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1. What are resources? What are its characteristics?

Every thing available in our environment, which can be used to satisfy our needs if it
is technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable, is
termed as resource. [Or Resources are the means available for the development of a
country. These are the natural or human made materials, which help to create goods
or provide services].
Its characteristics are the following:
a) It has utility: Resources can be used to make a variety of goods and services.
It satisfies human wants.
b) They are normally available in limited quantity: Most of the resources are scarce.
They are exhaustible. We have to use it wisely.
c) Can’t be used as it is: Most of the resources are in crude form. We have to put
effort on it to get utility or maximum satisfaction.
d) It should be technologically accessible.
2. Examine the interdependent relationship among nature ,technology and
institutions in the economic development. [ in the resource transformation]
a) Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to
accelerate economic development.
b) They transform material available in our environment in to resources by using
technology and use them.
3. Name the essential component of resources. What is its role in the resource
Human beings are the essential components of resources. Human beings interact
with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate economic
development. They transform materials available in our environment into resources
by using technology and use them.
4. Distinguish between biotic and abiotic resources.
a) Biotic resources have or had living characteristics whereas abiotic resources are
composed of non living things.
b) Biotic resources are normally obtained from the biosphere where as abiotic
resources obtained from the lithosphere.
c) Examples of biotic resources are human beings, flora, fauna, fisheries and livestock
d) Examples of abiotic resources are rocks, metals, minerals etc.
5. Distinguish between renewable and non renewable resources.
a) Renewable resources are those resources, which can be regenerated in a given
period of time whereas non renewable resources cannot be re generated.
b) Renewable resources are abundant and replenishable where as non renewable
resources are scarce and non replenishable.
c) Renewable resources are non exhaustible whereas non renewable resources are
d) Solar and wind energy, water, forest and wild life are examples of renewable
resource and minerals and fossil fuels are examples of non renewable resources.

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6. How are resources classified on the basis of origin?
a) Biotic resources b) Abiotic resources ( Explain points)
7. How are resources classified on the basis of exhaustibility?
a) Renewable resources b) Non renewable resources ( Explain points)
8. How are resources classified on the basis of ownership?
a) Individual resources:
These are privately owned resources. Village people own land and cattle whereas
urban people own plots, flats or other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in
the wells are individual resources.
b) Community owned resources:
These are resources accessible to all the members of the community. Grazing
grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, public parks, play grounds, picnic spots etc are
community owned resources.
c) National Resources:
All the minerals, water resources, forests, wild life, all the resources with in the
political boundaries and oceanic area up to 12 nautical miles from the coast belong to
national resources. Roads canals, railways and properties of public character belong to
national resources.
d) International resources:
The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone
belong to international resources. No individual or country can claim it. There are
international institutions to regulate these resources.
9. How are resources classified based on the status of development?
a) Potential resources:
Resources, which are found in a region, but have not been utilized, are potential
resources. These resources will be widely used shortly. Wind and solar energy potential
in Rajasthan and Gujarat have not been developed and exploited properly so far.
b) Developed resources:
These are the resources surveyed; quality and quantity have been measured and have
been determined for utilization.
c) Stock Resources:
Resources in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but do
not have the appropriate technology to have an access come under this category. We
haven’t so far developed the technology to make inflammable gases like hydrogen and
oxygen on a large scale from water . So it is considered a stock.
d) Reserve resources:
These are the subdivision of stock resources and can be put into use by applying the
existing technology but their use has not yet been started. These can be used to meet our
future requirements.
10. What is meant by Exclusive Economic Zone?
a) The UN Convention of the Law of the Sea, 1982, allowed coastal nations to claim a
territorial sea of up to 12 nautical miles.
b) It also allowed jurisdiction over resources, control over fishing right, scientific
research, and environmental protection in a zone up to 200 nautical miles (370.4 km)
offshore. It is known as Exclusive Economic Zone. Beyond this zone, seabed mineral
development will be regulated by an international body.

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11. What are the major problems developed out of exploiting resources
indiscriminately? ( State any to effects of indiscriminate exploitation of resources.)

a) Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.

b) Accumulation of resources in few hands, which in turn divided the society in to rich
and poor.
c) It has led to ecological crisis such as global warming, ozone layer depletion,
environmental pollution and land degradation.
12. What is sustainable development?
The development that takes care the needs of the present generation with out
compromising the needs of future generations is termed as sustainable development. It
emphasizes on prevention of pollution and avoidance of wastages. The development
that takes place with out damaging the environment is termed as sustainable
13. What is resource planning? Why is it essential? ( Explain any three reasons
responsible for making resource planning in India. )
i) Resource planning is a technique or skill of proper utilization of resources.
ii) An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of
life and global peace.
iii) If the present trend of resources depletion by a few individuals and countries
continues, the future of the planet is in danger. There fore resource planning is
essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life. Or
Since the resources are limited and unevenly distributed, effective and efficient
planning is necessary.
Resource planning includes conservation of resources too. We have to exploit
resources in such a way that future generation will not suffer.
Resource planning is essential to prevent environmental pollution and to avoid
wastages in the exploitation of resources.
14. Examine the diversity in the availability of resources in India. Give examples. Or
Why is a balanced resource planning essential in India? ( Why is it necessary for
a balanced resource planning at the national ,state regional and local levels?)
a) There are regions in India which are rich in certain type of resources but are deficient
in some other resources. There are some regions in India which can be considered
self sufficient in terms of availability of resources and there are some other regions
which have acute shortage of some vital resources.
b) The states of Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and
coal deposits.
c) Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural
d) Rajasthan has a lot of solar and wind energy potential but lacks in water resources.
e) The cold area of Ladakh has very rich cultural heritage but is deficient in water,
infrastructure and minerals.
15. What are the processes ( stages) involved in the resource planning?
i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country: This
involves surveying, mapping, qualitative and quantitative estimation, and
measurement of resources.

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ii) Evolving a planning structure with appropriate technology, skill and institutional
setup for implementing resource development plans.
iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.
16. ‘Mere availability of resources will not bring economic development’. Give
i) Along with the availability of resources corresponding changes in technology and
institutions are required for economic development.
ii) There are many regions in India that are rich in resources but are economically
backward. Some other areas have poor resources but they are economically
iii) It was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonizing
countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their
supremacy over the colonies.
17. What was Gandhiji’s opinion about conservation (or over exploitation) of
i) Gandhiji said, ‘There is enough resources in India for every body’s need and not for
any body’s greed’.
ii) He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern
technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level.
iii) He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by
the masses.
18. Why is it important to use the available land with careful planning?
i) We live on land , perform all economic activities on land and use it for variety of
ii) Land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation,
wild life, human life, transport and communication systems.
iii) 95% of our basic needs for food, shelter and clothing are obtained from land
iv) Land available is limited in quantity compared to the size of the population and
hence it requires careful planning
19. Assess the land in India under important relief features.
i. Plains: About 43 % of the land is plain which provides facilities for agriculture and
ii. Mountains: It accounts for 30 % of the land and ensure perennial flow of some
rivers, provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
iii. Plateau: About 27 % of the land is plateau. It possesses rich reserves of minerals
fossil fuels and forests.
20. Give two reasons why we are not able to utilize the total geographical area of India.
i) The land use reporting for most of the north- eastern states except Assam has not
been done fully.
ii) Some areas of Jammu & Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have not been
21. What is the land utilization pattern in India?
Total area of land in India is 3.28 million sq.km., but only 93 % is available for use.
i)The Net sown area in India is 43.41% in 2002-03.
ii) The Forest share in the land use pattern is 22.57% in 2002-03.
iii) Area under non agricultural use is 7.92% in 2002-03.

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iv) Permanent pastures and grazing land is 3.45 % only.
v) Culturable Waste land is 4.41% in 2002-03.
vi) Fallow Land : The share of the current fallow land is 7.03% in 2002-03. Fallow other
than current fallow is 3.82.
22. What are the most satisfying features of the land use pattern in India?
a) About 54 % of the total land area is under cultivation in India. It is the highest
percentage in the world.
b) Land under the forests has increased from 18.11% in 1960-61 to 22.57% in
2002-03. (Any One)
c) Culturable Waste land has reduced from 6.23% in 1960-61 to 4.41% in 2002-03.
23. What is land degradation? Explain any three causes for land degradation.
Land degradation is the process of losing the fertility and productivity of land and
turning it unfit for proper use. It is otherwise lowering the quality of land.
Deforestation, careless management of forests, overgrazing by animals, soil erosion,
surface mining and industrial effluents cause land degradation.
At present there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India .28 % of it
belongs to forest degraded area, 56 % water eroded area, 10 % wind eroded area and
the rest 6% is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.
24. State two natural and human activities that lead to land degradation.
a. Natural : Soil erosion, land slides, torrential rain
b. Human : Mining and industry. (Explain all)
25. How does surface mining and industry lead to land degradation?
o. The mining sites are abandoned after excavation is completed.
p. Processed soil or waste materials are dumped unscientifically causing the land used
and the land nearby unfit for any use.
q. The mineral processing, like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite
and soapstone for ceramic industry generates heavy amount of dust and releases in the
atmosphere. It settles down in the surrounding areas, affecting infiltration of water and crop
r. The industrial effluents released to the air causes acid rain and air and water get
26. How is man responsible for degradation of land?
a) Cutting of trees (deforestation).
b) Unscientific disposal of industrial wastes.
c) Unscientific industrial processing.
d) Construction of houses and buildings. (Explain any one)
27. What measures can be adopted for preventing land degradation?
a. Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes, preparation of
shelterbelts for plants and control over grazing of animals are some methods of
controlling land degradation in arid areas.

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b. Moisture conservation and weed control in agricultural lands,
regularization of grazing and proper management of wasteland and control of
mining activities are the methods for semi arid areas.
c.Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment
can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.
28. What are soils? How are they formed? Or ( Describe the factors that contribute
to the formation and fertility to the soil.)
i. Loose and fragmented uppermost layer of the earth’s crust, which is useful for
plants, is called soil. It is the basic resources of agriculture.
ii. It consists of both organic and inorganic substances.
iii. The factors that contribute the formation and fertility of soil are rocks, climate,
plants and animals, local topography, chemical and organic changes which takes place in the
soil and long period of time.
1. Soils are formed by the disintegration and decomposition of rocks
under the process of weathering and erosion. Climate determines the rate of
weathering and the type of vegetation. Time provide maturity to soils.
29. Describe the characteristics of alluvial soil. (What type of soil is found in the river
deltas of the eastern coasts? Give three main features of this type of soil. Or Which
is the most widely spread and important soil in India? )
a) Alluvial soil is confined to northern plain, coastal strips, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
It is the most widely spread and important soil in India.
b) It consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
c) As we move inlands to wards the valley soil particles appear some what bigger
in size. In the upper reaches of the river valley the soil are coarse. Such soils are
common in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai.
d) Alluvial soil as a whole are very fertile Mostly these soil contain adequate proportion
of potash , phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy,
wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.
e) Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment
and irrigation.
f) Alluvial soil is divided into Bhangar and Khadar according to their age. ( Continue..)
30. Differentiate between Bhangar and Khadar.
i)The Bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar.
ii. Bhangar is older alluvium and is found away from rivers and Khadar
is new alluvium found closer to the rivers.
iii. Bhangar is clayey and dark while Khadar is sandy and light in colour.
iv. Bhangar is less fertile compared to Khadar. Khadar is renewed
frequently in the flood plain.
31. What are the characteristics of Black soil?( Regur soil)
a) It is good for cultivation of cotton and also known as cotton soil.
c) It is rich in potash, calcium carbonate, magnesium and lime and poor in
phosphoric content.
d) It has the ability to retain moisture.

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e) On drying these soil develops large and deep cracks and becomes sticky when wet.
f) Climatic condition along with the parent rock material is the important factors for
the formation of black soil.
g) This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap spread over northwest Deccan plateau
and is made up of lava flows.
32. Describe the major features of Red soil. Where is it found?
a. Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in
the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
b. It is red in colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and
metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
c. Red soils are highly porous and fertile and they are fine grained and deep.
d. It is deficient in phosphoric acid, organic matter and nitrogen and rich in potash.
e. They occur in parts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
33. What are Laterite soils? What are its features?
a. Laterite soils are intensely leached soils of the monsoon climate.
b. The humus content of this soil is low because most of the micro organisms
particularly the decomposers like bacteria get destroyed due to high temperature. It has low
value for crop production.
c. They are red in colour with high content of iron oxide.
d. It is poor in nitrogen and lime and has high contents of acidity.
e. It doesn’t have the ability to retain moisture.
f. It is composed of little clay and much gravel of red sand stones.
g. These soils develop in areas of high temperature and heavy rainfall. They occur in
Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa and part of Assam and Meghalaya.
(Why are laterite soil less fertile? Ans points a and b above)
34. Describe the characteristics of forest (mountain) soil.
a.These are the soils found in the mountainous region of India like Meghalaya,
Arunachel Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.
b. These soils are characterized by deposition of organic materials derived from
vegetative cover.
c. These are heterogeneous in nature and vary from place to place.
d. They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
e. In the snow covered areas of Himalayas these soils experience denudation and
are acidic with low humus content.
35. What are arid (desert) soils?
a. These are the soils found in the arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
b. These sands are partly of local origin and partly have been blown from the Indus
c. In some areas, the soil contains high percentage of soluble salt.
d. It is sandy, coarse and porous and poor in organic matter.
e. These soils can be used for cultivation with irrigation facilities.
36. What is meant by soil erosion? How is it caused?
Removal of soil from one place to another by some natural agent is called soil erosion.
It is the process of taking away or washing away of soil cover by wind or water flow.

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Soil erosion is caused by deforestation, heavy rains and running water, overgrazing,
winds and slope of the land.
37. What are ravines? Where is it found?
Ravines are bad land, turned unsuitable for cultivation by soil erosion. If the outer
cover of the soil is removed by wind or water, bad Lands are formed. In the Chambal
basin such lands are called ravines.
38. What is sheet erosion and contour ploughing?
a) When water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope, top soil is washed away. It
is known as sheet erosion.
b) Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour ploughing. It is a method of
controlling soil erosion.
39. Suggest a few measures of controlling soil erosion.
递珓ɞ⥔〣Ǖ33.I递珓ɞ⥔〣Ǖ䚖輘ff퍊뷴ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ䩌 踜ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ굺쪊
ЉЉ躬麲ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ 䚖㎆ЉЉЉЉЉЉЉЉ⬀‫ﭲ‬ Contour ploughing:
Ploughing along the contour lines is known as contour
Ploughing, which reduces the flow of water. (hilly areas)
b) Terrace farming: It restricts soil erosion in hilly areas.
c) Strip Cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to
grow between the crops.
a) Shelter belts and planting thorny bushes: : Planting lines of trees reduce wind
force and stream flow. Planting of thorny bushes help stabilize sand dunes
in the desert areas.
40. Explain the six major land use categories of our country along with the changes
that have occurred recently.
Total area of land in India is 3.28 million sq.km., but only 93 % is available for use.
i) Net sown area : In 1960-61 its share was 45.26% which has decreased to 43.41% in
2002-03. It has decreased due to using of agricultural land for other purposes.
ii) Forest : Its share was 18.11% in 1960-61 and it has increased to 22.57% in 2002-03.
It has increased due to massive afforestation and government policies.
iii) Area under non agricultural use: Its share in 1960-61 was 4.95% and it has increased
to 7.92% in 2002-03.
iv) Permanent pastures and grazing land: Its share in 1960-61 was 4.47% and it is
reduced to 3.45 % in 2002-03. This shows tremendous pressure of livestock
population on agricultural land.
v) Culturable Waste: Its share was 6.23% in 1960-61 which has reduced to 4.41% in 2002-
03. The reduction in this category is mainly due to its conversion into net sown area.
vi) Fallow Land : The share of the current fallow land was 3.73% in 1960-61, which has
been increased to 7.03% in 2002-03. Fallow other than current fallow has increased
from 3.50 to 3.82.
41. How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
i) It was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonizing
countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their

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supremacy over the colonies.
ii) Technical development led to mechanization and over exploitation of resources.
Economic development led to invention of modern machineries which accelerated
over exploitation of resources.
iii) Economic development increases the standard of living of the people. It helps them
to enjoy a number of facilities and use more resources.
42. Prove by giving examples that the pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one
state to another.
Net sown area in Punjab and Haryana is over 80 % and in Arunachal Pradesh,
Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman and Nicobar Islands it is less than 10 %
43. What is the importance of resources? Why is it necessary to conserve them?
Resources are vital for any developmental activity. Economic development of a country
is depended on the availability of resources.
Resources are in limited quantity. Most of them are non renewable. Irrational
consumption and over-utilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and
environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various
levels is important. It helps in the sustainable development. It helps to conserve the
resource for the future generation. It also helps in avoiding wastages and preventing
Additional Questions:
01. Draw a neat diagram showing the soil profile.02. On what grounds are soils classified?
i. Soils are classified based on colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical and physical
03. What is the main purpose of resources? ( to satisfy basic needs of mankind)
04. Which mineral is mined in the Indian Ocean? (Manganese nodules)
05. What is the ill effect of accumulation of resources in few hands?
(The society will be divided in to rich and poor)
06. What was the aim of Rio de Janeiro Summit?(Achieve global sustainable development)
07. Name four ecological crisis: global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental
pollution and land degradation.
08. What were the two aims of first earth summit?
(Environmental protection and economic development)
09. Name two river valleys in South India where black soil is found.
( Godavari valley and Krishna valley)
10. What do you mean by Deccan trap? It is the plateau formed by deposition of Basalt lava.
11. Why are yellow soils yellow in colour? (Due to the presence of iron in hydrated form)
12. Despite enormous potential solar power is not developed in Rajasthan and
Gujarat. Why ? ( Due to lack of technology and demand)
13. When and where was the first international earth submit held?
It was held in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in 1992
14. What is meant by Agenda 21?
i) It was the declaration signed by the world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development, which took place at Rio de Janeiro in
Brazil in 1992.
ii) It was an agenda to combat environmental damage , poverty, diseases through global
cooperation on common interests mutual needs and shared responsibilities in the 21st C.

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iii) One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its
own local Agenda 21.
15. Name any two books that advocate resource conservation.
‘Small is beautiful’ written by Schumacher and ‘Our Common future’
16. Name any two types of piedmont plains where alluvial soil is found.
Duars, Chos and Terai. ( any two)
1. How does water become a renewable resource? Explain.
Fresh water is obtained from surface water and ground water. It is continuously renewed
and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves in the hydrological cycle
and ensures that water is a renewable resource.

2. How does water threaten human welfare? Or Why is it necessary to conserve water
resources? Give reasons.
a) Scarcity of water: Due to high population, increasing urbanization and rising standard
of living, there is a growing scarcity of water felt all over India.
b) Use of degraded water: In many areas, people are forced to drink and use polluted
water which causes various water borne diseases.
c) Lowering the water table: Increased use of tube wells in recent years has lowered the
water table and has caused depletion of underground water resources.
d) Inadequate supply water for irrigation; Two third of the cropped area in India is still
rainfed , which is uncertain and irregular which affects agriculture.

3. What are the causes of growing water scarcity in India?

i. Variation in the annual rainfall: The rainfall in India is unequally distributed. The
desert areas of Rajasthan receive less than 20 cm of annual rainfall and hence is drought prone.
ii. Rapidly growing population: A large population needs more water not only for
domestic use but also for production of more food.
iii. Over exploitation of water resources: For more food production, water resources are
over exploited which leads to its scarcity.
iv. Industrialization and urbanization: Industries require a lot of water for processing and
as a cleaning agent. Much of the energy for industrial use is obtained from hydro electricity.
Urbanization changes the life style of people and demand of water increases. It leads to water

4. What are the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water scarcity in India?
i. Quantitative aspects: A large part of India is facing the problem of shortage of fresh water.
Variation in the annual rainfall makes these areas drought prone. Rising population, makes the
situation worse.
ii. Qualitative aspects: A number of villages and cities in India are facing the problem of pure
drinking water. Water in these areas is polluted due to domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals,
pesticides, and fertilizers.

5. Why did Jawaharlal Nehru proclaim the dams as the ‘temples of modern India?

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Dams would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid
industrialization and growth of the urban economy. Therefore, Jawaharlal Nehru
proclaimed the dams as the ‘temples of modern India.

6. Why are dams now referred as multipurpose projects?

Dams are now used for number of purposes at a time. They are
a) Flood control b ) Irrigation c) Navigation d ) Electricity
e) Soil conservation and preservation of wildlife through afforestation
f)Tourism or recreation (F.I.N.E.S.T. ) Hence they are called multipurpose projects.
(Explain points)

7. Why do the dams in India come under great scrutiny and opposition? ( What are the
arguments against large dams?)
i. Regulating and damming of river water affect their natural flow causing poor
sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoirs, resulting in rockier
streambeds and poorer habitat for the river’s aquatic life.
ii. Dams prevent the migration and spawning of aquatic fauna.
iii. Construction of dams leads to submergence of land and vegetation leading to its
decomposition over a period of time.
iv. It leads to loss of livelihood to many tribal and village people and find it difficult to
rehabilitate them.
v. Dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the
same water. In Gujarat the Sabarmati-basin farmers agitated against the higher priority given to
water supply in urban areas particularly during drought.
vi. Inter-state dispute also becoming common over sharing the cost and benefit of multi
purpose river valley projects. (Give example)

8. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi purpose river valley projects.
( Explain the above two answers)

9. What is meant by rainwater harvesting? Mention a few traditional techniques of rain

water harvesting.
i. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing
ii. Roof top rainwater harvesting was commonly practiced to store drinking water
particularly in Rajasthan.
iii. In the flood plain of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their
iv. In arid and semi arid regions of Rajasthan agricultural fields were converted into rain
fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil.

10. Discuss how rainwater harvesting is carried out in semi arid regions of Rajasthan.

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i Almost all the houses in these regions had traditional underground tank or ‘tankas’
for storing drinking water. ( Define the term Tanka)
ii The tanks could be as large as a big room.
iii The tanks were part of the well-developed roof top rainwater harvesting system and
were built inside the main house or courtyard. They were connected to the slopping roofs of the
houses through a pipe.
iv The rainwater, falling on the roof would travel down through the pipe and is stored in
the underground tanks.
11. Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting methods are being
carried out to conserve and store water.
i Today in western Rajasthan the practice of roof top rainwater harvesting is declined due
to availability of ample supply of water from the Rajasthan canal.
ii In Gendathur, a remote village in Mysore, nearly 200 houses have installed roof top
rain water harvesting system.
iii In Tamil Nadu, the roof top rainwater harvesting structure is made compulsory to all
houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters.
iv In some areas, the ground water is recharged through hand pumps or using abandoned
12. Name any two social movements against multi purpose river valley projects.
i. ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ ii. ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’ These resistance movements are
started against large scale displacement of local communities.
13. Who are the people benefited by multi purpose river valley projects?
i. Land owners and large farmers. ii. Industrialists and a few urban centres.
14. How does river valley projects transform social landscape? Give an example.
i. River valley projects increase the social gap between the richer landlords and land less poor.
ii. It creates conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water
iii. In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot over the
higher priority given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
15. What is the Krishna Godavari dispute raised by the Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
It is regarding the diversion of more water at Koyna by the Maharashtra Government for a
multi purpose project. This would reduce down stream flow in their states with adverse
consequences for agriculture and industry.
16. Prove by giving examples that river valley projects fail to achieve the purpose for which
they were built.
i. The dams were constructed to control floods but it has triggered floods due to sedimentation in
the reservoir and due to dam failure. Release of water from dams during heavy rains aggravated
the flood situation in Maharashtra and Gujarat in 2006
ii. Multi purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused waterborne diseases and pollution resulting
from excessive use of water.
17. What is the ecological consequence of irrigation and changing of cropping pattern?
Salinization of soils.
18. Name two structures built to harvest water in hilly areas. Guls, Kuls.
19. Name two water harvesting system in Rajasthan. Khadins- and Johads.

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20. What is meant by hydraulic cycle? Movement of water in different forms from ocean to
atmosphere and from atmosphere to ocean.
21. Define the term ‘matkas’.
These are the earthen pots used by Rajasthan women for collecting and storing water.
22. Why did the Sabarmati basin farmers agitate and almost cause a riot in Gujarat?
It was over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas


1. ‘India is an agricultural country. ' Comment. Or Why is agricultural development a

precondition for our national prosperity? Or What is the importance of agriculture in
1) India is an agricultural country. Nearly two-third of its population depends directly on
agriculture for its livelihood.
2) Agriculture is the mainstay of India's economy. It accounts for 26 % of the Gross
Domestic Product.
3) Agriculture provides 10 % of our total exports and a source of fodder for animals.
4) Its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population is 63 per cent in 2001.

2. Define the term agriculture.

The term agriculture is derived from two Latin words 'ager' meaning land and 'cultur' meaning
cultivation. Agriculture thus means land cultivation. However, it includes animal husbandry,
forestry, horticulture and pisiculture.
3. State any two reasons for the change in the methods of cultivation.
i. Change in the physical environment
ii. Change in the technological know-how
iii. Change in the socio cultural practices. (Explain)
4. Differentiate between net sown area and gross cropped area.
1) The total land cultivated in a year is called net sown area. The net sown area and the land in
the net sown area cultivated more than once together make gross cultivated area.
2) The net sown area in India at the present is 143 million hectares. It is about 46.6 % of the
total geographical area.

5. Mention in brief, the various limitations from which the Indian agriculture suffers
presently. (Drawback of Indian agriculture)

I. Agriculture is not generating sufficient employment opportunities in the country. The

growth rate in agriculture is decelerating which is an alarming situation.
II. Today, Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and
our government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture
sector particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanization.
III. Subsidy on fertilizers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
Moreover, reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental
to agriculture in the country.

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IV. Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the
employment in agriculture.

6. What is primitive subsistence farming? Why do majority of Indian farmers follow it?

i. Subsistence farming is the cultivation of crops for domestic use and not for sale. It is
practiced in small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, digging sticks
and family labour.
ii. This type of farming depends on monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of
other environmental conditions to the crops grown.
iii. Majority of Indian farmers practise subsistence farming because they have scattered land
holdings and they use only primitive tools.
iv. They are poor farmers and they can't use fertilizers and machinery. Facilities like
electricity and irrigation are not available to them.
7. Name any two local names of primitive subsistence farming.
i. It is Jhumming in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland.
ii. In Manipur it is Pamlou.
iii. It is Dipa in Bastar districts of Chattisgarh and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

What is shifting agriculture? What are its features?

a) Shifting agriculture is the old type of agriculture. In this system, forestland is cleared
to cultivate. Crops are grown for two or three years. When the fertility is reduced the farmers
move to another area to cultivate by clearing forests again. It allows the land to replenish the
fertility of the soil through natural processes.
b) Dry paddy, maize, and vegetables are grown in this farming. The per- hectare yield
is low. It is, other wise known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
a) It is a subsistence type of agriculture.
c) The rotation of field is practiced.
d) Simple implements are used.
e) Per capita or the per-hectare production is low.
f) It is practiced in the region of low density of population

9. What is intensive subsistence farming? Why do the farmers follow this type of
i. It is a type of farming practiced in the areas of high population pressure on land. It is a
labour intensive farming, where high dozes of bio-chemical inputs and irrigation are used for
obtaining high production.
ii. The farmers follow this type because their holding of land is very small due to
continuous family partition and the ‘right of inheritance’ and the absence of alternative sources of

10. What is commercial farming? What are its characteristics?

It is the type of farming practised mainly for sale. So they produce more than what they
require for domestic consumption. Plantation agriculture is an example of commercial
farming. Its characteristics are the following:

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i. Modern inputs like High Yielding Varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and
pesticides are used.
ii. The yield per hectare or productivity is very high.
iii. It is a mechanized farming system in which modern machinery is used.
iv. Irrigation facilities are available to this farming technique.

11. What are the features of plantation agriculture?

Plantation agriculture is bush or tree farming. The British introduced it in the 19 th Century. Its
features are the following:
1) It is a single crop farming in a large area. It includes tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut,
apples, grapes, oranges etc.
2) It is a capital-intensive agriculture and requires good managerial ability.
3) It requires technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilizes, irrigation and
transport facilities.
4) It is normally developed in hilly areas of northeastern India, Nilgiri, Aanamalai and
Cardamom hills.
5) Since the production is on large quantity processing factory also is built with in or close
to it.
6) All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries and has an interface of
agriculture and industry.

12. What are the factors that play an important role in the development of plantations?
i. A well-developed network of transport and communication system is an important factor since
the plantation agriculture is market-oriented.
ii. Processing industries with in the estate and the technical know-how play an important role in
its development.

13. Which are the different crop seasons in India?

i. Kharif Crop season: The ' Kharif ' season starts with the onset of monsoon and continues till
the beginning of winter i.e. from June – July to September -October. Crops like rice, maize,
millet, cotton, groundnut, moong, urad etc. are grown in Kharif season.
ii. Rabi Crop Season: Rabi season starts in winter from October to December and harvested in
summer from April to June. Crops such as wheat, barley, grain, linseed, rapeseed and mustard
seeds are grown in rabi season.
iii. Zaid season: It is a crop season between Rabi and Kharif seasons practised during the end of
summer in March to May. Crops like watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables, and
fodder crops are grown during this period.

14. State any two reasons for the success of rabi crops in wheat producing areas.
i. Availability of precipitation during winter months due to western temperate cyclones helps the
growth of these crops.
ii. The success of Green Revolution in Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of
Rajasthan helped a lot in the growth of rabi crops.

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15. Why is the extension of green revolution necessary in India?
( Growing population and declining trend of food production- for food security- For making use
of abundant natural gas to manufacture fertilizers- to have a favourable land use pattern and to
increase the net sown area) .(Explain points)

16. Name an important staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced. Or
Describe the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of rice. Name
the major areas of rice production. Or What are the features of rice cultivation in

Rice is the most important staple crop in India. It is a tropical plant. It requires high temperature
and high humidity for its successful growth. The mean monthly temperature of about 25°C, with
minor variations during, sowing, growing and harvesting seasons, is ideal for its cultivation.
It grows well in areas of 100 cm of rainfall. In the areas of less rainfall, it is grown with the help
of irrigation. The most important rice producing areas are Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Andhra
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu ( BUPAT)

17. Into how many heads can we group the varieties of crops conveniently?
(Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre crops, beverage crops and cash crops. (Give examples.)

18. Describe the temperature and rainfall conditions necessary for the growth of wheat. Name
the major areas of wheat production.
India is the second largest producer of wheat after China. It is a rabi crop.
The ideal temperature at the time of sowing wheat is 10 to 15° C and at the time of harvest, it is
20 to 25° C.
The crop grows well in areas where rainfall is 50 to 75 cm. It requires well-drained fertile lands.
This crop requires cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It grows
well in two wheat growing zones in India viz. the Ganga Satluj plains in the north-west and the
black soil region in the Deccan.
The major areas of wheat cultivation is Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar.

19. What are millets? Why are millets a very important food crop in India?
a) Millets are the third most important food crops in India, after rice and wheat.
Jowar, bajra and ragi are some of the important millets grown in India. They have high
nutritional value. Ragi is rich in iron, calcium and other micro nutrients.
b) Jowar is produced in many states like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil
Nadu and Madhya Pradesh.
c) Rajasthan is the largest producer of Bajra. It is also produced in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Gujarat and Haryana.
d) Ragi is produced mainly in the drier parts of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
e) Rice and Wheat cannot provide the total food of India. So millets are important to support
the food requirements.

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20. State the importance of ragi crop in India.
i. It belongs to the millet group. Rice and Wheat cannot provide the total food for India.
Therefore, millets are important to support the food requirements.
ii. Ragi has a high nutritional value. Ragi is rich in iron, calcium and other micronutrients.
iii. It is a crop of dry region and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy, and shallow black soils.
iv. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu.

21. Describe the characteristics of maize and its cultivation.

(a) Maize is a coarse grain and used as both food and fodder.
(b) It is grown under varied soil and climatic conditions.
(c) It grows well in areas of 50 to 100cm of rain and in areas of less rain it is grown under
(d) It grows well under temperature between 21 and 27°C and grows well in old alluvial soil.
(e) It requires well-drained fertile soil.
(f) It is cultivated mainly as a kharif crop.
(g) Major maize producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and
Andhra Pradesh(KUMBA)

22. Describe the importance of pulses as a food crop and its cultivation. State any two important
pulses and mention the states producing it.
(a) Pulses are the major sources of protein in a vegetarian diet.
(b) These are grown all over the country except the areas of heavy rainfall.
(c) Pulses like Tur, Arhar and Urad are kharif crops and Moong and Masur, Peas and Gram
are rabi crops.
(d) Plants of pulses help in restoring fertility of the soil and hence they are grown in rotation
with other crops.
(e) Two important pulses are Gram and Tur. Gram is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh and Rajasthan(MUR) and Tur is produced in Maharashtra, UttarPradesh, Karnataka,
Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh(MUKAM).

23. What is the importance of oil seeds in India? Describe any one and its distribution.
(a) Oil seeds are used to make vegetable oil, which is an important item of Indian food.
(b) Oil cake, the residue after oil is extracted from the seeds, is an important cattle feed.
(c) India is the largest producer of oil seeds in the world.
The major oil seeds are the following:
(a) Groundnut: It accounts for about half of the major oil seeds produced in the country.
It is a kharif crop.Its major producers are Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
and Maharashtra.(TG.KAM).
The other oil seeds are Sesamum, Rapeseed and Mustard seed and Lin seed:

24. Name an important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its
Tea is an important beverage crop in India.
(1) Tea cultivation in India is a classic example of plantation agriculture. It is a tropical as well
as a sub-tropical plant.

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(2)Tea grows well in deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
(3) It requires warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
(4) It is a labour intensive crop and requires cheap and skilled labour.
(5)The ideal temperature for its growth is 20 to 30°C and annual rainfall of 150 to 300 cm.
(6) High humidity is good for the rapid development of tender leaves.
Major tea producing states are Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

25. What is the importance of rubber production as a cash crop?

(1) Rubber is produced from the latex of a number of different species of rubber tree.
(2) It is used for manufacture of a number of industrial products like tyres and tubes.
(3)India is the fifth major rubber producing country in the world.
(4) About 97% of the country’s demand for natural rubber is met from domestic production.
(5) The tree requires moist and humid climate with rainfall more than 200cm. and temperature
above 25°C.
(6) Kerala produces about nine-tenth of the total production of rubber. The other rubber
producing states are Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Assam and Tripura.
( Write the temperature and rainfall conditions required for rubber cultivation. Explain point 5)
26. Which are the important fibre crops in India. Mention the major producing areas of any two
i) Cotton, Jute, Silk and Wool are the important fibre crops of India. Cotton is grown in
tropical and sub-tropical areas.
ii) It requires at least 210 frost-free days. It is grown well in black and alluvial soils.
iii) It requires 6 to 8 months to mature and it is a kharif crop. It requires a lot of cheap and
efficient labour at the time of plucking of cotton balls. At the time of harvest, the weather
should be fine to maintain the luster of cotton.
iv) The main cotton producing states are Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and
) Jute is a crop of hot and humid climate. The crop takes 8 to 10 months to mature.
) The fibre is obtained from the retting of the plant.
c) It is used in making bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artifacts.
d) It is produced in Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, and Meghalaya.

27. How have the technological and institutional reforms been able to improve the conditions of
Indian agriculture? Explain with suitable examples.

Technological Reforms.
a) Modern machineries are used in agriculture for ploughing, sowing, harvesting and
b) Indian farmers have started to use chemical fertilizers on a large scale.
c) High Yielding Varieties and early maturing quality seeds have been introduced to
increase the agricultural production.
d) Irrigation facilities have improved with the constructions of canals and the
introduction of motor pumps, drip irrigation and use of sprinklers.
Institutional Reforms. ( Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the
Government in the interest of farmers.

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a) The govt. abolished the Zamindari system to protect the interest of the farmers.
b) The Govt. encouraged the consolidation of smallholdings of land to make them more
c) The widespread use of radio and television acquainted farmers in new and improved
techniques of cultivation.
d) The crop insurance against drought, flood, fire, cyclone and diseases was another set up to
protect the farmers in new and improved techniques of cultivation.
e) Easy availability of capital or investment, through a well-knit network of rural banking like
‘Grammen banks’ was introduced.
f) Special bulletins for farmers were introduced in T.V. and radios to take precautionary
g) Minimum support price for various crops is introduced to remove uncertainty of
prices and sales.
h) Issue of Kissan Credit Cards and introduction of Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are
some other measures taken.

28. Suggest the initiative taken by the Government to ensure the increase in the agricultural
i. The Government of India started a number of agricultural reforms to improve Indian
agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s. The Green revolution based on the use of package technology
and the White Revolution were some of the strategies adopted.
ii. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Agricultural Universities, Veterinary services,
Horticulture Department, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast
were given priority to modernize agriculture and to improve it.
iii. Comprehensive land development programmes, which included the institutional and
technological reforms, were introduced in 1980s and 1990s.
iv. ( add relevant points from answer 27 )

29. The land under cultivation has been reduced day by day. What are its consequences?
i. It affects the food security in India. There will be acute shortage of food grains in
India since the population is increasing.
ii. A major part of our foreign exchange will have to be spent for importing food grains.
iii. Majority of the population in India will have to find alternate occupation since
agricultural activity is declining.
iv. It affects the dependent cattle population in India and even affects the ecological
30. Explain any four features of the comprehensive land development programmes
initiated in our country during 1980s and 1990s.
i. Comprehensive land development programmes, which included the institutional and
technological reforms, were introduced in 1980s and 1990s.
ii. The widespread use of radio and television acquainted farmers with new and improved
techniques of cultivation.
iii. The crop insurance against drought, flood, fire, cyclone and diseases was another schemes to
protect the farmers against crop failures.
iv. Easy availability of capital or investment through a well-knit network of rural banking like
‘Grammen banks’ were introduced.

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v. Special bulletins for farmers were introduced in T.V. and radios to make precautionary
measures and to get the farmers acquainted with modern techniques of farming.
vi. Issue of Kissan Credit Cards and introduction of Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are
some other measures taken.
vii. The government also announced minimum support price for important crops to check the
exploitation of farmers by speculators and intermediaries. (any four)

32. Name a commercial crop of Punjab and Haryana, which is a subsistence crop in
Ans: Rice

33. Name any two types of paddy grown in Assam, West Bengal and Orissa.
Ans: Aus, Aman and Boro.

34. Name the inputs in commercial farming.

(HYV seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, irrigation, modern technology)

35. What are the challenges faced by India farmers today?

i. Today Indian Farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and our
government is going ahead with reduction in public investment in agriculture sector
particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanization.
ii. Subsidy on fertilizers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
iii. More over reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to
agriculture in the country.
iv. Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the
employment in agriculture.

36. Why is the declining share of agriculture in the GDP a matter of serious concern?
Because any decline and stagnation in agriculture will lead to a decline in other spheres of
the economy having wider implications for society.

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1. What are minerals? What is its importance?

i) Minerals are natural chemical compounds uniform in composition and structure and are
constituents of rocks and ores.
ii) These are homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
iii) These are formed through various geological processes taking place in the earth.
iv) Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the hardest
diamond to the softest talc.
iii) Minerals are one of the most important resources of a country. It provides sound base for
economic and industrial development.
a) Minerals are indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything that we use, from a
tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals.
b) The railway lines and the pavements of the roads, our implements and machinery too
are made of minerals.
c) Cars , buses, trains, aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power
resources derived from the earth.
d) Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In the stages of development, human
beings use minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivals and religious and ceremonial rites.
2. What are the properties of minerals?
i. Minerals are in wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density,
because, these are formed from, a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical
and chemical conditions under which the material forms.
ii. Minerals are naturally found in solid, liquid and gaseous states ranging from the
hardest diamond to the softest talc. (any other points from answer 1)
3. What are the different types of formations of minerals? OR Where do different forms
of minerals generally occur?
i. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or
joints. The smaller occurrences are called VEINS and the larger are called LODES. They are

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formed when minerals in molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards
the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.
ii. In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been
formed as a result of deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal and
some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of great pressure for a long period.
Another group of sedimentary minerals is gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt. These are formed
as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.
iii. Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rock, and the
removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores.
Bauxite is formed this way.
iv. Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the
base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals which
are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such
v. The ocean water contains vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too
widely diffused to be of economic significance. However, common salt, magnesium and
bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds too are rich in manganese
4. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks? (Ans. Point i above)
5. Describe the diversity in the distribution of mineral resources in India. State an
important reason for this diversity.
i. The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and
many other non metallic minerals.
ii. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern sides of the peninsula in Gujarat and
Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
iii. Rajasthan has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
iv. These variations exist because of the difference in the geological structure, processes
and time involved in the formation of minerals.
6. Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
i. Ferrous metals are those metals, which have iron content in it where as non-ferrous
metals do not have iron content in it.
ii. Normally ferrous metals are available in plenty whereas non ferrous metals are
available in limited quantity.
iii. Iron ore, manganese ore, chromate, pyrite, tungsten, nickel, and cobalt are some
examples of ferrous metals. Copper , bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold are examples of non ferrous
iv. Ferrous minerals provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical
industries. Non ferrous minerals play an important role in a number of metallurgical, engineering
and electrical industries.
7. Which are the important iron ore belts in India?

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i. Orissa Jharkhand belt: High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the
Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa. It is found in Gua and Noamundi mines of
Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand too.
ii. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhatisgarh: Very high-grade hematite is found in
the Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhatisgarh. It is found in Durg and
Dantewara districts of Chhatisgarh.
iii. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka: It has the largest reserves
of iron ore. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are known to be
one of the largest in the world.
iv. Maharashtra –Goa belt: The iron ore of the North Goa district of Goa and Ratnagiri
district of Maharashtra are not of high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited.
8. Differentiate between magnetite and hematite.
These are the two important types of iron ores. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a
very high content of iron up to 70 %. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is valuable
in the electrical industry. Hematite is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of
quantity used. It has a lower content of iron from 50 to 60 %.
9. What are the uses of manganese as a mineral? Name any two states producing
manganese ores.
i. Manganese is used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. It is also
used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides, and paints.
ii. Orissa is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. It accounted for one-third of
the country’s production in 2001.
10. State any two uses of copper. Name the states where it is produced.
i. Copper is used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
ii. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 52 % of copper .Copper is produced
in Singbhum district of Jharkhand and Khetri mines in Rajasthan.
11. What are the advantages of bauxite as a metal ore? Where is it found?
i. Bauxite is the ore from which aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is a light
metal used in manufacture of airplanes, utensils and other household goods.
ii. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals
like iron with extreme lightness and with good conductivity and malleability.
iii. Orissa is the largest bauxite producing state with 45 % of the country’s total
production in 2001. Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the important bauxite
producing centre in Orissa.
12. What are the properties of mica as a mineral? What are its uses? Where is it found?
i. Mica is made up of a series of thin plates or leaves.
ii. Mica has insulating properties and has the quality to withstand high voltage and
temperature. Hence it is used in electrical and electronic industries
iii. It is clear, black, green, red yellow or brown.

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iv. Mica is found in northern edge of Chotanagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh
belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore in
Andhra Pradesh are the other areas, producing mica.
13. Name an important rock mineral. What are its uses? Where is it found?
Limestone is an important rock mineral. It is found in association with rocks composed of
calcium carbonates or calcium or magnesium carbonates. It is found in sedimentary rocks of
most geological formations. It is used as a raw material in cement industry . It is used in the
blast furnace in the smelting of iron ore. It is produced in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
14. Why is conservation of minerals necessary? Suggest a few measures to conserve
i. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is only one per cent of the earth crust.
We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that requires millions of years to be created and
concentrated. The rate of replenishment is very slow but the rate of consumption is very fast. So
conservation is necessary.
ii. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. Rich mineral deposits are short-lived
possessions. So conservation is necessary.
iii. Continued extraction of minerals leads to increasing costs as it comes from greater
depths along with decrease in quality. Therefore, we have to conserve it.
a) A concerted effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned
and sustainable manner.
b) Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low-grade ores at
low costs.
c) Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving it
for future.
15. What is the significance of energy resources?
Energy is an indispensable requirement in modern life. It may be manual or animal and
mechanical or electrical. Availability of energy is a pre-requisite of modern economic
activities. Economic development of a country depends on the energy sources available in
a country. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to run vehicles and to drive
machineries in industries.
16. How are the sources of energy categorized?
The sources of energy are classified into two:
(a) Conventional source of energy:
These are the sources of energy, which have been in use for a long time. Coal
Petroleum, natural gas, and thermal and hydro electricity are conventional sources of
energy. These are non-renewable sources of energy.
(b) Non-conventional source of energy:
These are the new sources of energy developed recently. Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal,
biogas and atomic energy are non-conventional source of energy. These are renewable
sources of energy.

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17. Name the two common sources of energy in rural areas. Why is its use discouraged?
Firewood and cattle dung are the common sources of energy in rural areas. About 70 % of
energy requirements in rural areas is met by these two.
Since forest area is decreasing, the use of firewood is discouraged to prevent further
decreasing of forests. The use of cattle dung is discouraged because it consumes most
valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.

18. How is coal formed? What is its use?

a) Coal is formed due to the compression of plant material over millions of years. It is found
in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression, depth, and time of burial. It
is found in sedimentary rocks beneath the earth’s surface.
b) Coal is the main source of power in India. It is used for power generation, to supply
energy to industries as well as domestic needs.
c) It is also used as a raw material in chemical industries. It is used in Iron and steel
industries as a raw material to reduce its temper. Coal is so useful that it is called ‘black
19. What are the four different types of coal? (Black gold) Write its characteristics.
(a) Anthracite is the best quality coal. It is hard black and compact.
(b) Bituminous is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal
is the metallurgical coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
(c) Lignite is a low-grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content and is
used for generating electricity.
(d) Peat has low carbon and high moisture content and low heating capacity. It burns
like wood and gives more smoke and less heat.
20. Differentiate between peat and bituminous.
i. Peat has low carbon and high moisture content where as bituminous has high carbon and
low moisture content.
ii. Peat has low heating capacity. It burns like wood and gives more smoke and less heat
where as bituminous has high heating capacity, it gives more heat and less smoke.
iii. Peat is not widely used where as bituminous is the most popular coal for commercial use.
High grade bituminous coal is the metallurgical coal which has a special value for smelting
iron in blast furnaces.
21. Name the main rock series of geological ages where coal occurs in India. Or ( Name the
main rock series of coal found in India)
a. Gondwana coal, a little over 200 million years in age , is found in Damodar valley in
West Bengal and Jharkhand.
b. Tertiary coal, only about 55 million years old, is found in north-eastern states of
Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Nagaland.
22. State the importance of petroleum production in India. Where does it occur in the rock
i. Petroleum is the second major energy source after coal.
ii. It provides fuel for heating and lighting, lubricants for machineries and raw materials for a
number of manufacturing industries.
iii. Petroleum refineries act as a nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and a numerous
chemical industries.

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a) Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps
in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
b) In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the
up fold.
c) The oil-bearing layer is a porous limestone or sand stone through which oil may
flow. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers.

23. Describe the distribution of petroleum in India.

i. About 63 % of India’s petroleum production is in Mumbai High off shore in Maharashtra.
ii. About 18 % is from Gujarat . The most important oil field in Gujarat is Ankeleshwar.
iii. About 16 % is from Assam. It is the oldest oil producing state in India. Digboi,
Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in Assam.
24. What are the advantages of petroleum as a fuel?
a) Petroleum oil emits very little smoke compared to coal.
b) It does not leave any ash or residue.
c) It can be used up to the last drop.
d) It has low ignition point and catches fire easily
25. Why is natural gas considered as the fuel for the present century? ( environmentally fuel)
Where are the natural gas reserves located in India?
i. Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or with out
ii. It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in petrochemical
ii. It is an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions, hence it is
considered as the fuel for the present century.
Natural gas reserves are found in Krishna Godavari basin. It is found in Mumbai High and
Gulf of Cambay. Andaman and Nicobar islands have large deposits of natural gas.
26. What are the two main ways by which electricity is generated?
i. Hydro electricity:
Hydro electricity is produced by running water, which drives hydro turbines. Water is
released at a great force from a high place on water wheel and turbine, which is connected
to a powerful generator. Thus, electricity is produced. For this purpose, dams are
constructed across rivers to store water.
ii. Thermal electricity:
Thermal electricity is generated by burning coal, petroleum or natural gas. The steam
produced by burning coal is used to operate turbines and generators. Nowadays diesel,
petrol, or natural gas also used to generate electricity. Diesel engine is connected to
generators so steam is not required.
27. How is nuclear energy produced? Where are the nuclear power plants located in India?
i. Nuclear electricity is produced by altering the structure of atoms. When such an alteration is
made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this heat is used in the generation of electric
ii. Uranium and thorium are used to generate atomic power.

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iii. There are six nuclear power plants in India. They are, Tarapur in Maharashtra, Kalpakkam
in Tamil Nadu, Rawatbhata near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in Uttar Pradesh, Kakrapara in Gujarat
and Kaiga in Karnataka.
iv. The gross electricity produced by nuclear power is 2720 MW per year, which is less than
4% of the total production of electricity.

28. What is solar energy? Why do you think solar energy has a bright future in India?
Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight into electricity. It is solar energy. It can be used for
cooking, pumping, and heating of water, refrigeration and street lighting. Solar energy has a
bright future in India because of the following:
a) India is a tropical country and ample sunshine is available. It has the potential to generate 20
MW electricity per sq. Km.
b) At present 70% of our energy requirement comes from thermal power and the fuel used like
coal and petroleum are non-renewable resources, which are going to exhaust soon. So solar
energy has a bright future.
c) More over it is pollution free, eco friendly, renewable, and abundant.
The largest solar plant in India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj in Gujarat and is used to
sterilize milk cans.
29. What are the advantages of solar energy?
i. It is a renewable source of energy and it will not be exhausted.
ii. It is pollution free and eco friendly.
iii. Use of solar energy will minimize the dependence of rural house holds on fire wood or
dung cakes, which in turn will contribute adequate supply of manure in agriculture.
30. Distinguish between natural gas and biogas.
1) Natural gas is found associated with or without petroleum. It is naturally made. Bio-gas is
man made by decomposition of organic matters. Shrubs, farm wastes, animal and human wastes are
used to produce bio-gas.
2) Bio-gas has more thermal efficiency than Kerosene and charcoal. However, it has lower
thermal efficiency compared to natural gas.
3) Natural gas is a commercial energy where as bio-gas is used for domestic purposes.
4) Biogas ( Gobar gas) has a twin advantage of getting energy as well as improved quality of
manure. ( What are the advantages of bio gas?)
31. How is tidal energy generated?
Oceanic tides are used to generate electricity. Floodgate dams are built across inlets.
During high tide water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. After the
tide falls out side the floodgate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea through
a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine. A 900 mw. tidal power plant is set up in
Gulf of Kuchchh by the National Hydro Power Corporation.
32. How is geo thermal energy produced?
It is produced by using the heat of the interior of the earth. The earth grows progressively
hotter with increasing depth. High temperature is found even in shallow depth where geothermal
gradient is high. Ground water in such areas absorbs the heat from the rocks and becomes hot. It
turns into steam when it rises to the surface. This steam is used to drive turbines to generate
electricity. Two experiment projects have been set up in India in the Parvati valley near
Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other in the Puga Valley at Ladakh.
33. Suggest a few measures to conserve energy resources.

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(1) Use more and more public transport system and less of individual vehicles,
(2) Switch off electricity when not required,
(3) Use power saving devices,
(4) Check the power equipments regularly,
(5) Emphasis on greater use of non-conventional sources of energy are some measures to
conserve energy resources.
34. India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources. Explain.
i. Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many
other non metallic minerals.

ii. Sedimentary rocks on western and eastern flanks of the peninsula in Gujarat and Assam
have most of the petroleum deposits.
iii. Rajasthan with the rock system of the peninsula has the reserves of many non-ferrous
iv. The vast alluvial plains of north India is devoid of economic minerals.

Additional Questions:
1. Why is mining called a killer industry?
Mining causes health hazard to people working and environment due to dust and
poisonous fumes. Accidents are common in mines like inundation, fire, collapse of mine roof
2. Name any two minerals obtained from veins and lodes. ( Tin, Copper, Zinc, Lead)
3. What are placer deposits?
Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.
These are called placer deposits.
4. Name any two minerals obtained from ocean waters.
Common salt, Magnesium, Bromine
5. Name the iron ore which has magnetic properties. ( Magnetite)
6. Suggest any two measures to prevent mining from becoming a killer industry.
Follow safety regulations strictly.
Implement environmental laws effectively.
7. State any two factors affecting the economic viabilities of mineral reserves.
Concentration of mineral in the ore, the ease of extraction and closeness to the market play an
important role in affecting the economic viabilities of mineral reserves.
8. Which is the nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and chemical industries?
Petroleum refineries.
9. Where is the largest wind farm cluster located in India?
In Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.
10. Where is the largest solar plant located in India? At Madhapur near Bhuj in Gujarat.
11. Name the two experimental projects set up to harness geothermal energy.
. Parvati valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh ii) Puga valley at Ladakh.
12. Name the most popular coal in commercial use.( Bituminous coal)
13. Which is the hardest and softest mineral? Hardest- Diamond- : Softest- Talc
14. What is rat hole mining? It is a long narrow tunnel dug to extract minerals. It is a type of
mining owned by communities in North Eastern states.
15. Name any two minerals formed as a result of evaporation.

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(Gypsum, Potash salt, Sodium salt.)


1. What is manufacturing? What is the importance of manufacturing? Or Why is

manufacturing considered the backbone of economic development of the country?
(i) Production of goods in large number by using machines is called manufacturing.
(ii) Raw materials are converted into usable goods in this process.
(iii) We manufacture cloth from cotton, sugar from sugarcane, paper from wood etc.
The importance of manufacturing is the following:
(i) Industries play an important role in the economy of a country. The economic strength of
a country is judged by the development of manufacturing industries.
(ii) Industries provide employment opportunities and reduce poverty in India. Thus, solve
unemployment problem. It helps reduce dependence of people on agriculture and provide them job
in secondary and tertiary activities..
(iii) Industries bring foreign exchange. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and
commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
(iv) It provides tools and implements for agriculture.
(v) It brings down regional differences by establishing industries to tribal and backward
2. How are industries and agriculture complimentary to each other?
i. The industries in India have given a boost to agriculture by raising its productivity. It
supplies irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, machines and tools, and pipes to
farmers, thus increases its efficiency.
ii. Agriculture provides raw materials to agro based industries. It provides jute for jute
industries, cotton for cotton textile industries, and sugar cane for sugar industries.

3. Examine the growth rate of industries in the past few decades.

i. In the last two decades the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated to 17 % of the
Gross Domestic Product whereas in some other East Asian countries it was 25 to 35 %.
ii. The growth rate of industries in the last decade was 7 % per year. The desired growth
rate in the next decade is 12 %.
iii. Since 2003, the industrial growth rate has increased to 9 to 10 % per year.
4. Name the physical and human factors that affect location of industries. Or Explain any
four factors which influence the industrial location.
i. Availability of raw materials, power resources, water facilities, and favourable climatic
condition are the physical factors that affect the location of industries.

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ii. The human factors that control the location of industries are labourers, transport facilities,
market, capital, banking facilities and government policies.
iii. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the
urban centres known as agglomeration economies.
iv. Least cost of production, Government policies and availability of specialized labour
also influence location of industries.
5. On what bases are industries classified?
Industries are classified on the following basis:
(i) Number of labourers employed or on the bases of capital investment - large scale or
small scale industries.
(ii) Source of raw material used- agro based or mineral based industries.
(iii) Nature or type of raw material used. Or based on the bulk and weight of raw material and
finished goods- light or heavy industries.
(iv) Ownership of industries- public, private, joint, or co-operative industries
(v) According to their main role in the economy – basic industries or consumer industries.
6. How are industries classified based on ownership?
Based on owner ship, industries are classified as the following:
(a) Private companies: It is completely owned and controlled by private individuals. e.g.
Bajaj Auto, Tata Iron & Steel Company, Maruti Udyog Ltd., Bata Shoe Company (BSC),
Bombay Dyeing, Mahindra & Mahindra etc.
(b) Public sector industries: These are owned and controlled by the government. e.g.
Bhilai Steel Plant, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited(BHEL) , H.M.T (Hindusthan Machine
Tools) , Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) etc. .
(c) Joint sector industries: These are owned and controlled by both government and
private individuals jointly on a share basis. e.g. Oil India Ltd.
(d) Co-operative sector industries: These are owned collectively by people on voluntary
membership. Democratic set up, service motive, and equality of opportunity are its features.
e.g. Milk marketing federations and sugar industries are normally under co- operative sector.
7. How are industries classified based on capital investment?
(i) Industries are classified into small scale and large scale industries based on the capital
(ii) Large-scale industries employ large number of labourers where as small-scale industry
employ a small number of people.
(iii) Large-scale industries produce both capital goods and consumer goods. But small-scale
industries generally produce consumer goods only.
(iv) Latest machines, tools and equipments and huge capital are used in large-scale industries
where as in small-scale industries small capital less than one crore and simple machines
are used.
(v) Manufacturing of cotton textiles is a large-scale industry and preparation of Gur and
Khandsari is a small-scale industry.
8. Differentiate between heavy and light industries.
(i) Heavy industries are those in which raw materials used and the finished products are
heavy and spacious where as in light industries raw materials and finished products are
light in weight.
(ii) Normally women labourers are not employed in heavy industries where as they are
employed in light industries.

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(iii) Iron and Steel Industry, Heavy Machines Industry and Cement Industry are heavy
industries. Textile Industry, Telephone Industry, and Ceiling Fan Industry etc. are light
9. Differentiate between ago based and mineral-based industries.
Agro based industries are those industries in which agricultural products are used as raw
materials. e.g. cotton, jute, silk, sugarcane and vegetable oil industries are agro-based
industries where as Mineral-based industries are those industries in which minerals are used
as raw materials. Iron and Steel, Cement and Chemical industries are mineral-based

10. How are industries classified according to their main role in economy?
i. Basic or key Industries: These industries provide basic materials for other industries like
iron and steel, copper smelting and aluminium smelting.
ii. Consumer industries: These industries produce goods for direct use by consumers. E.g.
sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machine, fans etc.
11. Describe the importance of textile industries in India. ‘The textile industry occupies a
unique position in the Indian industry’ .Explain.
i. It contributes 14 % of the total industrial production.
ii. It provides employment to 35 million people directly and it is the second largest
after agriculture.
iii. It earns 24.6 % of foreign exchange. It contributes 4% of the GDP.
iv. It is the only industry in India, which is self-reliant and complete in value chain
from raw material to the highest value added products. (any two)
12. Describe the importance of cotton textile industries in India? Where is it distributed?
(a) It is the largest industry in India. It gives employment to over 1.5 million people,
which is about 20% of the industrial labour force in India.
(b) There are about 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country, of this
79% are in the private sector, the rest in the public and co- operative sectors.
(c) This industry support many other industries like chemical and dyes, packing material
and engineering works.
(a) There are about 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country, of this
80% are in the private sector, the rest in the public and co- operative sectors.
(b) Cotton textile industries are spread over 80 towns and cities in India, but most of them
are concentrated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu.
(c) While spinning continued to be concentrated in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu
weaving is in decentralized sector.
13. State any two factors contributed towards the localization of cotton textile mills in India.
Examine some of the problems faced by the cotton textile industries today.
(a) Wide demand or market and it is one of the traditional occupation.
(b) Better transport facilities including accessible port facilities,
(c) Adequate banking facilities and moist climate,

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(d) Availability of raw cotton, electricity, labour and capital contributed towards the
localization of cotton textile industries in India
(d) There are about 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country, of this
80% are in the private sector, the rest in the public and co- operative sectors.
Problems faced by the cotton textile industries:
(a) Scarcity of good quality of cotton,
(b) Obsolete machinery,
(c) Erratic powers supply,
(d) Low productivity of labour and
(e) Stiff competitions with synthetic fibre industry are the problems faced by the cotton
textile industries in India.
14. Why are the jute textile mills concentrated along the Hughli River? Explain by giving
four examples. What are the challenges facing jute industry in India?
(a) Jute producing areas are located at the bank of the river Hughli and the textile mills
should be closer to the producing areas.
(b) Hughli River is used for inexpensive transportation supported by a good network of
railways and roadways to help movement of raw materials and finished products.
(c) Jute mills required a lot of water for processing jute. It is available here.
(d) Cheap labor is available in West Bengal and the neighbouring states of Bihar, Orissa and
Uttar Pradesh.
(e) Banking facilities are adequate.
(f) Port facility and banking facilities are also available in West Bengal.
Challenges of jute industries:
(a) Demand for jute carpets and packing materials declined in the international market.
(b) Cost of production has increased.
(c) Stiff competition in international markets especially from Bangladesh, Brazil,
Philippines, Egypt and Thailand reduced over all demand for Indian jute products.
(d) Synthetic substitutes also posing threat to jute industry.
15. What are the steps taken by the Government to protect jute industry in India? or
What is the new trend in the demand for jute products?
i. The National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity,
improving quality, ensuring good prices to jute farmers, and enhancing the yield per hectare.
ii. The internal market has been increasing due to the Government policy of compulsory use of
jute packaging and to prevent the use of polymers or polythene bags.
iii. The growing global concern for environment friendly, biodegradable materials has once
again opened the opportunity for jute products.
16. Why are sugar industries located near to sugarcane producing areas? Why are sugar
industries migrating to South India? Name the sugar producing states in India.

Sugar industries are based on sugarcane as the raw material, which is very heavy. So industries
are close to its producing areas.
More over sugarcane is a perishable and weight losing products. It should be processed
without delay to prevent losing of sugar content. Therefore, industries are located very
close to its producing areas.
Sugar industries are migrating to South India due to the following reasons:

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i. The sugar content in the sugarcane in south India is more than that of north India. So it is
more profitable there.
ii. The cooler climate in this region ensures a longer crushing season.
iii. The co operative societies are more successful in south India.
iv. Sugarcane requires a lot of water for its processing. It is available in south India.
v. Sugar industry is a labour intensive industry it requires a lot of cheap labour, which is
available in south India. Hence, sugar industry is migrating to south India.
(a) There are over 460 sugar mills in the country. About 60% of them are located in Uttar
Pradesh and Bihar. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh Gujarat, Punjab,
Haryana, and Madhya Pradesh also produce sugar.

17. Why are iron and steel plants located in the north eastern and southern part of Indian
Peninsula? Or What are the relative advantage of the Chotanagpur plateau for the
development of iron and steel industry?
Iron and steel industry requires low cost iron ore, high-grade coal, limestone and manganese
ore as raw materials. It also demands cheap labour and wide market. These are available in
the north eastern and southern part of Indian peninsula.
Since raw materials and finished products are heavy good transport system is required for its
distribution. These areas have inland waterways and good network of roads.
Except Vishakapatanam steel plants, all steel plants are located to in the mineral rich
northeastern and southern part of Indian peninsula.
These industries make use of sea ports of the Indian peninsula like, Haldia, Paradip,
Vishakapatnam, Chennai etc.
( Where should the steel plants be ideally located ? Select points from the above answer)
18. State any two reasons for the low productivity of iron and steel in India. Or Why are we
not able to perform to our full potential though India is an important iron and steel
producing country?
a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal,
b) Lower productivity of labour,
c) Irregular supply of energy,
d) Poor infrastructure. (Explain points)
19. How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problem does the
industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
i. Mini steel plants are smaller and have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron.
ii. They have re-rollers that use steel ingot as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of
given specifications.
iii. An integral steel plant is large and handles everything related to smelting of iron. Raw
materials are converted in to iron . Rolling and shaping is done here and steel bars are made.
iv. Coal is used as a major source of fuel in integrated steel plants.
The problems faced by the iron and steel industries are the following:
a) High cost and limited availability of coking coal,
b) Lower productivity of labour,
c) Irregular supply of energy,
d) Poor infrastructure. (Explain points)
Recent developments:
i. We import good quality steel from other countries.

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ii. Liberalization and privatization has given a boost to this industry.
iii. Foreign Direct Investment increased in India, which helped to absorb new technology at
20. Why is aluminium smelting gaining popularity?
It is gaining popularity due to the following reasons:
i) It is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. Bauxite from which
aluminium is obtained is widely available in India. India has vast reserves of bauxite.
ii) Aluminium is used as a substitute to steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
iii) It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong
when mixed with other metals.
iv) It is used in manufacturing of airplanes, utensils, electrical wires and other equipments,
house fabrications etc. Hence its demand is increasing. India produces 620,000 tonnes of
aluminium per year.
iv) It is a cheap metal compared to copper, bronze and iron. For all these reasons aluminium
smelting is gaining popularity. (any two)
(Which is the second important metallurgical industry of India? Why is it
getting popularity? (Write the answer above)
21. State two prime factors that determine the location of Aluminium industry. Name the
states where aluminium plants are located.
a) Availability of regular supply of cheap electricity
b) Availability of bauxite. (Explain points)
The aluminium plants are located.in Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra and West Bengal (C.T. KUMB)
22. Name any two heavy organic and inorganic chemicals produced in India.. What is its use?
Where is it manufactured?
i. Petrochemicals are heavy organic chemicals, which is used for manufacturing of articles
like synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyestuff, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
The organic chemical industries are located near oil refineries and petro-chemical plants.
ii. Sulphuric acid is a heavy inorganic chemical, which is used for the manufacturing of
fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics, paints and dyestuffs.
Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, paper, soap and detergents. Other inorganic
chemicals are nitric acid and alkalis.

23. How has chemical industry gained an important position in the Indian economy?
Explain any six points in this regard.
i) Chemical industry is growing fast. Rapid growth has been recorded in both organic
and inorganic chemical industries.
ii) Petrochemicals are heavy organic chemicals, which is used for manufacturing of articles like
synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyestuff, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
iii) Sulphuric acid is a heavy inorganic chemical, which is used for the manufacturing of
fertilizers, synthetic fibres, plastics paints and dyestuffs.
i) Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, paper, soap and detergents. Other inorganic
chemicals are nitric acid and alkalis.
ii) Production of pesticides has contributed much to agriculture by controlling harmful insects
and weeds.

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iii) In the production of pharmaceuticals India leads in the developing countries. It contributes
14 % of production of entire manufacturing sector and its share in export is also 14%
24. Name the different varieties of fertilizers produced in India. Name the states where it is
i. Nitrogenous fertilizers like urea: India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous
fertilizers. There are 57 fertilizer industries in India producing nitrogenous and complex
nitrogenous fertilizers in which 29 industries produce urea.
iv. Phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate: There are 9 ammonium sulphate plants as
a by- product and 68 other small plants produce single super phosphate in India.
iii. Complex fertilizers, which have the combination of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash .
As a result of Green Revolution the demand for fertilizers increased thus the industry
spread to several parts of India.
Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala produce more than half of the
total fertilizer production in India.
25. Why is cement a raw material oriented industry? Where and when was the first cement
industry set up in India?
Manufacturing of cement requires heavy materials like limestone, silica. Alumina and
gypsum. Hence it is a raw material oriented industry.
The first cement plant was set up at Chennai in Tamil Nadu in 1904. There are 128 large
and over 332 mini cement industries in India at present.
26. State any two reasons for the rapid growth of cement industries in India.
i. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms by the government
helped its growth in India.
ii. Large demand of good quality cement produced in India by the countries of East Asia, Middle
East, Africa and South Asia apart from the domestic demand boosted this industry.
27. Write a short note on the automobile industry in India.
i. Trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three wheelers, and multi utility vehicles are
produced in India.
ii. This industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years. Foreign Direct
Investment brought new technology to India and aligned the industry with global developments.
iii. At present, there are 15 passenger car and multi utility vehicle industries, 9 commercial
vehicle industries and 14 two and three wheelers industries in India.
iv. The industries are located at Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkatta,
Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bangalore.

28. Describe about information technology and the electronics industries in India.
Products :
(1) India produces a wide range of electronics ranging from a small transistor set to
television sets.
(2) India produces telephone exchanges, cellular phones, pagers, computers and various
other equipments, which are used in various fields of life.
(1) This industry looks after the needs of defence equipments, railways, airways, space and
meteorological equipments.
(2) The IT industry provided employment to one million persons by March 2005 out of
which 30 % are women.

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(3) It has revolutionized the life of people and changed country's economy and the quality of
human life.
(4) The electronic goods bring a fair amount of foreign exchange to India.
29. Which is the electronic capital of India? Name the major electronics goods producing
centres in India.
(a) Bangalore is the electronic capital of India.
(b) Other electronic good producing centres are Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai,
Kolkata, Kanpur, Pune, Lucknow and Coimbatore.

30. How does industrial pollution degrade environment? OR How do manufacturing

industries contribute to polluting and environmental degradation?
Manufacturing industries are responsible for environmental degradation and pollution.
There are four types of pollution created by these industries.
(a) Air pollution: It is caused by the smoke or gases emitted by industries which
contain poisonous gases like carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. Air-borne particulate
materials consist of both solid and liquid particles. Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke
contain both types of particles. Air pollution affects human health, animals, plants, materials
and the atmosphere.
(b) Water pollution: The industrial effluents are discharged into rivers. They contain
both organic and inorganic materials. Coal, dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilizers, plastics and
rubber are the common pollutants of water. The principal industries, which create water
pollution are paper pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum, refining, tannery and electroplating.
Fly ash, phospo-gypsum and iron and steel stags are the major solid wastes in India.
Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal power plants
is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling
(c) Land and soil pollution: Industrial wastes containing toxic metal, glass, and
harmful chemicals pollute land and soil. Unscientific processing in many industries like
ceramic industry and cement industry create a lot of dust containing chemicals, settle down
the land which causes pollution. Industrial effluents even cause acid rain, which degrade the
(d) Noise pollution: Unwanted noise arise from industry and transport vehicles
create a lot of problems. The noise from mechanical saws and pneumatic drills is unbearable
and it may cause impairment of hearing (deafness)
31. Suggest a few measures to control environmental degradation and pollution that is caused
by industries. Or Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by
(a) There should be proper planning in the selection of industrial sites. It should not be in a
congested area.
(b) Equipments used in industries should be designed better to prevent smoke.
(c) Avoid using coal in industries and use of oil as fuel to prevent smoke.
(d) Equipments like inertial separators, fabric filters, smoke stags, electrostatic precipitators
and scrubbers should be used to control particulate matter in the air.
(e) Discharge the industrial effluents after proper treatment.
(f) Equipments or generators should be fitted with silencers.
32. Suggest a few measures for reducing industrial pollution of fresh water.

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(a) Minimizing the use of water for processing by re using and recycling it in two or more
successive stages.
(b) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.
(c) Treating of water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

33. How is the treatment of industrial liquids done? Name the three phases of treatment of
industrial wastes.
(1) Primary treatment: It is a mechanical process. It includes screening, grinding,
flocculation and sedimentation.
(2) Secondary treatment: It is a biological process. It involves use of biological methods.
(3) Tertiary treatment: It is combination of biological, chemical and physical processes. It
includes recycling of wastewater.
34. Distinguish between cotton textile and iron and steel industry.
i. Cotton textile is a light industry, since the raw material used and the finished products are
light where as iron and steel is a heavy industry.
ii. Cotton textile is an agro-based industry since the raw material used is an agricultural
product whereas iron and steel is a mineral-based industry.
iii. The former one is a consumer industry where as the latter is a basic industry.
iv. The cotton textile is a labour intensive industry where as iron and steel is a capital-intensive
v. Cotton textile is in decentralized sector where as iron and steel is in centralized sector.
35. Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay emphasize on spinning yarn and weaving khadi?
i) It supported millions of cotton textile workers and through this Gandhiji wanted to remove
their poverty.
ii) It was a powerful tool to protest against the British since he advocated boycotting foreign
36. Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than the power
loom and handloom?
i) Mill sector loomage should be kept lower to avoid competition to the handloom clothes.
ii) Development of mill sector will not help to solve the problems of millions of population since
they are in powerloom and hand loom sector. Development of mill sector helps only a few
capitalists where as millions of people are benefited by the development of powerloom and
hand loom.
37. Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as an index of a country’s
development. Why?
i. The strength of an economy will be depended on the strength of the basic industries. Iron
and steel is a basic industry. It supplies raw materials for manufacturing machineries and other
industries. Hence production and consumption of steel indicates the development of secondary
sector and tertiary sector.
ii. The profit margin in this industry will be much more than any other industry and it
contributes a major share in the GDP.
38. What are the mismatches of textile industry in India?
i) We have a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn, accounting for ¼ of the total trade.
However, our trade in garments is only 4 % of the world total.

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ii) Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fabrics
we produce. However, the weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the
high quality yarn that is produced in the country.
iii) There are some large and modern factories but most of the production is in fragmented
small units, which cater to the local needs.
39. How did the partition of the country in 1947 affect the jute industry?
i. Bengal was famous for jute production. It was partitioned into East and West Bengal in
1947 along with the partition of India.. East Bengal became part of Pakistan and later an
independent country called Bangladesh. Accordingly, we lost some of the major jute
industries like the one in Agarthala.
ii. Now one of the problems faced by jute industry in India is international competition
especially from Bangladesh.
Additional Questions:
1. Name two gases causing air pollution. Sulpher dioxide and carbon monoxide.
2. Name two industries causing water pollution: Tannery, textile industry, electroplating
3. With what objective was The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council ( NMCC)
To improve industrial productivity and achieve the targeted growth rate with appropriate policy
interventions by the government the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council ( NMCC)
was formed
4. What is the key to decision of the factory location? Least cost.
5. Where were the manufacturing units located in the pre-independence period in India?
These were located in places from the point of view of overseas trade such as Mumbai, Kolkatta
and Chennai.
6. Which is the only industry in India, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain?
Textile Industry.
7. State any two reasons for the success of the IT industry in India.
i) The continuing growth in the hardware and software is the key to the success of IT industry in
ii) This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner because of the Buisiness Processes
Outsourcing sector.
8. Mention any two solid wastes in India, which cause pollution. Fly ash, phospo-gypsum and
iron and steel stags

1. Why is cotton textile industries located in Maharashtra and Gujarat?

2. Why is iron and steel industries concentrated in Chotanagpur region?
3. Account for the fact that iron and steels industry is mainly in public sector in India.
4. Whys is jute industry declining in India? What measures would you suggest to improve it?
5. Why is there a growing concern for shifting industry from urban areas?
6. Compare and contrast cotton textile industries and jute textile industries in India.
7. Compare and contrast cotton textile and iron and steel industries in India.
8. In which sector does the Jamshedpur steel plant fall with reference to ownership? Why is it
located in Jamshedpur.
9. What is the importance of sugar industry? Explain the development of sugar industry in India
10. The jute industry in India has been passing through difficult times. Explain.

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11. Name any two iron and steel industries established with foreign collaboration in India.


1. Why is ‘transport and communication’ called the lifelines of an economy? Or Why is

transport a necessity? (Why is it considered a pre requisite for economic development? )

i. Transport helps in the movement of people goods and materials. It helps in the production and
distribution of goods and services.
ii. It is the basic arteries of an economy. It provides link between producers and consumers of
iii. The pace of development of a country depends on the production of goods and services as well
as their movement over space. (Continue…)
2. How are transport, communication and trade complementary to each other?
i. With the development of science and technology the area of influence of trade and transport
expanded far and wide.
ii. Today the world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast
moving transport.
iii. Transport has been able to achieve this with the help of equally developed communication

3. Name the four means of transportation covering the three domains.

(a) Roadways and railways are the means of transportation that covers land.
(b) Waterways through ships and boats cover water.
(c) Airways through planes and helicopters cover air.
(d) Pipelines cover both land and water.
4. What are the advantages of roads over railways? Or (How does road transport score over
railways?) What are the problems faced by the road transportation in India?

(a) Roads are important for transport of goods and passengers for short and medium distances.
(b) Road transport is relatively cheap and easy both in construction and maintenance.
(c) It can be constructed even in mountainous terrain where as railways are not possible in these
areas. Railways require levelled ground.
(d) Roads connect areas of production with market, factories with farms and provide door-to-door

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(e) Road transport is used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link
between railway stations, air port and seaports.
(f) For easy transportation of perishable goods, roads provide better service than the railways.
The problems faced by road transportation are the following:
(a) The road network in India is inadequate keeping in view of the number of passengers and
volume of traffic.
(b) About half of the roads in India are un-surfaced which becomes muddy during the
rainy season.
c) The National Highways are inadequate and highly congested in the cities and their
bridges and culverts are narrow.
(d ) The road side amenities like telephone ,books ,emergency health services and
police protection on the national highways are very poor and need improvement.

5. Name the different types of roads in India.

(a) Super Highways: ( Express ways) The Golden Quadrilateral connecting Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai, Kolkatta and Delhi is a six lane super highway. North South Corridor connecting Srinagar
and Kanyakumari and East West Corridor connecting Silcher in Assam and Porbandhar in Gujarat
are also super highways. Theses are maintained by the National Highway Authority of India.
(b) National Highways: These connect one state with another and are of national importance.
These are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department. There are about
52,000 Km of National Highways in India. e.g. N.H. 17, N.H..47 etc.
(c) State Highways: These roads are constructed and maintained by state Governments. It
connects state capital with district head quarters and with other important cities of the states. There
are about 1.3 lakh Km of state highways in India.
(d) The District Roads: These roads connect district headquarters with cities and other places of
the district. These roads are constructed and maintained by the District administration.
(e) Other Roads : Village roads connect villages with neighboring towns and cities. These roads
receive special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
(f) Border Roads: The border roads link the frontiers of the country. The border roads are
constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organization (BRO).
6. State the characteristics of the North –South Corridor.
a) It connects Srinagar in Jammu Kashmir and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu.
b) It is the longest express way in India.
c) It is a four to six lane road.
d) It is meant for fast movement of traffic.
e) Much roundabouts or junctions are not seen
f) Roads are not cut at right angles and no fear of vehicles crossing- accidents are less.
State the characteristics of Golden Quadrilateral OR East West corridor.
Write the connecting cities and add points c to f above.
7. What is road density?
The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as density of roads.
8. Why are the railways so important in India?
i. Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
Railways also make it possible to conduct a number of activities like business, sightseeing,
pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over long distances.

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ii. It binds the economic life of the country and as well as accelerate the development of industry
and agriculture. Thus it has been an integrating force for more than 150 years.
9. How do physiographic and economic factors influence the distribution pattern of Indian
railway network? Explain with suitable examples.
Physiographic factors:
(a) Railways require level land for its construction. It is not possible to construct a railway
line in the mountains terrains . Flood plains of Bihar and Assam and rugged topography of the
Himalayan region are not good for railway service.
(b) Sparsely populated areas like sandy deserts of Rajasthan are not good for railway network.
It requires high density of population for its growth.
(c) Northern plains of India have dense network of railway, because their vast level land , high
density of population and rich agricultural resources.

(d) Economic factors.

a) Rich agriculture ensures the development of railways for easy and cheap
transportation of agricultural goods.
b) Greater industrial activity is required in areas where development of railways is
expected. Movements of goods and passengers support the railways.
10. Why are Himalayan mountainous regions unfavourable for construction of railway network?
This region has high relief , sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
11. What are the problems faced by the Indian Railways?
i) Theft and damaging of railway property.
ii) Passengers pull chains unnecessarily, which causes late running of the trains.
iii) Passengers travel without proper tickets.
iv) Introduction of long route bus services and the resulted competition.
12. Name the railway zones with their Headquarters.
(a) Northern Railway- New Delhi
(b) Southern Railway- Chennai
(c) Eastern Railway- Kolkata
(d) Western Railway – Mumbai
(e) Central Railway -Mumbai
(f) North-Eastern Railway – Gorakhpur
(g) South Eastern Railway– Kolkata
(h) South Central Railway – Secundarabad
(i) North Eastern Frontier Railway- Maligoan (Guwahati)
(j) East Coast Rail way-Bhubaneshwar
(k) North Central Railway- Allahabad
(l) North Western Railway Jaipur
(m) South East Central Railway- Bilaspur
(n) South Western Railway –Hubli
(o) West Central Railway- Jabalpur
(p) East Central Railway-Hajipur
13. What are pipelines used for? Describe two important network of pipeline
transportation in India.
(a) In the past pipelines are used for transporting water to cities and industries.

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(b) Now pipelines are used also for transportation of crude oil, petroleum products and natural
gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and to big thermal power plants.
Solids also can be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
(c) Though initial cost of laying pipeline is high , the running and maintenance cost is very low.
It saves transshipment loses and delays.
(a) Assam to Kanpur : There is a pipeline transportation from oil fields in upper Assam
to Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad for the transportation of
petroleum. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia via Rajbandh to Maurigram and
Guwahati to Siliguri.
(b) HBJ pipeline ( HVJ) : It is a gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagadishpur in Uttar
Pradesh via Bijaipur(Vijaypur) in Madhya Pradesh . It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan,
Shahjahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh . It is also connected with Mumbai High
and South Bassein in Maharashtra.

14. What are the advantages of the pipeline transportation for petroleum and natural gas?
i. Pipeline transportation is fast, safe, clean and free from transshipment loss and delays.
ii. Maintenance cost is very less though initial expenditure will be higher.
15. State the importance of Kandla seaport.
It was the first port developed soon after the independence to ease the volume of trade on
Mumbai port.
It is a tidal port. It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of highly productive
granary and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
16. Name the two seaports developed to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port.
Jawaharlal Nehru seaport near Mumbai in Maharashtra. And Kandla seaport in Gujarat.
17. Name the oldest artificial ports of India. (Chennai)
18. Name the deepest landlocked port in India. (Vishakapatnam)
19. Why are inland waterways significant? Mention any four National Water ways.
(a) Waterways are the cheapest means of transport, most suitable for carrying heavy and
bulky goods.
(b) It is a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
(c) India has inland navigable waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out of these 3700 km
are navigable by mechanized boats.
(d) The Government has declared the following waterways as National Waterways.
(1) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia covering 1620 Km. (NW.1)
(2) The Brahmaputra river between Sadia and Dhubri covering 891 km. (NW. 2)
(3) The West Coast canal between Kollam and Kottayam in Kerala with 168 km.
(4) The Champakara canal with 14 km and the Udyogmandal canal with 22 km in
Kerala. (Total 205 Km in Kerala)
20. What are the advantages of airways? Write a short note on the airline services of India.

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(a) Airways are the fastest means of transport. It is used for long distance journeys and
international traffic.
(b) It is used in areas where construction of railways and roads are difficult like
mountain terrain, deserts and dense forests.
(c) Airways play a vital role in the event of natural and human made calamities like
floods, famines, earthquakes, epidemics and war.
Airline services of India
(a) Indian Airlines, Alliance Air and Air India are the important airlines in India
providing domestic and international services.
(b) Many private companies provide domestic service connecting major cities of India.
.e.g. Jet Airways and Sahara airlines.
(c) Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas
Commission in its off-shore operations and areas of difficult terrains
(d) Apart from two private scheduled airlines there are 38 companies holding non-
scheduled air taxi operators permit.

21. Why is air travel preferred in northeastern states?

i. Air transport is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
ii. It can travel very high terrains, vast deserts dense forests, and large oceanic stretches with
great ease where other modes of transportation are difficult.
iii. The northeastern part of India is marked with the presence of big rivers, frequent floods
dissected relief, rugged topography, dense forests and international frontiers. Other modes of
transportation is impossible especially at times of emergencies.

22. State the significance of seaports in India.

a] There are 12 major and 181 medium and minor sea ports in India of about 7500 Km long
coastline of India.
b] The major ports handle over 90% of India’s foreign trade.
c] These ports handle about 15,000 cargo vessels per year. 70% of the cargo handled at these
ports is for overseas trade.
d] Mumbai is the biggest port of India deals with the major part of our foreign trade. Hence we
call Mumbai the Gate Way of India.
23. Differentiate between personal and mass communication.
a) Personal communication is meant for communication between two individuals where as mass
communication is meant for several people at a time.
b) Telephone, letter, e-mail etc. are example of personal communication where as newspaper,
radio, television, cinema, website etc. are example of mass communication.
24. Write a short note on the telecom network in India.
a) India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia. It has about 32,000 telephone
exchanges in India.
b) Besides cities over two third of villages of India have already been covered with

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telephone facility.
c) A number of private companies have been entered recently in the area of telecommunications.
e.g. BPL, Airtel etc.
d) Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. is the national telecom network in India.
25. Why is the importance of telecom network increased in India?
i) It has revolutionized life of masses their quality of life and country’s economy along with the
processes of globalization..
ii) This industry looks after the needs of equipments for defense, railways, space and airways.
26. Describe the Indian postal network.
(a) Indian postal network is the largest in the world.
(b) Facilities like cards and envelopes are called first class mail and book packets,
registered newspapers and periodicals are called second-class mail.
(c) The first class mail is air lifted between stations, mail covering both land and
connected by air. It is faster than 2nd class mail.
(d) The second class mail is carried by surface mail covering land and water transport.
(e) For quick delivery of mails in cities and large towns, six mail channels have been
introduced recently. They are Rajdhani channel, Metro channel and Green channel, Business
channel, Bulk mail channel and Periodical channel
Differentiate between first class mail and second-class mail. Give examples.
(Write points c,d,e above)

27. Why do we consider international trade as economic barometer? What is meant by

favorable balance of trade? Discuss whether India’s foreign trade is favorable or not.
Barometer is an instrument used to measure the atmospheric pressure. Similarly, economic
development of a country can be measured by looking at its foreign trade especially its exports. If
the value of export is more than the value of imports, it is favourable balance of trade. It shows
economic prosperity.

(a) The difference between export and import is known as balance of trade. If the exports are
more than the imports it is known as favorable balance of trade.
(b) India’s foreign trade is unfavorable because our imports are more than exports.
28. Describe the volume of India’s foreign trade.
(a) India has trading relations with all the major trading blocks and all Geographical regions of the
(b) Most of the commodities exported from India are Agriculture and allied products
(2.53%) , ores and minerals (9.12%), gems and jewellery, which constitute 26.75 %
, chemical and allied products (24.45%), engineering goods (35.63%) and petroleum
products (86.12%) ( Figures incorrect- need to ratify)
(c) Commodities imported in India included petroleum and petroleum products with 41.87 %,
pearls and precious stones with 29.26%, inorganic chemicals 29.39 % coal , coke and
briquettes 94.17%, and machinery 12.56 % .

29. What are the advantages of tourism in India?

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a) Tourism promote national integration.
b) Helps in international understanding. c) Support local handicrafts.
d) Provide employment opportunities. e) Earns foreign exchange.

30. How does international trade contribute to the economic development of a country?
Explain two points.
i. As the resources are space bound no country can survive with out international trade. India
exchanges its surplus goods with those of other countries through international trade.
ii. International trade helps India in getting advanced technology from developed countries.
iii. It helps to increase the foreign exchange reserve and per capita income.
iv. International trade helps India to improve its production of manufactured goods which
ensures quality. ( Explain any two)

31 . Explain the importance of radio and television as effective means of mass

i) Radio is the cheapest means of communication. It covers more than 95 % of the
ii) There are 200 radio stations and 328 transmitters including the relay stations. So it
reaches all cities and villages.
iii) An illiterate person can’t read a news paper but he can listen to a radio even while at
work. A number of people can be communicated at a time by a single radio.
iv) It is a source of social education and entertainment in regional languages in various
categories. It reveals the ill effects of a number of social problems.
i) Television scores over radio since it gives a visual impact and a first hand
information through live telecast.
ii) Besides the national channel a number of private channels in different languages are
available through cable network or through dish antenna.
iii) Television covers 87% of the country and it is the largest network of the world.
iv) A wide range of programmes such as educational, entertainment, sports etc. are
covered in this media.

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