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Christina Hambleton

MIAA 360

Teachers College of San Joaquin

CCCSSM Standards Alignment

The Shadows unit takes the question, How long is a shadow? and creates a multitude of

engaging, hands on, and though provoking mathematical lessons. The curriculum covers an array

of content including patterns, functions, algebra, geometry and trigonometry. Although the lesson

unit title indicates it is for high school students, the lessons are easily modifiable for eighth grade

students. The unit is designed to last either twenty-seven or seventeen days; depending on the

length of lesson implementation. The following California Common Core Standards are included

in the Shadows unit.

Grade 8 Standard

8.G.1

8.G.2

Standard Writing

1Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and

translations:

a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the

same length.

b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.

c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

Understand congruence and similarity using physical models,

transparencies, or geometry software.

2. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if

the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence

of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures,

describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence

between them.

8.G.3

8.G.4

8.G.5

transparencies, or geometry software.

3. Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and

reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.

Understand congruence and similarity using physical models,

transparencies, or geometry software.

4. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the

second can be obtained from the first by a sequence

of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar

two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that

exhibits the similarity between them.

Understand congruence and similarity using physical models,

transparencies, or geometry software.

5. Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and

exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created

when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle

criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange

three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles

appears to form a line, and give an argument in

terms of transversals why this is so.

8.G.6

8.EE.5

7. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths

in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems and three

dimensions (NOTE: Theorem is implied, by activities, but not

actually discussed)

Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines,

and linear equations.

5. Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the

slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional

relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a

distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to

determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

8.F.1

8.F.2

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

8.F.4

way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables,

or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function

represented by a table of values and a linear function

represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has

the greater rate of change

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

8.F.5

quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value

of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y)

values, including reading these from a table or from a

graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function

in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of

its graph or a table of values.

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two

quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is

increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that

exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has

been described verbally.

Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

8.SP.4

categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative

frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table

summarizing data on two categorical variables

collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated

for rows or columns to describe possible association

between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in

your class on whether or not they have a curfew on

school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is

there evidence that those who have a curfew also

tend to have chores?

Each lesson, POW, and homework activity in the Shadows unit incorporates several

categories of mathematical practices from the California Common Core Standards. However, the

one lacking area is in the practice of constructing valid arguments and critiquing the reasoning of

others. Students are consistently required to share their data with peers and teacher, but not

critique and/or reason with amongst themselves. The unit examples listed below specifies which

eighth grade mathematical practices are covered in the work.

Grade 8 Mathematical Practices

SHADOWS UNIT

1

2

3

The Shadow Model (Pg. 6)

X

X

Working with Shadow Data (Pg. 18)

X

X

Angles and Counterexamples (Pg. 48)

X

X

4

X

X

X

5

X

X

X

6

X

X

X

7

X

X

X

8

X

X

X

Learning Trajectories

The tasks within the Shadows unit present a continuum of activities that are well

connected and build on each other in specific ways over time. The developmental continuum of

the learning trajectories from the Shadows unit stems from grade K through high school Algebra

I; particularly in the areas of measurement and data and Geometry. In addition to previously

covered grade eight standards, students should have a foundational understanding the following

K 7 standards .

Grade Standards

K.MD.1&2

K.G.1,2,3, 4 & 5

1.MD.1,2,&4

Standard Writing

Describe and compare measurable attributes.

6. Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or

weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single

object.

2. Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common,

to see which object has more of/less of the

attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the

heights of two children and describe one child as

taller/shorter.

Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles,

hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and

spheres).

6. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and

describe the relative positions of these objects using

terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.

2. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.

3. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, flat) or threedimensional (solid).

Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.

4. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different

sizes and orientations, using informal language

to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and

vertices/corners) and other attributes

(e.g., having sides of equal length).

5. Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g.,

sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.

1. Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects

indirectly by using a third object.

2. Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by

laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length

unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is

the number of same-size length units that span it

with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being

measured is spanned by a whole number of length units

with no gaps or overlaps.

1.G.1 & 3

2.MD.1, 4, 9 & 10

2.G.1

3.MD.3 & 4

4.0A.5

4. Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask

and answer questions about the total number of

data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are

in one category than in another.

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

6. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed

and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g.,

color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining

attributes.

3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe

the shares using the words halves, fourths, and

quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe

the whole as two of, or four of the shares.

Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares

creates smaller shares.

Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.

6. Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate

tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and

measuring tapes.

4. Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another,

expressing the length difference in terms of a standard

length unit.

Represent and interpret data.

9. Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to

the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated

measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a

line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off

in whole-number units.

10. Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to

represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve

simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems4 using information

presented in a bar graph.

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

6. Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a

given number of angles or a given number of equal

faces.5

Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

6. Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a

given number of angles or a given number of equal

faces.5

Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.

Generate and analyze patterns.

5. Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify

apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit

in the rule itself. For example, given the rule Add 3 and the starting

number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence

and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even

numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will

continue to alternate in this way.

4.MD.2

intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects,

and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals,

and problems that require expressing measurements

given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement

quantities using diagrams such as number line

diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

4.G.1 & 2

Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of

their lines and angles.

6. Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute,

obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in

two-dimensional figures.

2. Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of

parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or

absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a

category, and identify right triangles. (Two-dimensional

shapes should include special triangles, e.g., equilateral, isosceles,

scalene, and special quadrilaterals, e.g., rhombus,

square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid.) CA

Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and

mathematical problems.

6. Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a

coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines

(the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point

in the plane located by using an ordered pair of

numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates

how far to travel from the origin in the direction

of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the

direction of the second axis, with the convention that

the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and

x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).

Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and

mathematical problems.

6. Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a

coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines

(the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point

in the plane located by using an ordered pair of

numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates

how far to travel from the origin in the direction

5.G.1 & 3

of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the

direction of the second axis, with the convention that

the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and

x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).

6.EE.5,6 & 9

5. Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering

a question: which values from a specified set, if

any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine

whether a given number in a specified set makes

an equation or inequality true.

6. Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving

a real-world or mathematical problem; understand

that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the

purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.

Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and

independent variables.

9. Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that

change in relationship to one another; write an

equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in

terms of the other quantity, thought of as the

independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and

independent variables using graphs and tables,

and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving

motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered

pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent

the relationship between distance and time.

6.G.1 & 3

and volume.

6. Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special

quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or

decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in

the context of solving real-world and mathematical

problems.

3. Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the

vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining

points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.

Apply these techniques in the context of solving

real-world and mathematical problems.

6.SP.4 & 5

4. Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots,

histograms, and box plots.

5. Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

a. Reporting the number of observations.

b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including

how it was measured and its units of measurement.

c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and

variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute

deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking

deviations from the overall pattern with reference

to the context in which the data were gathered.

d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of

the data distribution and the context in which

the data were gathered.

7.RP.2,a,b,& c

a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g.,

by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or

graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a

straight line through the origin.

b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs,

equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of

proportional relationships.

c. Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total

cost t is proportional to the number n of items

purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and

the number of items can be expressed

as t = pn.

7.EE.4a

problem, and construct simple equations and

inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

6. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r

and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational

numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic

solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying

the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the

perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length

is 6 cm. What is its width?

Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the

relationships between them.

6. Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures,

including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale

drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

7.G.1 & 6

and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects

composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms.

Discourse

One of the positive attributes easily noted in the Shadows unit are the quick to find

essential questions. Open-ended questions, sparking higher-order cognitive thoughts and

discussions, are prevalent throughout the unit. The questions are quickly identifiable to the

teacher as they are written in bold, purple color. Discourse amongst classmates and teacher can

easily be generated via the engaging questions and multitude of hands on tasks. Combined, they

provide access to the generation of additional questions requiring transferable ideas, justification

and support by the students. In addition, the questions provide students assistance with solving

abstract concepts and ideas, necessary to master the core of the learning content. Examples of

questions and their cognitive demands are listed below.

Task

Page # Varied Cognitive Levels

26

50

what a shadow is

Apply in Discipline Students work in

groups to identify variables effecting shadow

lengths.

Apply to Real-World Unpredictable

Situations Students create plans and

experiments to test their variables.

Apply Across Disciplines Students use

prior knowledge from previous task

Apply to Real-World Unpredictable

Situations Students first work on their own

to evaluate three different methods and then

share results with class

Apply in Discipline Students apply their

knowledge of congruency to their activity

discoveries

Apply Across Disciplines Students apply

their knowledge of congruence & proportion

to extend to similar figures

60

Situations Students use their knowledge,

imagination, and critical thinking to

transcend from polygons to quadrilaterals

Knowledge in one Discipline Student

acquire knowledge about the properties of a

right triangle

Apply in Discipline Students use their

knowledge of triangle legs to discover the

hypotenuse

Apply to Real-World Predictable situationsStudents use prior knowledge to deduce what

other kind of angles can be discovered from

right angles

Knowledge in one Discipline Students are

introduced to angle terminology and

corresponding angles

Apply in Discipline Students use

measurement knowledge to determine if

corresponding angles are equal

Pre-Planned Questions

What conclusions did your group reach from the

experiments?

66

Experimenting with

Shadows

10

18

Inventing Rules

42

Examples

49

Grouping Description

The Shadow Model:

Students work together to

develop a class diagram

must discuss & make

assumptions about diagram

Pg.

Task Example

Activity

Shadow Data Gathering:

Students gather in groups

to gather shadow length

data, post data for group

discussion

Make it Similar: Students

work on activity 1st by

themselves and then share

their results with the class

Whats Possible?: Students

1st work in groups to

examine combinations of

triangle sides and lengths

and then share their

findings with the class

Inside Similarity: Students

complete the activity on

their own, share results

with groups, and then share

results with the class

14

32

58

Activity

71

Activity

Assessment

Several summative and formative assessment tasks are included within the Shadows Unit.

In addition, as with the discourse, key questions are easily identifiable in purple, bold print.

These assessment questions are embedded within the activities as well as at the end of each task.

Formative assessments include:

POW (Problem of the Week) questions

In class end of unit assessments

Take home end of unit assessments

On-going student portfolios

Key questions at the end of each unit to check for comprehension

Student portfolio

Key questions at the end of each unit to check for comprehension. If necessary, these can

be combined into a formal test at the end of the entire unit.

Differentiation

Shadows unit provides multiple opportunities for teachers to ensure lessons are equitable

for all levels of learners; including EL students. Specific supplemental and enrichment activities

are inserted within the unit. The reinforcements are designed to provide tiered learning so that

student learning and understanding are increased. Extensions provide opportunities for advanced

and/or inquisitive learners to expand the general and abstract ideas presented within the units.

and Special Population Students

Open Ended Task Allowing students to openly investigate

other aspects discussed in the unit. Reinforces lamp and sun

shadow activities and vocabulary for EL students.

Students write instructions to re-create a complicated

polygon using only a ruler & protractor. Reinforces their

angle measurement skills using protractors.

Students write a report connecting their investigations of

scales and scale models. Report can have modified grading

scale for EL and Special Population students.

Students increase their knowledge of the requirements for

similarity and congruence through additional practice in this

loosely structured task. EL students benefit with

reinforcement of vocabulary words, similarity and

Some other Shadows:

Supplemental Activity / Page

#9

Instruct the Pro: Supplemental

Activity / Page #25

Scale It!: Supplemental

Activity / Page #31

Proportions Everywhere:

Supplemental Activity / Page

#38

congruence(y).

Students reinforce their knowledge of similarity in triangles.

They are provided with additional opportunities to solidify

comprehension of congruence terms: SSS, SAS, ASA, and

AAS. This is especially useful for EL learners as acronyms

are an area of difficulty.

Enrichment Activities Benefiting advanced and/or GATE

students

Students are provided with parameters on how to further

complete experimental work with data and relationships.

Students use gathered geometric data to search for an

additional function dependent on two variables

Students further explore geometry in rigid figures as they

cross over to fields of construction and architecture.

Students search for an additional function using three

variables

Students further explore a simplistic ratio using rectangle

dimensions. Particularly beneficial to students who are

motivated with mathematics and art connections

Activity / Page #52

Investigation: Supplemental

Activity / Page #20

Cutting Through the Layers:

Supplemental Activity / Page

#22

Rigidity Can be Good:

Supplemental Activity / Page

#52

Crates: Supplemental

Activity / Page #22

The Golden Ratio / Page #31

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