, d abrid er unafag ebban Reman.
Tamesrifegt Bewwing 737 n tkebbanit Air Algrie ideg ara nerkeb ad teqle ef
lecra....atg. P 07
Di tefyyert nnien: Sli s rrwa n Yuba er Fransa. Mlelli, rgagint tgecrariw..., yekkaw rru-iw, ikcem-iyi ufray werin sne-t uqbel. P 95
Md2
Mehdi: Serse amis ef abla. Ddme-d agirru, ssae-t, jebde sin
ijebbiden...Uki s wul-iw yerfi, yettniif am uad tuza tyita n tefist.. P 14
Md3
Si Sliman: Ansa ara kke i taluft-a? Amek ara as-afe tifrat? D wussan izerrin,
tettcuddu trennu, tkerres teqar mazal. P 79
Di tefyyert nnien: Mi fe seg texxamt n yelli, ddi er texxamt n
yinebgawen, kse iebbaen-iw, sere i tfekka-w ef ufutay, zzre deg ttxamim . P 79
Md4
Yuba: Udre-d seg wussu. Mi bedde deg terert, ulfa s tfekka-w
tettergigi,...., ul-iw yettelwiwi. Lwec yettmurud deg yiuran-iw .P 89
Md5
Mala: (yemma-s n Tziri): Mi yeffe urgaz-iw seg texxamt, uzle er yelli . Mi
ttwala deg ussu, imeawen xenqen-tt, yeffe-iyi leqel, li ur-s ence-tt er
yidmaren-iw. P 72
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Md6
Belqasem (amdakel n Si Sliman): Di srid er lqehwa n Tejnant. Mi wala
Yuba yeqqim er abla, yeqqar amis, ebse tikli ddubzen yiaren-iw...... P 131
S umata, wigi d kra kan n yimedyaten i d-nekkes s tala-agi, maca tasiwelt
n wungal-a akken ma tella tettwabna fell-as.
2.2. Amsawal
Deg ubruy-agi da, yenan amsawal ne amaru n wungal, imi amsawal d
win i d-yessawalen (i d-iekkun) takayt (deg uris n tsiwelt), deg uric-a n
teslet ad d-nwali assa gar umsawal d tekayt i d-iekku, d acu n wudem i
deg-s yettban-d deg wallus n tekayt-a.
Ma nsik tamuli er wungal, ad naf amsawal yefka aas n litte i yiwudam
i wakken ad dren tudert-nsen akken i ttwalan nutni, mai akken i tt-yettwali
umaru i tt-id-yeka, amsawal deg tsiwelt n wungal-a mai d netta i yesselan
iwudam, yefka-asen tilelli ad lun akken i d-asen-yehwa, da ula d taggara
amek ifuk akk wungal, ad nesu belli amaru n wungal-a amzun akkenni ur
yelli d awadem ur d-iban, as akken yera akk ayen yellan deg tekayt, ayen
yessen, d wayen yera, yugar ayen ssnen d wayen ran yiwudam, yettikki mli
deg tekayt i d-iekku, iwala yal taawsa ama mezziyet ama meqqret, maca ur
d-ibeggen ara iman-is, d iwudam d nutni i yesselan tudert-nsen d nutni i dyekan tiqiin-nsen, d nutni i yuran ungal-a, amaru yella kan d ssebba.
Amaru yerra yal awadem d netta i d Ssulan, d netta ara i d-ikkun ef
yiman-is, ulac win ara ad yekun ef waye yal wa yemmal tiktiwi-ines, ad
taffe ef yiwet n tawsa, ad ilin sin iwudam yal yiwen amek itt-ittwali, mebla
ma yegga-d iman-is amaru yuran, ne winna i d-iekkun, gar Tziri d Mysa, gar
Yuba d Mehdi, gar Si Belqasem d ubabat n Tziri, yal wa amek yettwali:
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tagrawla, amezruy, tamazit, taqbaylit, tayri, inig, lewayed, ansayen, da


amzun akkenni d askasi ef tlufa n ddunit zdaxel n yiwen n wungal.
Aya-agi s umata d ayen i wumi ssemman imarayen n tsiwelt Amsawal
aniri, Amaru Brahim TAZAART gar wid id d-yerran amynut i tira n wungal,
imi yefka i yiwudam tilelli talqayant i usenfali yal wa s yisem-ines, d ayemmi
ur d-iban ara netta deg wayen i d-yules. D ayen i wumi isemma netta s timadines asmi i d-yettware er yiwet n tedwilt (Emission) deg umaaf wis sin (la
chaine 2), isemma-s (la democratisation de lecriture).
Ma yella d lenaf nnien icudden er umsawal, d agensay ne d awadem,
ur d-banen ara deg tsiwelt n umaru.
Ma nezzi tamuli er twuri n umaru deg wungal-a, ad tt-naf seg tama, d
tawuri n testimoniale, imi yettara ad issebggen tidet n tekayt i d-yettales,
ineruyen yeran d ayen yettidir umdan, d tilufa n ddunit daxel n yiwen n
wungal, wagi aha-t d iswi-ines mi yettaru ungal. Seg tama nnien d tawuri
tasnaktant, imi deg wacal n tikal igezzem takayt-is s usefhem n kra n temsal,
aya d ayen yugten s waas, gtent temsal i d-isedda deg ungal-a am:
Temsalt n umezruy
D Tziri i d-iekkun i Maysa
Yuba II..., d isem n ugellid amazi amusnaw i ilulen deg useggas 52 uqbel talalit
n Sidna, yemmuten aseggas ambed talalit-is. Tamanat n tgelda d cercal. Ass-n yual
d agellid, yesa di lemmr-is 33 n yiseggasen. 6 n yiseggasen mbed, yezwe d
Kilyupatre Silini.... Tura, ssawalen-as medden: Taqubet n tmasiit. P 36

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Temsalt n yidles
Ma neddem-d deg umedya ad naf Mehdi i d-iekku i Nayla ef temsalt-a
yeqqar-as:
Akka i d idles, aas i yellan ducrik deg-s gar yigduden, as ulamma deg
tmeslayen. Llant tmucuha, ekkunt-tent deg yal tama deg ddunit. Lan yinzan, d
alsanen, mai n yiwen uref. Yerna.... Ur qbilen adabu-s ef yiqerray-nsen. P 22
Tamsalt n tegrawla
Si Sliman yemmesla-d ef kra n yineruyen yedder umdan di tallit n
tegrawla, acku d argaz yessawen 60 iseggasen di lemer-is, gar wid yeddren
tallit-a n tegrawla yeqqar-d:
Seg limir Xaled, er Itri n tefriqt ugafa, almi d 1954, izzayriyen zgan ttnadin ef
yizerfan-nsen wudem aserti.....Deg unejmu n 1936, yeran deg Bilkur, deg tmanat,
iban-d rray-nnien, win n ukabar azzayri, s yiles n Messali La yenna, ulac ayen ara
yeqbel ugdud angar n timunent. P 56
Dda Belqasem deg wawal-is:
Mi tendeh tegrawla n 1954, bdan yirgasen ttansaren s adrar...... P 14
Tamsalt n tnalit d tutlayt
Mehdi deg wawal-is:
Ass-n ara d-kren yimdanen deg elfa,deg Sidi Belebbas, deg ennaba ad inin
tamazit ad tili d tutlayt tunibt di tmurt, acku d tazzayrit, yerna llan izzayriyen
am nekkni i tt-yesseqdacen deg kra yellan. P 21
Tamsalt n tmetti d yiublan-is
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- Tamsalt n yinig
lerba akka, rreb-is yettas-d s lexsara....yura rrwa deg twenziwin-nne, yura
unejli deg uqqeru, anejli er tmura, er tmeslayin, ef yiman-nne. P 90
- Tamsalt n tudert
a) Iulfan d wafrayen
Mebla awal, gre-as ialen, teme-iyi...tessers-d taqqeruyt-is ef yidmaren-iw,
tettru, tettnehit...sli i wul-is ma yekkat deg yidmaren-iw
b) Lewayed d wansayen
S yiles n Maysa yettmeslayen i Tziri ef izerfan n tmetut, imi tella gar tid
yettnaaen deg tidukla n tlawin Tiri n tmeut teqqar-as:
Ilaq ad ner belli zzwa n tmeut deg tmetti-nne yeqqen er warrac ara dtarew, acku ma ur ten-id-tesi, rennun-d fell-as ne tberru P30.
2.3. Taslet n tallunt d wakud
Taslet n tallunt
Nwala deg uric n teri tallunt, d yiwen n uferis agejdan yesan azal di
lebni n tekayt n wungal akked d wullis s umata. Imeri n wungal Inig
Aneggaru, di tazwara ad yenwu belli taqit tera-d aca deg kra n yimukan
Kan, iwumi yefka umsawal amur d ameqqran n wazal i yineruyen i d-yellan
deg yimukan-a, am tesnawit, taseddawit, taddart, ellilatg. Maca er taggara
ad yaf belli ineruyen llan-d di yal tama, si mal ttnernin ineruyen simal

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ttiwsien idigan ideg d-rant tedyanin, anda yeffe akkin i tmurt, yewwe er
Fransa, Isanbul tamurt n Turk, Tunesatg.
Iwudam deg uferri qqnen er wadeg. Azal-is, deg uris, am win n
uwadem, ne ahad ugar, ismawen n yimedqan i d-yebder umsawal deg ungal
Inig Aneggaru, ttwehin akken ma llan er temsal akk i ef yettwabna.
Imedqan-agi llan wid iceben , fsan, teueg deg-sen tmeddurt, llan wiya
tettenquqel deg-sen tmeddurt, yerna llan wid ur yesuqet ara fell-asen aglam
deg uris am unafag d ayen mi it-id-yebder kan deg tazwara d taggara n wugal
Md1
D axel, anafag yeur d laci , wa iteddu wa ibedd, wa yettrau ad yerkeb er
temsrifegt ara iruen er tamanat....P 8
Md2
:Ierer n unafag ilebbu d laci, yeur dayen kan. Ibulisen refden sla, fen
tiemmar. P 266 .
Llan imeqan wiyya yessuget deg uglam-nsen am yilel, tamdint n
Bgayet, tazmalt, axxam n Si Sliman...
Md1
Ticci, i wid ur tt-nessin, tezga-d er tama usamer n temdint n Bgayet, ne
Salda s yisem-is aumani, tebed fell-as s wazal n 20 ikilumiren. Tecba, emmlen-tt
wid i rran Tukksa n lxiq. P 27
Md2
Cbaa n Bgayet d ayen ur yettektili umdan, tfaz, tzad, tawa acal d anaur,
amedyaz d ufalsafi P 176

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Rnu er-s simmal ttaen yiwudam, tefen berra i tmurt, er Faransa,


Isanbul, Tunes...simmal yettxa uglam-nsen
Assa yezdin awadem d wadeg meqqer, iwudam teqqen tudert-nsen er
tmurt, am Tziri tettifsus tnefsit-ines mi ara ad tili ef cce n yilel, deg-s i
temaray ibaln-is, yettnecra lxaer-is, tesizdig-d ul-is seg lemala-s. Yuba
dien mi i d-yusa seg Fransa akken kan i d-yekcem tamurt n lezzayer yefra,
yenecra wul-is.
Md1
Mi wala tamdint n Bgayet, yekkes-yi uqra n uqerruy, ter n yisan-iw. Ukint
wallen-iw, ndekwalen wafrayen-iw, teurec tfekka-w. P 110
Yal amdiq s twuri-ines, yal adeg d acu n tiggawt i d-slalayen i cbaa n
uris, yal aferis i t-ibennun, ama d isem-is, ama d aglam-is, ysenfalay-d
isental n wungal, d ayemmi i d-nufa ungal Inig Aneggaru n Brahim
TAZAART, ur iessa ara ef yiwent n tallunt kan, tettbedil, mai d yiwen n
wemkan ne sin i d-yebder umaru, deg waas n tikal, yiwen n uwadem
yettabdar-it-id da, dihin, anda ma yella, d ayen yeran di teqidt n Yuba,
yettabdar-it-id tikwal di Fransa tikwal di tmurt.
Amsawal yefka azal d ameqran i tallunt, anda i errunt tedyanin, acku
adeg d netta i d-yeskanen deg waas n tegnatin, amek igga uwadem.
Ad nere ad tent-id-nebder akin wakka, s kra n yimedyaten ef lasab n
wid i ur yerra umaru lwelha-s s waas d wazal-nsen deg tekayt, anda degsen i d-rant tuget n tedyanin ad naf:
-Tasnawit d tseddawit: Ineruyen id yebder umsawal deg idigan-a, d
ineruyen ef wasmi tella tziri d yuba qqaren deg tsennawit, mi id d-wwin l

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BAC kemlen leqraya di tseddawit, tin yernan er-s ibedr-d ula d ismawen d
tseddawin am tseddawit n Setif anda yeqra Mehdi d Nayla.
-Taddart: Deg ungal-a ad naf tuget n tedyanin rant deg yiwet n taddart seg
tuddar n tmurt n leqbayel di Bgayet, d taddart n tazmalt, imi tuget n yiwudam
ef akken iten-id yebder umsawal ttidiren deg taddart-a am twacult n Si
Sliman
-Illel n Ticci: D adeg anda temlal Maysa d Tziri, din seddant ussan n
yimuras-nsent yerna aas n yineruyen id yeran din.
-Anafag ebban Reman: D adeg i yis-s id yebda umsawal tasiwelt-ines,
ibder-d tilin n Tziri d Mehdi deg unafag, ma yella di tagar n wungal yeal-d
er-s s weglam n yineruyen id yeran din, mi terkeb Tziri tamesrifegt, d
temlili-ines i tikelt tis snat d Nayla.
- Axxam n Si Sliman: Gten yineruyen id yettwalsen deg-s, yerna yettaglamd ula ayen yellan d axel uxxam.
Md:1
Deg uxxam amellal bu sin wanagen, bede sdat n twwurt n texxamt. P 53
Md2:
Iqeed Sliman tafekka-s tafuyant ef ufutay n uglim,...ef abla tawezlant, tella s
niwa n nnass, ires fell-as uyefki, lqehwa, ifenalen, taefsit n lau,....er tama n
twwurt, tella abla n wui....Tilri tres di tlemmast ...ef li, llant snat n twelfin,
yiwet n Sliman d wat uxxam-is, taye n baba-s, Si Sadi At Senus. P 124
Ma yella tallunt id d-yettwabderen kan mebla ma yestuqet umsawal fellasen asiwel ne wid i deg ur d rint deg-sen t aas n tedyanin am:

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-Istanbul: Amsawal ur yeqqim ara deg yiwen n wadeg yeffe akkin i Tezmalt,
i tmurt n lezzayer s umata, yewwe ula er tmura n lberrani, yemesla-d ef
wussan n umaris tesedda Tziri d Medi, ambed zzwa-nsen deg Isanbul,
ibder-d ula d isem n usnusu( hotel) am asensu Magara Palas d yimukan n
umsuu ( rstaurant) am Antique Turquie, rnu er-s imedqan am Bayazit, la place
Galaa
-Lqehwa n Dda yidir: D aen ineruyen n wungal fen akkin wwen er
tmurt n Lparis, tagi d yiwet n lqahwa id yezgan deg 18 Yam di tmurt n fransa,
yettwabder-d mi iru Yuba er Dda yidir bab n lehwa, yesderdec akka yid-s
kar n wawal et wassa-is d Si sliman.
-Tunes: D adeg id yebder umsawal, asmi tru Tziri d gma-s Menna-d
iwakken ad saddin kra n wussan din, yerna aas n yimukan akka yettwasnen
di Tunes am: Le Boulevaird Bourguiba, Anafag Qera, asensu Tafriqt
Taslet n wakud
Deg wayen yenan Akud, imi yettunasab d aferdis agejdan di teslet n
tsiwelt, si mal ttnernin ineruyen er zdat, si mal gellun-d s ubeddel n wakud.
Deg ungal-a Inig Aneggaru ad d-nekkes iferdisen i d-yemmalen tamirant-a n
wakud, aneggaru-a ad t-id-nawi ef lasab n wamek it-id-yules umaru deg
ungal-a
Amsawal n wungal-a yeba-t ef sin, amenzu d akud agensay, immal-d
akud yellan d axel n wullis, ama d win akud n tekayt ne d win yerzan win
tsiwelt, ma yella di tazwara nekkes-d tugzimin n tekayt, tura ad nere ad
nekkes tugzimin n tsiwelt, i wakken ad nessawe ad nessegzi assa yellan gar
wakud n tekayt d win n tsiwelt, wa ad nwali amgired yellan gar-asen s
uzenzi (B) i d-yettbanen ddaw.

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Tugzimin n tsiwelt llant-id akka:


Tz12

Tz1 Tz2 Tz3 Tz4 Tz5 Tz6 Tz7 Tz8 Tz9

Tz10

Tz11

Tz13

Ma nere ad nessemres gar tugzimin n tsiwelt d tid n tekayt ad yili s


wakka :

Akud n T

Tz1 Tz2 Tz3 Tz4 Tz5 Tz6

Tz7 Tz8 Tz9 Tz10 Tz11 Tz12 Tz13

Akud n Ts

Tz1 Tz2 Tz3 Tz4 Tz5 Tz6

Tz7 Tz8 Tz9 Tz10 Tz11 Tz12 Tz13

Azenzi(B)
Deg turi-nne i uzenzi-a, nwala-d amgired deg umsefer n tugzimin
deg wakud n tekayt akked d umsefer-nsent deg wakkud n tsiwelt. Deg
tazwara n wungal yefka-d umaru Brahim TAZAART ayen yellan di taggara n
tekayt (Tz12 - Tz1), mesub yessezwer-d ineruyen n taggara er tazwara,
yis-sen ara ad yeddu cwi, cwi alami yewwe er igemma i er ara teffe
tekayt n wungal-ines. Iswi-is seg waya aha-t d acewweq i yimeriyen i
wakken ad ren amek i d-tebda tekayt, d wamek almi i d-tewwe er waya.
Aya-agi d ayen i yeran i nekkenti s timad-nne asmi kan nebda tauri
tamenzut i wungal-a.
S umata amaru n Inig Aneggaru ur issedel ara gar umsefer n wakud n
tsiwelt d win tekayt, aya iban-a-d s telqayt deg umgired-a yellan deg
tugzimin n tekayt mi itent-nesserwes er umsefer n tugzimin n tsiwelt.
Seg tama ad naf akud aniri, yerza ayen yellan bea i wullis, yettban-d
ne yimmal-d akud n umaru (tallit-is, tignatin d lweqt ideg i d-yura deg
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ungal-is) akked wakud n imeri (tallit n turi). Ungal n Brahim TAZAART d


ungal ideg i d-tettbin enf-a n wakud, lawan ideg yura Brahim TAZAART
ungal-ines yettual er yiseggasen n tesin (90), anda teuqet temsalt n yinig
dtemsalt n yirebraben, aas n txessarin i d-yeran i yilmeyen mmuten ef
yifassen n yirebraben, annect-a i d-yedran di temsrifegt anda tedda Tziri.
Amaru yedda d wakud n tekayt, yal tadyant igelm-itt-id s wakud-ines
amzun yedder tallit-a. Rnu er-s amaru yeef aas n lweqt di tira n ungal-agi,
d ayen it-yean ad yeffe gi taggara-agi kan.
Ma yella d akud n yimeri temmal-d tallit-agi idrg neqqar deg-s ungal.
Amsefer n wakud
d aric yenan akud n uferri, nesfahm-d d acu i d afferi nena-d belli d
ayen i d-immen ayen yeran s tidet di tilawt, yessuffe-t-id walla n umsawal,
d tidet d aya-agi id nufa deg wungal-a, amsawal yerra-d akud n yineruyen
amzun d tidet di tillawt, as ullama yesedhuy i yis-s imeri, maca Brahim
Tazart yeawe ad yerr yal amari ad yeg assa gar wayen yellan di tekayt
d wayen yettdir deg tillawt. Wa ad iulfu s tidet n yineruyen id yeddan deg
ungal-ines
2.4. Tiffukas
Seg tama n tfukkas, amsawal deg wayen i d-yules, yerra lwelha-s deg
wallus-ines er kra n tfukkas, i swacu i yessawe ad yeglem ineruyen d
tedyanin akken iwata, ama deg wayen yerzan iswiren, ne akud n tsiwelt am
tiremt, tirurda, timezgit, amsefer...atg. Aya-agi s umata d ayen ara ad
yettwakksen seg ungal-a s telqayt n yimedyaten n kra n yirisen.

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2.4.1. Iswiren n tsiwelt


Tadyant id d-yeggaren taddyant nnien
Deg uswir-agi, nezmer ad nini llant s waas. Amsawal yal tikelt yeggar-d
iwudam ad d-ekun tikwal ef yiman-sen ef wayen ttulfun d wayen tticin,
tikwal nnien ttmeslayen-d ef iwudam nnien. Ma nessaked er iwudam i dyeddan deg ungal ad naf merra, icubiten yiwen n wugur, yal wa d acu i d
tamuli-ines er wugur-a. Yerna kul mi ara yefru uwadem taluft yellan, ad astban taye, d ayen i d-yeran d yiwudam-a:
Yuba, lhem n Si Sliman yugin nessba-s, yere ad yefru ugur-agi s usiwelines di tilifun si Fransa i yemma-s iwakken ad tru ad as-texteb Tiziri, lamena
yera-d ayen i ef ur yebni fell-as, temmut imi tesla s wayen i d-as-d-yenna
mmi-s Yuba da tessarem zzwa-ines.
Taluft nnien d tin yeran d Si Sliman, tamsalt n yimraben akked
lewayed n lejdud yerna-d taluft n wayen yexdem d ela tameut n
umdakkul-is Meyan, amek ara ad yebru i taluft-a.
Amedya nnien d ayen yeran i Mehdi, Tiziri yessawe-itt er unafag,
tunag er Fransa, tea-t-id d awid ur yesi d acu d tifrat, i tmeut-a iefren
inig fella-s netta, tameddit-nni terna-d taluft nnien imi i d-yewwe lexbar n
lmut n Tziri ef yiri n temsrifegt. Aas n tedyanin yellan deg wungal-a, yal mi
ara aren yiwudan ad frun yiwen n wuggur ad banen aas n wuguren.
Ungal-a dien yebna ef tfukkest n wurar n yiwudam ef tedyanin, gar
yiwudam i d-yettalsen ef yiwudam nnien ad naf:

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Md1: Maysa
Txaq Tziri d ayen kan, amzun tecedha awal, ne yettwakkes-as acal d agguren,
tettmeslay war abas... Zzin ef Yuba d baba-s, qqnen er tmeddurt-is i seyyxen asmi
akken ur msefhamen sin yergasen temel ugar n wiyi.... P 28
Md2: Si Sliman
Azmumeg n Tziri, mi akken tella d tameyant, yeur-d fell-i amkan. Tasa-s
tettara ut deg yimea-iw! Baba uuc-iw, ! Baba uuc-iw.... P 128
Deg umedya amenzu, Maysa tual d amsawal-awadem, tettmeslay-d ef
taluft n Tziri, ta-itt d ayen kan. ef waya id-as-tella d tamdakkult n tidet,
tbedd er tama-s, tettak-as tabest iwakken ad tettu abel-ines, wa ad tessiked
er wayen i d-iteddun. Ma yella d aswir n tsiwelt d aswir n yimira ( prsent de
narration), yettbin-d deg tazwara: Txaq Tziri d ayen kan ( tura)... tettmeslay
(immal-d imal).
Deg umedya wis sin dien, Si Sliman yuqqel d amsawal awdem iekku-d
ef wasmi tu Tziri d tagrud, iemmel-itt aas ur yenwi ad yass wass ideg ara
ad ttisarem seg wayen teba. Yettmeslay-d s uswir n yimal: tettara, akked d
uswir n yizri: Yeur.
Md3: Tamdakkult n ela
ela At Felden, d tamdakel-iw n wul. Sne lbanat-is, sne ayen terra er wulis, tebrek fell-as.... P 121
Md4: Belqasem
Nwi-t d argaz i teddun ef uzref, ef tidet...Nwi-t d argaz n wawal, d argaz d
wawal...Lehur n wass-a amer mai i nekk i umi ten-id-yenna, werin ad amne fen92

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d seg yimi-s. Sliman amenas yecqarrawen ula d akabar-is....d awezi ad yili d


tamusni-is i d-yenna..... P 131
Deg sin imedyaten-a, i d-yemmalen sin imsiwal-a, tamenzu d tamdakkult
n ela i d-yettmeslayen fell-as, ma negga tamawt i umsawal ad naf di yal
tikelt iteffer isem n temdakkult-a, yerna wurin yefka awal ne tagnit i ela
ad temslay ef yiman-is d tuder-is am iwudam nnien. Ma yella deg wis sin
wagi d Belqasem i d-yewwin awal ef umdakkel-is, imi ur yumin ibeddel-it
zzman, argaz i wumi semman yemdanen abugau n taddart, assa tamsalt n
yell-is ur ad-as-yufi tifrat, yettban-d wannect-a deg umyag-a yeftin er izri
Nwi-t.
2.4.2. Akud n tsiwelt
Tiremt n tsiwelt
Amsawal deg ungal-a yeef deg tmersiwt (position) n uekku

yineruyen, tiremt i deg d-ttwalsent tedyanin mgaradent. Ma nere ad


nekkes tiremtin n wungal ad ilint ef lesab n wamek i tent-id-yessemgared
Gerard Genette d Reuter id d-nebder yakkan.
Tiremt n tsiwelt deg ungal-a tella-d s wakka:
- Tasiwelt teggra ef tekayt (Ultrieure)
Amsawal, yeka-d ineruyen ambed mi ran, ieku-d ef wayen
yezrin, as akka yefka tagnit i yiwudam, d nutni i d-yettmeslayen, maca
ekkun-d ef wayen yeran yid-sen, aya-agi d ayen i d-nufa deg ungal-a. D
tiremt yugten, isxeddem-itt umsawal aas n tikwal deg yineruyen n wungal.
Ma neddem-d kra n yimedyaten ad naf ayen i d-ibanen di tazwara n wungal di

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temlilit n Tziri d Maysa, da tekku-as Tziri ef wayen yeran yid-s asmi tella
teqqar di tesnawit:
Md1
Akken i am-nni tamsirt n tegnizit n Massa Wiza, tettruu am tadla yea yilef
ur d-ttaafe deg-s ula d awal. P34
Md2
Asmi tessen Yuba
Ffe-d seg twwurt n tzeqqa, teddu er temassit ad d-awi azmam n tihewt i
uselmad. Ferqaqse, negze er deffir. Azu iyi-idhim, iyi-iil. Maca, as akken
wexxre, ieq-iyi-d deg ufus,...yemmuqel-d uri, yual yenna-yi: Suref-iyi, suref-iyi
ttxil-m!.... P 38
Md3
Asmi yeqqse Yuba ababa-t n Tziri i wakken ad ttyeleb i zzwa
Yusa-d iman-is! Am umnay i teddun er lfetna, ur yekukra, ur rgagin yisurifenis. Yeur-a-d tawwurt, deg wallen-is iqse-d ad iy-irfed am lbaz n ssari, yemma-s,
xwali-s, lemum-is, yiwen deg-sen ur d-yeddi. P 47
S umata ma nemmuqel er yimedyaten-a i d-nekkes, ad naf ideg
(position) n umsawal yeggra ef wakkud n tekayt, yettales-itt-id s wakud n
yizri, ibana-a-d wannect-a deg yimyagen yeftin er yizri am (Ffe, Yusa-d,
Yeur, negze, wexxre. Rnu er-s imedyaten nnien i yeggerin yal tikelt ef
tekayt, ayen i d-yettmalen aya dien d assexdem n yisumer (les proposition)
am: Ussan-nni, seg wass-n, mi eddan, ass-n, yiwet n tikelt...a

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-Amsawal yesexle gar wayen yellan d wayen ieddan (intercal)


D tidet amsawal n wungal-a yessexle gar wayen ddren yiwudam zik d
wayen ddren di tallit-nsen tamirant, rnu er-s iwudam ttabdaren-d tidyanin
amek llant zik d tura, nufa-d aya-agi deg usiwel umaru s ussexdem n wawalena am: zik-nni, ass-n, seg wass-n, ussan-nni, tura, itura, ass-a. Ma nekkes-d kra n
yimedyaden id d-yeddan deg irisen n wungal ad naf:
Md1
I tura d acu ara ini baba-s? Anida ara yer aqerruy-is? Amek ara yessenser imanis? Takerrust am ta netta s timmad-is ur tt-yeksib. P 116
Ass-a, aqlih s uxxam-iw, s warraw-iw, s tmeut-iw, ayen ieddan iedda. P 58
Tura, seg timunent d afella, tbeddel tmetti tikli, ibeddel umdan lefhem. P80
Ar ass-a, mazal ul-im yeqqen er yielli, er wayen ieddan ...Tura ilaq ad qeble
ayen id yewwi wasif i zegre wer akukru. P 262
Deg yimedyaten-agi i d-nebder mmalen-d (imal) ayen yellan tura, tuget
n temsal i ef i d-yemmesla umaru yettak-as-d udem amaynut ef wamek
leunt temsal tura, yerna seg tama yettak lebi i yiwudam ad messlin ef liala
ttidiren imira, d wamek akk ttwalin tiawsiwin.
Md2
Zik-nni, yal lerc, yal taddart, tesa lemqam-is, deg-s yella uekka n waba n
ella yesdukulen arraw n temnain-nni. P 32
Ass-n yemmut Dda Meyan ad tyerem ebbi, yea-t-id deg ddu. P 31
Amedya-agi immal-d ( izri), yettales-d umsawal ef wayen ieddan.
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Md3
Akken ad tfehme tamsalt akken ilaq, yessefk ad am-d-bdu taqsit si
tazwara..... P 32
Deg umedya-agi ad naf tafyart-a temmal-d imal, yettban-d deg timit n
Tziri akk Maysa ef cce n yillel, ma yella ayen id d-yemmalen izri yettban-d
mi d-bdant aqesser d wallus, deg wayen i eddan.
Tikwal nnien deg yiwen n uris ad yebder izri ad yernu imal, amek tu
tamsalt d wamek tual tura am: Zik-nni, mi ara kke sdat n uriq n yigeigen, ur
ebse, kkate tteddi, amzun ur yelli. Tura, yal tageigt ttake-as azal, yal rria
ferne-tt ef tiyya. P 43
-Tasiwelt tedda d tekayt (Simultan)
D aswir ur d-nelli ara s waas, deg wallus n umsawal i yineruyen, maca
tikwal, nettulfu am wakken ineruyen n tekayt ttwalsen-d di lawan i deg
ran, am tallit-nni n zik anda argaz ur nesi dderya ur yesi azal, d ayen
yeran d Mezyan, yemma-s yezga tesnegric ef ela i wakken ad-as-tesu
aqcic, tamsalt-a yewwi fell-as asiwel yerra-a er zik-nni. Rnu er-s tamsalt n
yimraben d ayen yellan, inig dien d asirem n yilmeyen, tayri ...., aya-agi s
umta amsawal yerra tasiwelt-ines tetteddu idis ef yidis di tekayt.
-Tasiwelt tezwar takayt (Antrieure)
Ur d-nufi ara s waas irisen, anda tasiwelt tezwar takayt, enfa-a n
tiremt ur d-yettili ara s tuget deg wungalen, acku ayen i d-yettilin uqbel
takayt d wayen i mazal ur d-yeri ara, yettual er usirem n uwadem, ne
aha-t d targit. D annect-a i d-yellan deg ungal-a:

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Md1
Ttwali-t yettazal-d uri, gar yifasen-is tameqqunt n yijeigen.... P 184
Md2
D tidet akka ad rekbe tamesrefegt, ad inige er tmurt i ssarame, d tidet akka
ad-ttase d timinigt, d timigrit, s cci d zzin amaynut. P 10
Md3
Win yesqedcen cwi alla-is, ad yaf d awezi ad qeblen warraw n nnbi, ne
araben s umata , yugaren imazien s wuzzal d lemca, yettzuxun s tmeslayt, yis-s dyers wawal n Rebbi, ad ualen d imazien, ad brun i tutlayt-nsen iwakken ad utlayen s
yiles n wat tmurt-a. P 138
Deg umedya amenzu amsawal yeqqar-d ayen tessaram tmeut, ma yella
tefreq d wabib n tasa, tettmenni lamer aha-t ad d-yas wass i deg ara ad t-idyefk umnar ad yezzi alama d ur-s, aya-gi yera-d d Tziri asmi yunag Yuba er
Fransa mebla tualin yezzwe d Inas nettat tella mazal ur tezzwi, til aha-t ad
yezzi almi d ur-s.
Deg umedya wis sin d targit n yilmeyen yettwasnen deg tallit-agi-nne
tamirant d tarewla er tmura n medden anda tella lehna d talwit.
Ma yella deg umedya-a aneggaru d asirem n tutlayt d tnalit tamazit, imi
as ma tella tamurt n Lezzayer qqaren-d n yimazien lamena aya-agi ur diban, ssaramen yimazien izzayriyen amer aha-t ad yezzi lweqt ideg ara tual
Lezzayer d tamazit anda ma llan.

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Tirurda
Deg wayen yenan tirurda n tsiwelt deg wungal-a, nwala belli amsawal
yurar s waas s wakud n tsiwelt tikwal yesedday ineruyen s lemawla, tikwal
nnien iteddu s tawil, isenqas i wakud, ama s weglam ne s udewni. Am
wakken i d-yella useddi-a dien, tikwal s swaye d wussan, tikwal nnien s
lechur d yiseggasen....atg. Ma neddem-d deg umedya ad naf kra n yirisen id dyettbeginin aya:
Md1
Seg Marsay er Bgayet, aerrabu yedda-d azal n 18 n swaye. P 110
Wwe er taddart n Wallaen el lewhi n zzu. P 117
ef lewayeh n 10, neef aaksi unafag Hewwari Bumedyen. P 235
Md2
Deg wazekka-nni yebda ixeddim er yiwen, D win d aen i t-iawnen yeldi
taanut n lkettan deg temdint n um. P 189
Ass wis sin neef abrid er Munastir, nensa din sin n wuan... Nual-d ass n led
deg uzal. P 143
Yussa-d Yuba si Fransa. Yeqqim 10 wussan, yeal ur twala... Sin wussan uqbel
tissin n Yuba, nerkeb tamesrifegt nekk d Menn-d er Tunes. P 142
Azekka-nni, nuki zik, neswa lqehwa, nuli er tarict... Ass wis tlata, nuli er la
place n Galata. P 237.
Azekka-nni, ur neqqim deg tamanat, neef tamacint TGM er Sidi Busid. P 142

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Md3
Yeqqim di Fransa azal n setta wagguren. P 189
Ass, d lareba tamenzut n waggur n uct. P 110
3 n wagguren segmi nemyussan nekk d Tziri, nezwe. P 226
Aggur yezrin, ufi ayen turi mi ttnadi lekwae n tkerrust. P 262
Md4
Ilendi mi qqime deg uxxam, gguni-t am waggur n lid. P 142
Lbiru-ya ideg xedme, ldi-t ugar n 2 iseggasen aya. Uqbel, lli xedme deg
Sbitar n Imceddalen, kki din 3 n yiseggasen. P 214
Deg aas n tikkal amsawal deg wakud-ines i ttbegin-it-id s swaye tikwal
isedday-d ula s dqayeq
Md1
D 9 d ddqiqa..., iur ubrid, izel d tikurrusin. P 194
Azekka-nni n tisin-iw, uki-d ef seba d uzgen. P 176
Am wakken i d-yettbeggin akud, s ussexle gar wagguren d wussan
Yerna aya-agi iban-a-d s telqayt deg yirisen n tekayt, yal win ara
yeren ungal-a, di tazwara ad iulfu s tezi n tekayt d wakud-ines s waas
iseggasen, ma yella er taggara ad iulfu belli tfak tekayt s lemawla, s tuqna
n wallen , amzun akken ur iedda ula d yiwen n useggas ef wayen akk yeran
d yiwudam n teqsit-a.

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Ma nere seg tama-nnte, ad d-nesqerdec awal ef uric-agi n lemawla


d tawil ad nemmeslay ef sin yiswiren i ef yettwabna wungal (Asrured d
ullukez), anda amsawal tikwal yessewzil kra n tedyanin, tikwal nnien
yessezef-itent, seg tama nnien yessemras allukez s uglam, s ussegzi d
usefhem n tedyanin id d-yeddan s waas deg ungal:
- Asrured ( acclration)
Md1
Ur ile ad teseble tasa-k ef lal n ttar yellan gar lejdud n xwali-s d lejdud n
xwali-s n Yuba. P126
Deg umedya-agi amsawal ur d-yessegzi ur d-yeglim, ur d-isefhem amek i
d-tera tadawt-a wala d acu i d ssebba n ttar-agi ne melmi i d-yella, as
akken asefhem n tedyant-agi yella-d ambed, d si Belqasem id yulsen taqsit-a
n tedawt gar lejdud n Tziri d Yuba ief iedda wakud achal n yiseggasen. Di
tefyirt-a, amsawal yeffer akk tidyanin i d-yellan deg-s s tefyart-a: Ur ile ad
teseble tasa-k ef lal n ttar. Yerna di tazwara imeri ur ifehem tadyant,
lamena ad-as-iban ambed d acu yeran.
- Allukez ( ralentissement)
Md1
Kre i tafrara, ue luu, ule lefjer, di ad-isel ebbi, i wayen s wayes
yettnuju wull-iw, urent wallen-iw d imeawen , yeur wul-iw d asirem , yela liser
deg yiuran n tmeddurt-iw, ebbi meqqret tezmert-is, ad iyi-d-walint lmalayek-is
timezuzin. P 10
Deg umedya-agi amenzu amsawal, yeslukkuz deg wakud n tsiwelt,
amsawal yesexdem aas n yijerdan i wakken ad yessegzi wa ad yessefhem.
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Lfer n Tziri imi d ayen tewwe er lebi-s, yewwe-d ass i deg tual targit d
tidet, tecker rebbi temdit, s wawalen-a i d-bder di yal tikelt.
Md2
Qele s ler, sdat-i, tazniqt teggugem. Yal timert deg-s tettnaza. Abrid ilem
yeqber, leyu uren d tidi, yiwen uqjun yezger abrid, yefer amcic irewlen. Rruda n
tkerrust tefes yiwen n ukarun, yesseglef uqju, yesmaru umcic..... P135
Deg umedya-agi yettbin-d usebes n wakud n tsiwelt s ussexdem n
umsawal i weglam anda ur d-telli tigawt am: tazniqt teggugem, Abrid ilem yeqber,
timert tettnaze, yesseglef uqju, yesmaru umcic....Ayagi s umata yeskan-d tugdi n
Yuba imi i d-yuki seg yir targit i yurga ef Si Sliman, yekker yessa amutur n
tkerrrust iteddu deg ubrid s tugdi.
Timezgit
Am wakken itt-id-nesbadu yakkan timezgit d aawed n yineruyen n
tekayt, d allus i wayen yeran yiwet n tikelt ne aas n tikawal (Le rcit
singulatif), d allus n wacal tikkal, i wayen yeran yiwet n tikelt ( Le rcit
rptitif), ne d tullsa i tikkelt kan, i wayen yeran aas n tikkal (Le rcit
itratif). Ad nwali ihi tidyanin-agi i d-yettualen di yal tikelt deg tsiwelt.
- Ma nere ad neddem tamenzut ad tt-id-naf deg tedyant-a n imraben
i d-yettualen deg wawal n twacult n Si Sliman yal tikelt:
Asebtar wis 64: Ur zmire ad t-nasbe....acku nekkni dimaben a yelli.
Asebtar wis 65: Tawacult-nne , ar ass-a ur tettnasab leqbayel.
Asebtar wis 124: Nekkni d imaben a Belqasem, tawacult-nne ar ass-a d
wussan teef deg lewayed, tugi ad asent-tebru.
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Asebtar wis 129: Imezwura nnan belli imaben ad zewen gar-asen.


- Tis snat am wakken i d-tedda deg umedya ad tt-id-naf deg teddyant n
Lexdea n ela d Sliman i Meyan, imi lela yera-d yiwet n tikelt,
lamena tettual-d acal tikal ama deg ulawen-nsen i tti-id-ttabdaren, ne
tamdakkult n ela d Dda Qiqi i d-yettmeslayen ef wayen yeran gar-asen.
Aya-agi d ayen i d-yettbanen deg yizrugen-a:
Asebtar wis 53:Yeeb baba aqeuy gar ifassen-is, yrereq d imeawen.
Acimi? Acimi ?Acimi? a ebbi iyi-txedme akk, acimi.
Asebtar wis 129: Amek ara mmuqle iman-iw deg lemri war leya? Amek ara
mmeslaye ef tedemt , s kud nek s timd-iw d amesbali.
Asebtar wis 171: Tetereq ela d imeawen, tettru... Akka a Meyan, akka i
tebid, atan ad d-ssirde taebut-iw s urgaz waye
Asebtar wis 170:Meyan meskin, amebun... , Ini-d Sliman meskin, wameg
Meyan, ur ixdi yiwen, ur yelli win umi yekka deffir.
- Ma yella d taneggarut ur d tt-id-nufi ara, ud ula tadyant i d-yettwalsen i
tikelt kan di tidet tera acal n tikal.
Amsefer: (ordre/ dsordre)
Aric-a d tagnit anda ara ad d-nessegzi aselu-nni n wakud i tedyanin
yeran deg wungal-a Inig Aneggaru , amek i d-msefarent d wamek iten-idyewwi Brahim TAZAART di tsiwel-ines, as akka amsefer, d amgired yellan
gar wakud n tekayt d win n tsiwelt i d-yettawin amsefer n wakud deg
wungal, as akka qlil anda i d-yettili umsefer n tedyanin n tekayt d win n
tsiwelt, d ayenni i d-nufa amsawal n wungal-a ur d-yeddi ara umsefer gar
wakud n tekayt d tsiwelt. Aya-agi s umata ad d-yili s umsefer n weswir-a:
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- Taualin er deffir
Amsawal n wungal-a deg wayen i d-yettales ittual er deffir iekku-d
ayen akken ieddan, tidyanin ur msefarent ara deg wakud akken ilaq, deg
waas n tikal yettruu yettual-d, s wakka i d-llant tedyanin:
------------1 ------------2 ----------3---------- 4 ------------5-------- T
------------4------------1-----------2-----------3------------ 5 -----------Ts
Ma nere ad d-nesselu aya s umedya ad naf:
Takayt
Tayri yezdin Yuba d Tziri -------Bettu-nsen s sebba n yimawlan, lewayed d
wansayen n lejdud--------- Zzwa n Tziri d Mehdi--------- Tiziri d Mehdi deg unafag --------Inig n Tziri er Fransa d lmut-ines.
Tasiwelt
Tiziri d Mehdi deg unafag -------Tayri yezdin Yuba d Tziri ------- Bettu-nsen s
sebba n yimawlan, lewayed d wansayen n lejdud ------ Zzwa n Tziri d Mehdi------ Inig
n Tziri er Fransa d lmut-ines.
Tidyanin ef wakken i d-a-ttbinint deg sin iseluyen-agi, belli amsefer
n tedyanin deg tekayt, d wakken zemrent ad ilint deg tillaw, mgaraden cwi
ef wamek i tent-id-yewwi deg tsiwelt-ines, acku taneggarut tban-d s tualin
er tedyant akk taneggarut, yerra-tt-id d tamezwarut, yefka umsawal awal i
Tziri d Medi mesla-d lweqt-nni mi llan deg unafag, s yinn akkin, yefka-asen
tagnit ad sefrurin akk ayen seddan d wamek i d-mlalen almi i d-wwen er
wayen ideg llan, nezmer ad nini d addad n tagara i d-yellan d tazwara.

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Deg imedyaten nnien ad naf anda amsawal yettales-d deg tiremt n


tsiwelt i wayen yezrin, annect-a yettbin-d s telqayt ne tseken-it-id Tziri, imi i
d-tella d amsawal- awadem asmi i d-temmekta ussan-nni n temi-s, amek itenid-tesedda di lfer d zehhu d Yuba, d wussan qissien tesedda asmi teba
yid-s ssebba n baba-s Si Sliman, ne ef wasmi tekcem sbiar imi yuneg Yuba
er Fransa yea-tt-id deg yir ala..., yettban-d wannect-a s umata s tualin
er deffir, s ussexdem n wawalen d tefyar, imataren d yimyagen yeftin er
yizri.
Tettban-d tualin-agi dien, deg umedya n umsawal-awadem nnien,
Medi i d-iekkun ef wassa-ines d Nayla tarabt asmi llan di tseddawit n
Setif uqbel ad yemlil d Tziri.
Seg tama nnien ma nual-d er uswir-agi n tualin er deffir ad naf
mai kan deg ineruyen, tualin ula d yiwudam, tamezwarut d tualin n
Medi i d-yettwabderen deg tegnit tamenzut, s yin almi i d-yewwe umsawal
er waddad ureqe it-id-ibeggen, tis snat d tualin Nayla, tettwabder-d di
tegnit n tazwara, almi d tagnit n taggara itt-id-yerra umsawal.
- Tamuli er zdat
Ulac aas n yimedyaten i d-yellan ef tffukest-agi, acku amaru ur
yessezwir ara taddyant uqbel ad teru, ma llant kra seg-s ttilin amzun d tirga
ne d akacef. Yella-d deg yiwen n umedya yerzan ela asmi tella d tamuint
tenna i gma-s Muend:
Nekk ad mmte a Muend a gma, ur tteile, yewwe-d lajel-iw...I yezrin
wala yemma (...) deg lemnam(...) teef-iyi afus, nekcem er yiwen uxxam d
awesan...tenna-yi yemma:... d wa i d axxam-im a yelli...ur ttagad.... P165

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Amsawal yebder-d, deg wakud n tsiwelt, aneru n lmut n ela s tsezwert


n targit turga uqbel ad d-teru deg wakud n tekayt. Yerna ayen i dyettbegginen taffukest-a d tazela n wurmir Ad: ad mmte.
2.5. Taslet n yiwudam
Am wakken i d-nemmesla ef uric-a n yiwudam nenna-d d agejdan. Ur
nezmir ara ad nessugen ullis war iwudam, d nutni i d aswir, d lsas i isedduyen
tigawin, amaru Brahim TAZART iseqdec-iten mli, di tsiwel-ines ef
yiwudam, tella-d s yiwet n tmuli tamaynut, yettara imeriyen n wungal ad dddren d yiwudam amzun akkenni d imdanen n tidet myussanen wer garasen,wurin d aris kan iten-ijemen.
Ma nesqerdec akka kra n wawal ef yiwudam n Inig aneggaru, ad d-naf
amaru yewwi-ten-id s wudem usrid, mebla ma yezzi, yerna mebla aglam s
waas, yefka azal d ameqran er wayen ttidiren d wayen i d-ekkun d wayen
ttulfun wer ma yemmesla-d ef tfekka-nsen d ucebba n wawal ef lewayefnsen, ama lahan ne cemten, amsawal yewwet amek ara ad d-yejben
imeriyen ad emlen iwudam wa ad d-yebnu assa gar-asen, ad d-dddun d
yiulfan d wafrayen-nsen, am win i d-iekkun (awadem)

waye isell-as

(imeri).
Iwudam, alada aaen ibeggen-ten-id umsawal s telqayt, yefka-asen azal
d tegnit wessien i wakken ad meslin ef yiman-nsen, ma nebder-iten-id ef
wamek i ten-id-isewel umsawal ad naf:
- Aa amenzu: Tiziri
Takayt n Inig Aneggaru d takayt n Tziri i yellan d aa-is agejdan,
tettidir tudert i d-as-tefka tmetti-s, tettkafa i wakken ad tedder tudert teba,

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maca lawayed d yimawlan, urzen-t ef uzueg n tudert-is, ula d asirem-ines


iru d asfel.
- Aa wis sin: Yuba
D aqcic yean tamurt-is, iac di tmura n medden, ni ababat ni tayemmat, d
Inas kan i d-yufa er tama-s, tesfe-as lejru-is.
- Aa wis sin: Mehdi
Yettwabder-d i tazawara, yis-s i yebda wungal, maca yual ur d-iban almi d
taggara, d aa agejdan dien, d argaz d wawal, i fehmen timsal, ibedd er
tama n Tziri, as ulamma yenwa d Tiziri i d tafa-is, ad-as-texlef amkan tea
Nayla, Lamena di tagagra tunag Tziri, tea-t-id, maca ebbi ur t-yei ara, di
lweqt ideg terkeb Tziri yemlal d Nayla deg unafag.
S umata d aaen-a i ef yezzi tuget n yineruyen n wungal, yiwen yeba
taqcict tefruri-d seg twacult n yimraben, waye yeba taqcit lael-is d
araben, ma yella d Tziri tedder deg usirem almi temmut.
Amsawal nezmer ad tenneqel mi ara d-yeggar iwenniten. Di tuget ttilin
mi ara ad yemmeslay ef kra n temsal...yal tikelt ifesser-d isalan yenan yal
yiwen seg-sen.
Amsawal issawal-d takayt n yiwudan as akka s wudem aniri. Awadem d
aric agejdan n usugen. Akken i tegget tsiwelt deg ungal inig aneggaru akken
i ugten yiwudam , taslet-nsen deg ungal di lewhi n Brahim TAZAART ad tili
ef sin wudmawen:
- Taslet n yiman: D taslet yenan ismawen n yiwudam, aglam n tfekka
d baye

106

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- Taslet n yiggan: Tena tiggawin-nsen deg ungal akked d twuriwin deg


uris.
Seg tama n yiman , isem d isali amezwaru i yenan awadem, imi amaru ur
yefki ara ismawen i yiwudan akka kan, maca yal wa s wazal-is deg uris, tuget
n yismawen-a i d-yeddan deg Inig Aneggaru, d ismawen n tmazit am: Mehdi,
Tiziri, Si Sliman, ela, Mala, Dda Yidir Belqasem, Muend.., Ismawen yellan
deg umezruy am Yuba, ma yella d ismawen nnien d ismawen imaynuten i dilulen akka di tallit-a tamirant am Nayla, Maysa, Qani, Mennad. Rnu er tama
yual ula er isem n Salas i d-yellan deg unganl-nes amenzu Salas d Nua,
iswi-ines seg yismawen-a ad yeg ccan i wungal-ines. Maca er tama n yiwudam
yesan isem, llan wiya d udrigen* wer ismawen am temdakkult n ela ur dnettwabder ara yisem-is.
Ma nual-d er uglam n tfekka n yiwudam ad naf ur ugitent ara, maca
ayen i d-yettwagelmen tebna ef lerma, lqedd d ifa-nsen, kesben cbaa d
thuski.
Md1
Argaz-iw isem-is Mehdi, fell-s 30 n yiseggasen. Lerma-is d iberkanin, udem-is d
aezzfan, d imserri , ef wallen-is tiberkanin, yelsa tismaqqalin n ustafu, anzaren-isd
izuranen , ddaw-nsen, tella tyuga n claem d tareqaqt. Icenfiren d ifuyanen, acenfir
ufella yesa ccama d tameyantn er tama tayfust P 10
Deg wayen yenan baye n uwadem ad naf deg umedya:
Md1
Dda Qiqi d laqel n taddart n fiu, iferru-tent, d awaybi, yal lejme ara yilin deg
lerc...Yettili awal-is yewzen, da netta yeza azal , yetteddi . Yerna d baba n dre.P54
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Ma yella d aglam n ucemmet, ur d-yelli ara s waas, deg kra n yirisen


yenan irebraben , d Linda taxeddamt n temsrifegt teglem-d ifa-nsen,Yefkaasen umsawal udem ara yeen imeri ad ten-yekrah am:
Md1
Yezmumeg-d deg udem-iw ula d netta, azmumeg-is berrik, amzun d aberrem i
berrem icenfiren-is. Argaz anect-ilat, azal n snat n lmitrat, tafekka-as amzun d ledra n
tzemmurt tagamirt, allen-is ssexlaent, ur sint nnul, kkawent. Amdakel-is wezzil cwi,
acekku-is imal er tewre, akka kan yewwet afus-is er lib, yessufe-d tabakit d
tamellalt, isu. P 269
Maca llan wiya ur d-ttwagelmen ara mai, d wid i wumi ur sen-yefki ara
umsawal azal.
Seg tama n yiggan nufa-d iman n yiwudan d yiggan-nsen edlen, tuget n
tiggawin i d-yeran deg ungal Inig Aneggaru llant-d d Tziri akked Yuba, akken
ad ggen amdiq i tmetti-nsen i wakken ad ren leqyud d rubat itt-yerzan
iten-imenen i wakkan ad wwen er lebi-nsen, Si Sliman i yetnaaen ad
yeer wa ad ium taqidt yeran zik, wer ma tettwakcef-d, d ayemmi yettaf d
i yal tikelt sebba n yimraben, Si Belqasem d Salas gma-s n Tziri iaren ad
semlilen gar-asen wa ad as-bedlen i Sliman ay n wayen i d-yenna. Mehdi i dibanen di tudert n Tziri, Tanina weltma-s n Mehdi i d-yellan d ssebba n
temlilit-nsen, rnu er-s asirem n Tziri i yesxerban assa-is d Mehdi.
Tiggawin-a mea mlalent-d deg sin izenzien n yimesgan, amezwaru
yebna ef temsalt n zzwa gar Tziri d Yuba ur d nelli ara ssebba n yimawlan,
wis sin yebna ef temsalt n yinig i d-yeglan s lmut n Tziri. Ama deg uzenzi
amenzu ama deg wis sin d Tiziri i d amsifa, d anermas, taawsa i tella tealab,
deg umensu d zzwa-is d Yuba, deg wis sin d asuter n Yinig er Fransa.

108

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Azenzi imesgan (A)

Amsifa

Taawsa

Anermas

Tiziri

Zzwa

Tiziri

Amalal

Amgay

Amnamar

Mala

Yuba

Si Sliman

Dda Belqasem

ela

Salas

Dda yidir

Tauri i uzenzi (A)


Deg turi i uzenzi-a ad nere ad nesefhem yal amesgan, ef lesab n
wamek id -a-ttbanen. Amsifa d Tiziri, nettat i yessutren i wamag Yuba ad
iu er baba-s ad tt-yeleb i zzwa, imi i d-yella d taawsa i ef tettnadi,
taawsa i wumi-tt? I nettat deg iman-s, win id-as-yellan d imnamar, acku
amnamar yezmer ad yili d yiwen uwadem ne akter d Baba-s Si Sliman yugin
mai zzwa-a, ela yemma-s n Yuba i d-isermen aseru n zzwa gar-asen,
aneggaru d Dda yidir amdakkul n Si Sliman i almen s teqit-nsen yerna
iqeen-as-d awal belli ad yettu tamsal-a n zzwa ur d-as-yettawad ara.
Ma yella d imalalen wid iaren ad fken afus n lemawna, wa ad semlilen
gar-asen iwakken ad awen er lmerub-nsen, tamezwarut d Mala yemma-s
n Tziri, tezza tassa-s, ala nettat i d taqcict gar watmas amek ass-a mi i d-yeder
ad tezwe d win yextar wull-is ad tettwaren seg wayen teba, aas n tikwal
ideg temmesla d wergaz-is Sliman amer aha-t ad yerr aar, wa ad yeqbel, maca
109

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Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru

yugi yezga yeqqar-as nekk i d bab n rray mai d kem, wis sin d Dda Belqasem
xal-is n Yuba immesla d Sliman, lamena netta ijebed-as tiqdimin, aneggaru d
gma-s n Tziri Salas i d-yessawlen i baba-s si Fransa ire amek ara tiqenne,
lamena kif kif.
S umata d wagi i d azenzi amenzu i ef tezzint tiggawin n yiwudam,
maca mbed lerwa n Yuba er Fransa d zzwa-ines, tbeddel tudert n Tziri,
banent-d tedyanin d yiwudam nnien, d ayemmi i yettwaba uzenzi n
yimesgan ef sin. Aya-agi d ayen i d-yellan deg uzenzi (B).
Azenzi imesgan (B)

Amsifa

Taawsa

Anermas

Tiziri

Inig

Tiziri

Amalal

Amgay

Amnamar

Mehdi

Mehdi

Tanina
Irebraben

Tauri i uzenzi (B)


Deg uzenzi-a yenan tamsal n yinig, amsifa d Tiziri dien d nettat
i yessuturen taawsa-agi n yinig, Mehdi amgay seg wasmi yezzwe yid-s
awal-is yual ala ef lerwa er Faransa, er tmurt anda yella zehhu d talwit,
anermas d Tziri acku taawsa teba-tt i yiman-is. Ma yella d imnamar,
tamenzut d Tanina, as ulamma di tazwara tella d tamalalt d nettat i
110

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Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru

yessemlalen gar Tziri d Mehdi almi d asmi zewen , Lamena di taggara tual
tbeddel udem asmi tesla belli Tiziri teba ad tunag ad te gma-s, tere s
tezmert-is amek ara temne inig n Tziri er Fransa, wis sin d irebraben
yeddan di temsrifegt anda tedda Tziri, xedmen tixsarin er daxel n
temsrifegt, asmi wwen er tama n unafag n Marsay, nnan i yenneharen n
temsrafegt, ad ualen er lezzayer, maca Tiziri ur tebi ara ad tual tennaasen et-iyi ad rse, asmi ugin teegger-d iman-is temmut.
Win i as-d-yellan d amiwen i wakken ad tunag d argaz-is Mehdi,
alada asmi yera ayen tura deg yiwet n tgebburt ( lagenda) tura deg-s belli
teba ad tidir anda yella Yuba, da ixdem-as-d lekwae almi d asmi kan i asd-teffe l Visa yewwi-tt er unafag ad tru.
Rnu er-s, deg sin izezien-a, yiwen n umigaw Tiziri, tekka di sin n
yimesgan (amsifa-anermas), acku snat n tekayin i d-yellan di tneqqist-a,
akken dien i d-yella Mehdi d (amgay-amalal).
Izenzien i d-nebder yakan deg sin yid-sen ttwehhin-d er twuriwi n
yiwudam deg temsal yettici wemdan di tmetti-is, iebalan d wuguren i
yettmagar d wid akk mukud yettidir, tikwal ad ilin d imdanen ara ibedden er
tama-k tikwal nnien ssebba-nsen ara tegge tilas i tudert-ik, aya akk yera-d
d Tziri iseblen rru-is, temmed xerum ad temmet deg wakal anda yettidir
Yuba.

111

Ixef wis reba

Taslet n wungal Inig Aneggaru

Tagrayt
S wakka i d-nfak ixef-agi aneggaru n teslet, ideg i d-a-d-iban belli
ungal n Brahim TAZAART irea ef waas n yiferisen n tsiwelt i
yesdukkulen ullis amzun akken yiwen n uferis ur yezmir ad yebu ef taye
ma ef ad yer unamek-ines, tin yernan er-s d iferisen i rennun i tussna n
tsensiwelt. Annect-a d ayen i d-yettbegginen annerni n tira deg ungal aqbayli s
wudem amynut.

112

Tagrayt tamatut
Tagrayt tamatut
Tewwe tezrewt-nnte taggara-s, yessefk fell-nnte ad d-nessebggen
ayen ier neawe n yigemma. Igemma i d-a-yellan d iswi segmi i dnefren asentel-agi. Asentel i d-a-yewwin ad nadi wa ad d-nagem amud n
tmusniwin yerzan tasekla taqbaylit d tsekla tagralant, alada deg usdukkel
gar-asent deg waas n tamiwin d annerni i wannar n tsekla s umata.
Seg yigemma imezwura i nezmer ad ten-id-nebder di taggara n tezrawt
tasensiwalt, d ayen ier nessawe di teslet-nnte i wungal id d-nefren seg
wayen akk yura umaru aqbayli Brahim TAZAART, d taselt i wungal
aneggaru i d-yessuffe deg useggas n 2012, iwumi isemma Inig Aneggaru .
Di teslet tasiwlant i negga i wungal-a, tban-a-d tririt i usteqsi i d-nefka di
tazwara n unadi, d ayen i a-d-tefka teslet ne tazrewt n tekayt akked d
tsiwelt, d wassaen yellan gar sin yericen-a i d-a-yeawen, ad nekkes
am n yiferisen n teri d tmiranin icudden er tussna n tsensiwelt i
yessemres Brahim TAZAART di tira n wungal-ines.
as akka tawilat n teri i nesseqdec ef tezi n tezrewt-agi ur uggtent
ara, alada tizrawin yettwasuddsen ef wungal yuran s teqbaylit, maca
neawe ad nezzi i tezrewt s wayen i d-an d wayen uran aas n
yimarayen n tussna n tsensiwelt, i s wacu nere ad nawwe er kra n
yiswan yerzan asemres n teri n tsiwelt d unamek-ines deg ungal n Brahim
TAZAART, anneggaru-a yefka azal d ameqqran i tsiwelt n teddyanin d
yineruyen akked yiulfan n yiwudam anda i yere ad yefk tidet n wayen
tettidir tmetti taqbalit, d timsal yerzan amdan aqbali seg zik almi d tallit n
wass-a, d ansayen ne d lewayed, d tayri ne d amennu, d amezruy, d inig,
d idles ne d tanalit i d-yettbegginin tidet, d wudem aeqqani n wegdud
aqbayli.

114

Tagrayt tamatut
Aya-agi s umata ur yefil ara fell-asent umaru, akken i nezmer ad d-nini
belli tasiwelt d yiwet n tawil i ur yufa umaru iman-is deg usefruri n taktiwin
d yineruyen i d-issedda deg ungal-is, seg tama yerna-d aas i tira tamaynut d
ccbaa n wungal aqbali, seg tama nnien d aswir alayan di leqraya d tmussni
ef temsal d tlufa n ddunit yekseb umaru Brahim TAZAART.
Deg waya i a-d-iban d akken Brahim TAZAART, yeawe ad iger wa ad
isseqdec iferisen yerzan ullis d tiri n tsiwelt deg tira n wungal Inig
Aneggaru , akken i tent-seqedcen imyura n wungalen nnien d iqbayliyen
ne d igralaniyin, d ayen i yerran tuddsa n tullsa n tekayt-is tecbek,
tesaraq tigzi i yimariyen gar wayen yellan d wayen ieddan (entre le pass
et le prsent) mai d ayen isahlen. Rnu er tama, d annect-a it-yean ad
yemgarad ef tira n wungalen nnien. D ullis n tmeddurt n bnadem, yerna s
tidet kan, d ungal yesan tala n wungal aqbayli seg tama n tutlayt.
Igemma nnien i er teawe tezrewt-agi-nnte d ayen i d-sebggen
teslet nexdem i wungal-a amaynut. D taslet i neba ef sin yiricen
igejdanen : Aric n tekayt ef wamek tezmer ad tili deg tilawt, d uric n
tsiwelt ef akken yezmer umsawal ad itt-id-yales s ussexdem n yiferisen
yurzen er tiri n tsiwelt.
Deg uric amenzu n teslet iban-a-d di tuddsa n wullis, tamezwarut
s tukssa n tugzimin tigelmanin yellan deg ungal ef lasab n wamek yebna
umsawal tiktiwin d yineruyen-ines. Neawe ad d-nessufe azal n tleac
(13) n tugzimin, yal taggara n tugzimt tefka-d tazwara i taye, yerna yal
tugzimt yesbeggan-itt-id umsawal s kra n yisebtar, seg wanda tebda almi d
wanda tfak.
Tis snat s tukksa n tkerras, aas n tedyanin d yineruyen slalen-d acuddu n
tkerrist di taye, si mal iferru wugur si mal yettban-d waye, d ayeni i yean

115

Tagrayt tamatut
ungal-a ad a-d-iban d akken yettwabna ef uku (04) n tkerras, yemcudden
wer gar-asent.
Nfak-d aric-a s teslet ef uzenzi imsemmes i d-yefkan tuddsa n
iwudam ef (06) n yiswiren-a i d-ibanen s telqayt deg tsiwelt n wungal, anda i
d-nufa di tegnit n tazwara yules-d umsawal tudert n yilmeyen (Tiziri d Yuba,
Mehdi d Nayla), d wayen ddren asmi llan d iseddawiyen, di tegnit n urway,
yemmesla-d ef wamek i d-yella beu gar-asen, ssebba n beu-agi d lewayed
d wansayen (imraben d waraben), s yin akkin iedda er tneflit n tedyanin
anda i d-yesken lmut n ela i d-yeglan s yinig n mmi-s Yuba mebla tualin,
ma yella deg uferis n ureqqe yules-d ef temlilit n Tziri d Mehdi akked d
zzwa-nsen i d-yellan mebla lebi, di taggara ifak uzenzi s lefraq i d-yelin
gar-asen d lmut n Tziri deg inig.
Aya-agi s umata, d ayen akk icudden er uric n tekayt, urin yebel
fella-asent Brahim TAZAART deg tsiwel-ines, yewwi-tent-id akken ma llant s
wudem unsib.
Deg uric wis sin n teslet iban-a-d belli as ma tella takayt temlaa-d ayen akk i zemren ad icudd er tilawt, yewwe ayen i ef tettwabna
tekayt si tazwara-s almi d taggara-s, maca ayen i d-yettbanen n yiferisen n
tsiwelt deg lebni d usefruri n yineruyen d tedyanin yerzan asiwel deg ungalines s wazal-is, ur ffient ara ef wayen i d-bedrent tira n yimyura d
yimarayanen n tussna n tsensiwelt, alada aya-agi yettbeggin-d s ttbut
tamuli tseklant n umaru i wennar n tsekla ama d ayen yerzan tala n wullis
ne d agbur d tessa-ines.
Gar yiferisen i d-a-d-ibeggnen aric-a n tsiwelt, d assexdem n kra n
tawilat yerzan allus n yineruyen. Tamezwarut d tala n usiwel yessexdem
umsawal, as ma yella d yiwudan i yellan ekkun-d ef yiman-nsen, maca tira
tena amaru n wungal, ihi tala tusa-d s umatar n wudem amenzu asget, win
116

Tagrayt tamatut
yettmeslayen Nekk, ayen ia-d-ibeggnen aya-agi d imyagen akk ifuken s
umatar .
Deg wayen yenan amsawal, yella-d d aniri, mai d netta i d-iekkun ef
wayen yeran d yiwudam, yefka tagnit n litte s waas i yiwudam ad d-alsen
ayen i ten-yuen d wayen ttulfun s timad-nsen, mebla ma yessekcem-d
umsawal iman-is, si lebid i yequbel ineruyen n wungal. Ma yella deg lenaf
nnien, ad d-yili d agensay ne d awadem aya-agi d ayen ur d-nufi ara deg
tsiwelt-ines. Am wakken i d-neawe dien ad nekkes tawuri-ines deg ungala, yettara di yal tikelt ad yessebggen tidet n wayen yeran di tekayt i dyettales.
Ma nezzi-d awal er uferis wis tlata yenan tallunt d wadeg, seg telet
iban-a-d annar n tallunt wessi, maca d yiwen n wadeg ne d sin, ineruyen
llan-d di yal tama, di taddart, tamdint, taseddawit, ilel, Fransa, Tunes, Isanbul
s yimedqan-nsen, anda ma yella uwadem ibder-d adeg i deg yella. Ma yella d
akud n tsiwelt nessawe deg teslet-nnte er tukksa n wakud aniri yerzan
akud n umaru imi i a-d iban belli yeef akud deg tira n wungal-ines; yerna d
tallit n yiseggasen n 90 id yualen deg-s, ,a yella d wakud n yimer d akud i deg
yeqqar imeri ungal-a, d tallit-a n tura alada i,i d ungal id yefen deg useggasa n 2012.
Am wakken i nega taslet dien i wakud agensay s ussegzi n wassa yellan
gar wakud n tekayt d win n tsiwelt, nessawe di taggara ad naf amgired-nsen
deg umsefer n tugzimin deg wakud n tekayt akked d umsefer-nsent deg
wakud n tsiwelt. D ayemmi i d-nufa belli amsawal ur issedel ara gar-asent,
temxalaf cwi tekayt ef tsiwelt deg wakud.
Taslet nexdem i tfukkas n tsiwelt dien s wazal-is, nessawe ad naf ugar
n tfukkas yessexdem umsawal deg tsiwelt n wungal. Deg uswir amenzu yerzan
tadyant i d-yeggaren tidyanin nnien nufa-d belli llant aas, yal mi ara ad tban
117

Tagrayt tamatut
tedyant teceb akk iwudam, ttmeslayen-d akk fell-as, yerna mkul mi ara ad
tfak tedyant ad ban taye, rnu aswir n wurar gar yiwudam yal wa yettili-d am
wakken d amsawal awadem yettmesla-d ef uwadem nnien alada mi ara tenyeceb yiwen wugur.
er tama n telet n uswir amenzu, ad naf akud n tsiwelt, deg-s nesle
tiremt ideg d- ttwalsent tedyanin, anda nesawe deg uswir-a ad nessuffe
azal n tlata n tremtin i a-d-ibanen s tuget yerna s wudem usrid, tamenzut d
tasiwelt yeggran ef tekayt, deg-s yella-d wallus n yineruyen mbed mi
ran, tis snat d tiremt n ussexle gar wayen yeran imiren d wayen yezrin,
tella-d s waas dien, mesub akka, yal awadem immesla-d ef wayen yettidir
d wayen yedder yakan. Ma yella d tis tlata, tasiwelt yezwaren takayt, ur
tugget ara, tedda-d deg kra n yirisen yerzan ayen yettargu uwadem ne ayen
yessaram ad t-yawwe. Aya-agi s umata neawe ur-s seg wamud n
yimedyaten i d-nekkes deg yal aswir.
Deg teslet n tirurda nessawe nbeggen-d belli amaru yurar s wakud n
tsiwelt, yella wanda i yesedday ineruyen s lemawla, yella wanda itenisedday s leqel, tikwal s usrured tikwal nnien s ullukez, maca taneggarut-a
tugar tamezwarut, yal tadyant issefham-itt-id s telqayt, itezzi-d i weris s
waas n wawalen d tefyar, ara yerren imeri ad t-yefhem akken i wata. Ma
yella deg tfukkes n tmezgit d teslet-ines, iban-a-d belli di tuget n tedyanin i
yeran, llant tid i d-yettualen, ttwalsent-d aas n tikal am temsalt n
yimraben, llant tiya as ulama rant yiwet n tikelt maca tettwalles-d acal n
tikal, ma yella d tidyanin yeran aas n tikal, tettwales-d i tikelt kan, ur tt-id
nufi ara deg ungal-a.
Taslet n umsefer deg uselu n wakud i tedyanin yeran tban-a-d d
akken tettwaba deg ungal n Brahim TAZAART ef sin yiswiren, amenzu d
tualin er deffir, imi amsawal yettruu yettual-d gar yizri d yimal i d118

Tagrayt tamatut
ttwakant tedyanin-a, d ayen ier nessawe ad nessuffe sin iseluyen, aselu
n tekayt llant-d ef akken zemren-t ad ilint deg tilawt, maca deg uselu n
tsiwelt yual er deffir, s yin akkin yebda tikli er zdat, yerna di yal tikelt
iebbes, yettales-d ayen ieddan, mbed ad yual er tegnit ideg yella imiren.
Tis snat d tamuli er zdad, ur d telli ara s waas acku amaru n wungal Inig
Aneggaru mai seg wid yessezwiren tiddyanin uqbel ad runt, ayen i dyeddan deg-s d ayen i d-yellan di targit ne deg usirem.
Ma yella di teslet n uferis aneggaru n tsiwelt yenan iwudam, iban-a-d
belli amsawal izerrew iwudam s sin wudmawen, seg tama n yiman am ismawen
n yiwudam, aglam n tfekka d baye, acku yettban-d amsawal deg yismawen
yefka i yal awadem, yella-d ambeed tamuli talqayant er-sen, d ayemmi i dusan mwalamen d yineruyen n wungal, ma yella d aglam ur d-nufi aas, d
ineruyen i yugten ef uglam. Tama nnien d udem n yiggan ideg nessawe,
nessuffe-d tiwuriwin n yiwudam s sin izenza. Amenzu d azenzi n yimesgan
(A) i d-yellan ef temsalt n zzwa gar Tziri d Yuba ur d neri ara, wis sin d
azenzi n yimesgan (B), newwi-t-id ef usuter n Tziri i yinig er tmurt n Fransa.
Iban-a-d seg-sen belli yal tikelt Tiziri tettili-d d amsifad d tanermast d nettat i
yesuturen taawsa i wamag, Yuba deg uzenzi (A), i Mehdi deg uzenzi (B).
Seg tama-nnte dien nessawe nessuffe-d aaen n wungal-a (Tiziri, Yuba,
Mehdi).
D wigi ihi s umata, i d igemma ier tessawe tezrewt-nnte, ef ungal
Inig Aneggaru n Brahim TAZAART. D iferisen i d-yessan lsas n unadi deg
unnar n tira taneggalt, ama d ayen yerzan timuliwin n umsawal, tigzi n
teriwin d twuriwin i ef tbennu yal tasiwelt deg ungal.
Ilmend n waya, zemrent ad ilint tezrawin nnien ara ad yettwaxedmen
ef yiferisen nnien ama d aglam ne d adewenni n wullis....atg. Acku yal

119

Tagrayt tamatut
tazrewt tettak-d annerni er zdat alada deg tussna n tsensiwelt imi d annar
wessien mai d ayen ara ad yilin deg yiwet n tezrewt ne seg yiwet n tama.

120

Amawal
Awal s tmazit

Anamek-ines s tefransist ne s tarabt

Akud

temps

Akud agensay

temps intrne

Akud aniri

temps externe

Akud n uferri

temps de la fiction

Allukkez

ralentissement

Amag

actant

Amalal

adjuvant

Amgay

sujet

Amnamar

opposant

Amsawal

narrateur

Amsawal agensay

narrateur intradigtique

Amsawal aniri

narrateur extradigtique

Amsawal-Awadem

narrateur homodigtique

Amsefer

lordre

Amsefer n wakud

lordre du temps

Amsefer n wullis

ordre du rcit

Amsiwal

narrataire

Amyeres

textuel

Aneggal

romancier

Aneglan

romanesque

Anekmar

aproche

Anekmar asensiwlan

approche narratologigue

Anermis

contact

Asa

hros

Asissen

prsentation

122

Askaran

modal

Asnazmul

smiologie

Asrured

acclration

Asugan

Fictif

Azenzi amesgan

schma actanciel

Azenzi asiwlan

schma narratif

Ilaw

rel

Imawnen

Auxilliant

Imesgan

les actants

Imeskaren

Facteurs

Imseliyen Irrusiyen

formalisme Russe

Inallasen

narrateurs

Inaw asiwlan

discour narratif

Inelan

Illusion

Inumak

signification

Iswiren n tsiwelt

les niveaux de narration

Iwudam

personnages

Tadyant i d-yeggaren tadyant nnien enchssement


Tafelsuft

philosophie

Taessa n wullis

structure de rcit

Takerrist

Intrigue

Tala n tsiwelt

les formes de narration

Tallunt

espace

Tallunt tamettit

Espace social

Talsa

humanit

Tamela

cohrence

Tamlilt

rle

Tamuli er zdad

prolepse
123

Tanamekt

Tarda

origine

Tasensiwelt

naratologie

Tasensiwelt

narratologie

Tasensiwelt tasentlant

thmatique

Tasentlant

systematique

Tasentlant

thmatique

Tasiwelt

narration

Tasnilest

linguistique

Tasnimant n yiwudam

psychologie des personnages

Tazrirt

influence

Temharsa

colonialisme

Tifukkas

technique

Tigi

acte

Timezgit

frquence

Timuhal

travaux

Tirurda

vitesse de la narration

Tiwuriwin n umsawal

Fonctions du narrateur

Tmela

logique

Tuddsa n tugzimt

structure de squence

Tuddsa n wullis

organisatin du rcit

Tuddzayanin

structural

Tualin er deffir

analepse

Tugna

personnalit

Udrig

cacher

Ungal

roman

124

Idlisen
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Bruxelles, De Boeck et Ducolot, 1999.
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2-Idlisen s tarabt
.1998 ( " ") 2 " "
2000 . 1 . ( " " ) . 2003
( " ") .2002
( - ) 3 . . 2002
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.1984 - .1979

130

131