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Christina Hambleton
MIAA 360
Teachers College of San Joaquin

CCCSSM Standards Alignment
The Shadows unit takes the question, How long is a shadow? and creates a multitude of
engaging, hands on, and though provoking mathematical lessons. The curriculum covers an array
of content including patterns, functions, algebra, geometry and trigonometry. Although the lesson
unit title indicates it is for high school students, the lessons are easily modifiable for eighth grade
students. The unit is designed to last either twenty-seven or seventeen days; depending on the
length of lesson implementation. The following California Common Core Standards are included
8.G.1

8.G.2

Standard Writing
1Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and
translations:
a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the
same length.
b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.
c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models,
transparencies, or geometry software.
2. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if
the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence
of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures,
describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence
between them.

8.G.3

8.G.4

8.G.5

Understand congruence and similarity using physical models,

transparencies, or geometry software.
3. Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and
reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models,
transparencies, or geometry software.
4. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the
second can be obtained from the first by a sequence
of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar
two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that
exhibits the similarity between them.
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models,

transparencies, or geometry software.
5. Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and
exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created
when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle
criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange
three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles
appears to form a line, and give an argument in
terms of transversals why this is so.
8.G.6

8.EE.5

Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem

7. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths
in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems and three
dimensions (NOTE: Theorem is implied, by activities, but not
actually discussed)
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines,
and linear equations.
5. Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the
slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional
relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a
distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to
determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

8.F.1

8.F.2

1. Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

8.F.4

2. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different

way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables,
or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function
represented by a table of values and a linear function
represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has
the greater rate of change
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

8.F.5

4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two

quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value
of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y)
values, including reading these from a table or from a
graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function
in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of
its graph or a table of values.
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two

quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is
increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that
exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has
been described verbally.
Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

8.SP.4

Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate

categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative
frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table
summarizing data on two categorical variables
collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated
for rows or columns to describe possible association
between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in
your class on whether or not they have a curfew on
school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is
there evidence that those who have a curfew also
tend to have chores?
Each lesson, POW, and homework activity in the Shadows unit incorporates several
categories of mathematical practices from the California Common Core Standards. However, the
one lacking area is in the practice of constructing valid arguments and critiquing the reasoning of
others. Students are consistently required to share their data with peers and teacher, but not
critique and/or reason with amongst themselves. The unit examples listed below specifies which
eighth grade mathematical practices are covered in the work.
1
2
3
X
X
Working with Shadow Data (Pg. 18)
X
X
Angles and Counterexamples (Pg. 48)
X
X

4
X
X
X

5
X
X
X

6
X
X
X

7
X
X
X

8
X
X
X

Learning Trajectories
The tasks within the Shadows unit present a continuum of activities that are well
connected and build on each other in specific ways over time. The developmental continuum of

the learning trajectories from the Shadows unit stems from grade K through high school Algebra
I; particularly in the areas of measurement and data and Geometry. In addition to previously
covered grade eight standards, students should have a foundational understanding the following
K 7 standards .
K.MD.1&2

K.G.1,2,3, 4 & 5

1.MD.1,2,&4

Standard Writing
Describe and compare measurable attributes.
6. Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or
weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single
object.
2. Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common,
to see which object has more of/less of the
attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the
heights of two children and describe one child as
taller/shorter.
Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles,
hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and
spheres).
6. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and
describe the relative positions of these objects using
terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.
3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, flat) or threedimensional (solid).
Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.
4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different
sizes and orientations, using informal language
to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and
vertices/corners) and other attributes
(e.g., having sides of equal length).
5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g.,
sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.
Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.
1. Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects
indirectly by using a third object.
2. Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by
laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length
unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is
the number of same-size length units that span it
with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being
measured is spanned by a whole number of length units
with no gaps or overlaps.

1.G.1 & 3

2.MD.1, 4, 9 & 10

2.G.1

3.MD.3 & 4

4.0A.5

Represent and interpret data.

4. Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask
data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are
in one category than in another.
Reason with shapes and their attributes.
6. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed
and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g.,
color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining
attributes.
3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe
the shares using the words halves, fourths, and
quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe
the whole as two of, or four of the shares.
Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares
creates smaller shares.
Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.
6. Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate
tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and
measuring tapes.
4. Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another,
expressing the length difference in terms of a standard
length unit.
Represent and interpret data.
9. Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to
the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated
measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a
line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off
in whole-number units.
10. Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to
represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve
simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems4 using information
presented in a bar graph.
Reason with shapes and their attributes.
6. Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a
given number of angles or a given number of equal
faces.5
Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.
Reason with shapes and their attributes.
6. Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a
given number of angles or a given number of equal
faces.5
Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.
Generate and analyze patterns.
5. Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify
apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit

in the rule itself. For example, given the rule Add 3 and the starting
number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence
and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even
numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will
continue to alternate in this way.
4.MD.2

2. Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances,

intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects,
and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals,
and problems that require expressing measurements
given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement
quantities using diagrams such as number line
diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

4.G.1 & 2

Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of
their lines and angles.
6. Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute,
obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in
two-dimensional figures.
2. Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of
parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or
absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a
category, and identify right triangles. (Two-dimensional
shapes should include special triangles, e.g., equilateral, isosceles,
scalene, and special quadrilaterals, e.g., rhombus,
square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid.) CA
Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and
mathematical problems.
6. Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a
coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines
(the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point
in the plane located by using an ordered pair of
numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates
how far to travel from the origin in the direction
of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the
direction of the second axis, with the convention that
the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and
x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).
Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and
mathematical problems.
6. Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a
coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines
(the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point
in the plane located by using an ordered pair of
numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates
how far to travel from the origin in the direction

5.G.1 & 3

of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the
direction of the second axis, with the convention that
the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and
x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).
6.EE.5,6 & 9

Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.

5. Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering
a question: which values from a specified set, if
any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine
whether a given number in a specified set makes
an equation or inequality true.
6. Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving
a real-world or mathematical problem; understand
that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the
purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.
Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and
independent variables.
9. Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that
change in relationship to one another; write an
equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in
terms of the other quantity, thought of as the
independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables using graphs and tables,
and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving
motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered
pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent
the relationship between distance and time.

6.G.1 & 3

Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area,

and volume.
6. Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special
quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or
decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in
the context of solving real-world and mathematical
problems.
3. Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the
vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining
points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.
Apply these techniques in the context of solving
real-world and mathematical problems.

6.SP.4 & 5

Summarize and describe distributions.

4. Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots,
histograms, and box plots.
5. Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:
a. Reporting the number of observations.

b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including
how it was measured and its units of measurement.
c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and
variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute
deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking
deviations from the overall pattern with reference
to the context in which the data were gathered.
d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of
the data distribution and the context in which
the data were gathered.
7.RP.2,a,b,& c

2. Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g.,
by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or
graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a
straight line through the origin.
b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs,
equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of
proportional relationships.
c. Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total
cost t is proportional to the number n of items
purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and
the number of items can be expressed
as t = pn.

7.EE.4a

4. Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical

problem, and construct simple equations and
inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
6. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r
and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational
numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic
solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying
the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the
perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length
is 6 cm. What is its width?
Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the
relationships between them.
6. Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures,
including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale
drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

7.G.1 & 6

6. Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume

and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects
composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms.

Discourse
One of the positive attributes easily noted in the Shadows unit are the quick to find
essential questions. Open-ended questions, sparking higher-order cognitive thoughts and
discussions, are prevalent throughout the unit. The questions are quickly identifiable to the
teacher as they are written in bold, purple color. Discourse amongst classmates and teacher can
easily be generated via the engaging questions and multitude of hands on tasks. Combined, they
and support by the students. In addition, the questions provide students assistance with solving
abstract concepts and ideas, necessary to master the core of the learning content. Examples of
questions and their cognitive demands are listed below.

Levels of Cognitive Demand

Page # Varied Cognitive Levels

26

50

Knowledge Students begin to think about

Apply in Discipline Students work in
groups to identify variables effecting shadow
lengths.
Apply to Real-World Unpredictable
Situations Students create plans and
experiments to test their variables.
Apply Across Disciplines Students use
Apply to Real-World Unpredictable
Situations Students first work on their own
to evaluate three different methods and then
share results with class
Apply in Discipline Students apply their
knowledge of congruency to their activity
discoveries
Apply Across Disciplines Students apply
their knowledge of congruence & proportion
to extend to similar figures

60

Apply to Real-World Unpredictable

Situations Students use their knowledge,
imagination, and critical thinking to
Knowledge in one Discipline Student
acquire knowledge about the properties of a
right triangle
Apply in Discipline Students use their
knowledge of triangle legs to discover the
hypotenuse
Apply to Real-World Predictable situationsStudents use prior knowledge to deduce what
other kind of angles can be discovered from
right angles
Knowledge in one Discipline Students are
introduced to angle terminology and
corresponding angles
Apply in Discipline Students use
measurement knowledge to determine if
corresponding angles are equal
Pre-Planned Questions
What conclusions did your group reach from the
experiments?

66

Experimenting with

10

18

Inventing Rules

42

Examples

49

Opportunities for Group Collaboration

Grouping Description
Students work together to
develop a class diagram
must discuss & make

Pg.

Doing the Activity & Discussing & Debriefing the

Activity

Students gather in groups
data, post data for group
discussion
Make it Similar: Students
work on activity 1st by
themselves and then share
their results with the class
Whats Possible?: Students
1st work in groups to
examine combinations of
triangle sides and lengths
and then share their
findings with the class
Inside Similarity: Students
complete the activity on
their own, share results
with groups, and then share
results with the class

14

32

58

Activity

71

Doing the Activity & Discussing & Debriefing the

Activity

Assessment
Several summative and formative assessment tasks are included within the Shadows Unit.
In addition, as with the discourse, key questions are easily identifiable in purple, bold print.
These assessment questions are embedded within the activities as well as at the end of each task.
Formative assessments include:

Tasks done in class; both individually and as a group

POW (Problem of the Week) questions
In class end of unit assessments
Take home end of unit assessments
On-going student portfolios
Key questions at the end of each unit to check for comprehension

Summative assessments include:

Student portfolio
Key questions at the end of each unit to check for comprehension. If necessary, these can
be combined into a formal test at the end of the entire unit.

Differentiation
Shadows unit provides multiple opportunities for teachers to ensure lessons are equitable
for all levels of learners; including EL students. Specific supplemental and enrichment activities
are inserted within the unit. The reinforcements are designed to provide tiered learning so that
student learning and understanding are increased. Extensions provide opportunities for advanced
and/or inquisitive learners to expand the general and abstract ideas presented within the units.

Reinforcement Activities Benefiting English Learners

and Special Population Students
Open Ended Task Allowing students to openly investigate
other aspects discussed in the unit. Reinforces lamp and sun
shadow activities and vocabulary for EL students.
Students write instructions to re-create a complicated
polygon using only a ruler & protractor. Reinforces their
angle measurement skills using protractors.
Students write a report connecting their investigations of
scales and scale models. Report can have modified grading
scale for EL and Special Population students.
Students increase their knowledge of the requirements for
similarity and congruence through additional practice in this
loosely structured task. EL students benefit with
reinforcement of vocabulary words, similarity and

Supplemental Activity / Page
#9
Instruct the Pro: Supplemental
Activity / Page #25
Scale It!: Supplemental
Activity / Page #31
Proportions Everywhere:
Supplemental Activity / Page
#38

congruence(y).
Students reinforce their knowledge of similarity in triangles.
They are provided with additional opportunities to solidify
comprehension of congruence terms: SSS, SAS, ASA, and
AAS. This is especially useful for EL learners as acronyms
are an area of difficulty.
Enrichment Activities Benefiting advanced and/or GATE
students
Students are provided with parameters on how to further
complete experimental work with data and relationships.
Students use gathered geometric data to search for an
additional function dependent on two variables
Students further explore geometry in rigid figures as they
cross over to fields of construction and architecture.
Students search for an additional function using three
variables
Students further explore a simplistic ratio using rectangle
dimensions. Particularly beneficial to students who are
motivated with mathematics and art connections

Triangular Data: Supplemental

Activity / Page #52