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SPILLWAYS

based on the various criteria

FEATURE

Main (or service) spillway

Auxiliary spillway

Emergency spillway

Service

SPILLWAY

This are designed for frequent use in conveying

both normal and flood releases from a reservoir to the

watercourse downstream from a dam without

significant damage to the dam or dike.

GATED SPILLWAY

Morning Glory

STEPPED SPILLWAY

top to bottom, Pineview

Dam, Utah; Monticello

Dam,

California;

and

Upper Stillwater Dam,

Auxillary

SPILLWAY

This are designed for infrequent use and

may sustain limited damage when used.

This are used in combination with service spillway

and sometimes also with flood outlets.

It is designed to function automatically

when required without aggravating downstream

floods.

GATED SERVICE

SPILLWAY

GATED AUXILLIARY

SPILLWAY

FUSE PLUG AUXILLIARY

SPILLWAY

spillways

Auxiliary

from top to bottom,

Stewart

Mountain

Dam, Arizona; New

Waddell

Dam,

Arizona

Emergency

SPILLWAY

This are designed to provide a reserve

protection against overtopping of a dam

and are intended for use under extreme

conditions, such as misoperation or malfunction of

a service spillway or other emergency conditions.

GATED SERVICE

SPILLWAY

Emergency spillway ,

Folsom

Dam,

California

GATED EMERGENCY

SPILLWAY

Controlled (or gated) spillway

Uncontrolled (or ungated) spillway

Controlled

SPILLWAY

These spillways enable storage to be

maximized by controlling water levels.

Generally more complex and more costly

to build and maintain than uncontrolled spillways.

It should be backed up by auxiliary spillways as the

gates may be subject to automatic operation

malfunction, human error and debris lockage

Uncontrolled

SPILLWAY

Most commonly used at small dams

because of their reliability, simplicity and ability to

pass debris and to reduce the magnitude of incoming

flood peaks, as well as being cheaper to build and

maintain.

Ogee spillway

Chute (or open channel or trough) spillway

Side-channel spillway

Shaft (or morning glory) spillway

Siphon spillway

Conduit (or tunnel) spillway

Cascade spillway

Classifications based on PROMINENT

FEATURE

Types of

SPILLWAYS

OGEE

CHUTE

SIDE-CHANNEL

SHAFT

SIPHON

TUNNEL

Ogee

SPILLWAY

Ogee spillways are also called Overflow spillways

This type of spillway allows the passage of the flood wave

over its S-shaped crest.

Can be classified under controlled or uncontrolled.

Widely used on Gravity dams, Arch dams, and Buttress

Dams.

EMBANKMENT DAM

top to bottom, Fier

Dam, Pankshin; and

Takato Dam, Nagano

UNGATED

3 GATED

GRAVITY DAM

Ogee

SPILLWAY

Chute

SPILLWAY

Chute spillways are common and basic in design as they

transfer excess water from behind the dam down a smooth

decline into the river below.

The spillways slope and its side are lined with concrete.

In case of having sufficient stiff foundation conditions at the

spillway location, a chute spillway may be used instead of

overflow spillway due to economic consideration

ROCK-FILL DAM

UNGATED

CHUTE SPILLWAY

3 GATED CHUTE

1 UNGATED

ROCK-FILL DAM

top

to

bottom,

Mohale Dam, Africa;

and

Pantabangan

Dam, Philippines

Side Channel

SPILLWAY

If a sufficient crest length is not available for an overflow or

chute spillway in narrow valleys, excess water is removed

from the reservoir through a side channel spillway.

The side channel through which water is discharged can also

be lined with concrete to prevent erosion and subsequent

sedimentation in dams on the course of the river.

GRAVITY DAM

SIDE CHANNEL

SPILLWAY

Shaf

SPILLWAY

It discharges excess water from a reservoir through a shaft

that is constructed near the crest of the Dam with height less

than that of the crest.

The shaft spillway is constructed when the other types of

spillways cannot be constructed due to a lack of space.

When the shaft is completely submerged, further increased in

head will not result in appreciable increase in discharge.

It is not suitable for large capacity and deep reservoirs

because of stability problems.

MORNING GLORY

ARCH DAM

Siphon

SPILLWAY

A siphon spillway is similar to a shaft spillway but instead is

incorporated into the dam

The presence of a siphon spillway weakens a dam at certain

points, so the dam has to be reinforced at these weak points

incurring extra cost.

Maintenance of this spillway is very difficult

Siphon spillways comprise usually of five components which

include an inlet, an upper leg, a throat or control section, a

lower leg and an outlet.

Conduit

SPILLWAY

Conduit spillway or tunnel spillway is the one in which a closed

channel is used to convey the discharge around or under a

dam.

The closed channel may be in the form of a vertical or inclined

shaft, a horizontal tunnel through earth dam or a conduit

constructed with open cut and backfilled with earth materials.

These spillway are designed to flow partly full.

To ensure free flow in the tunnel, the ratio of flow area to the

total tunnel area is often limited to 75% and air vents are

provided at critical points along the tunnel or conduit to ensure

an adequate air supply which will avoid unsteady flow through

the spillway

Overflow

STRUCTURE

Depending on the site conditions and hydraulic

particularities an overflow structure can be of various designs:

Frontal overflow,

Side-channel overflow, and

Shaft overflow.

Other types of structures such s labyrinth spillway use a

frontal overflow but with a crest consisting of successive

triangles or trapezoids in plan view.

Still another type is the orifice spillway in the arch dam.

Frontal Overflow

Side Overflow

Shaft Overflow

Overflow

STRUCTURE

frontal overflow

both due to simplicity and direct connection of reservoir to tailwater.

It can normally be used in both arch and gravity dams.

The frontal overflow can easily be extended with gates and

piers to regulate the reservoir level, and to improve the approach

flow to spillway.

Gated overflows of 20 m gate height and more have been

constructed, with a capacity of 200 m3 /s per unit width. Such

overflows are thus suited for medium and large dams, with large

floods to be conveyed to the tailwater.

Particular attention has to be paid to cavitation due to immense

heads that may generate pressure below the vapor pressure in the

crest domain.

Frontal

OVERFLOW

Crest Shapes

Overflow structures of different shapes are:

1. Straight

(standard)

2.

Curved

3.

Polygonal

4.

Labyrinth

Plan view

respect to the width of the structure.

Labyrinth spillway

Standard

CREST SHAPES

When the flow over a structure involves curved streamlines with

the origin of curvature below the flow, the gravity component of

a fluid element is reduced by the centrifugal force.

If the curvature is sufficiently large, the internal pressure may

drop below the atmospheric pressure and even attain values

below the vapor pressure for large structures. Then

cavitation may occur with a potential cavitation damage. As

discussed, the overflow structure is very important for the

dam safety. Therefore, such conditions are unacceptable.

For medium and large overflow structures, the crest is shaped

so as to conform the lower surface of the nappe from a

sharp-crested weir.

rectangular, trapezoidal, or triangular.

In order to have a symmetric downstream flow, and to

accommodate gates, the rectangular cross section is used

almost throughout.

1.

2.

3.

Broad-crested.

Circular crested, or

Standard crest shape (ogee-type)

Broad Crested

Circular Crested

Ogee Crested

should be used.

Although its cost is higher than the other crest shapes,

advantages result both in capacity and safety against

cavitation damage.

Fig. 1

The lower surface of a nappe from a sharp-crested weir is a function of

1. the head on the weir,

2. the slope or inclination of the weir surface,

3. the height of the crest, which influences approach velocity.

On the crest shape based on a design head HD, when the actual

head is less than HD, the trajectory of the nappe falls below the crest

profile, creating positive pressures on the crest, thereby reducing

the discharge.

On the other hand, with a higher than design head, the nappetrajectory is higher than crest, which creates negative pressure

pockets and results in increased discharge. Accordingly, it is considered

desirable to underdesign the crest shape of a high overflow spillway for a

design head HD, less than the head on the crest corresponding to the

maximum reservoir level, He.

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1988) recommendation has been that

He/HD should not exceed 1.33. The Corps of Engineers (COE) has

accordingly recommended that a spillway crest be designed so that the

maximum expected head will result in an average pressure on the crest

no lower than (- 4.50m) of water head (U.S. Department of Army, 1986).

Pressures of (-4.50m) can be approximated by the following equations

(Reese and Maynord, 1987).

For He, HD 10 m,

HD = 0.43He1.22 (without piers)

HD = 0.39He1.22 (with piers)

For He, HD < 10 m,

HD =0.70He (without piers)

HD = 0.74He (with piers)

Another empirical equation given for the maximum head on the crest

the lower nappe by separating it into two quadrants, one upstream and

one downstream from the crest (apex), as shown in previous figure.

The equation for the downstream quadrant is expressed as,

Eq. 1

Where

HD = Design head excluding the velocity approach head.

x, y = Coordinates of the crest profile, with the origin at the highest point (O)

K = Constant that depends on upstream inclination and approach velocity.

Constant K can be varied from 2.00 for a deep approach to 2.20 for a very

shallow approach

downstream section of slope , as shown in Fig. (1) (i.e., dy/dx = ).

Differentiation of Eq. (1) and expressing that in terms of x yield the

distance to the position of downstream tangent as follows:

Eq. 2

where

xDT = Horizontal distance from the apex to the downstream tangent point

= Slope of the downstream face.

Fig. 2 Coordinate coefficients for spillway crest (U.S. Department of the Army, 1986)

curvature of the crest immediately upstream of the apex. To fit a single

equation to the upstream quadrant had proven more difficult. An ellipse, of

which both the major and minor axes vary systematically with the depth of

approach, can closely approximate the lower nappe surfaces.

With respect to origin at the apex, the equation of the elliptical shape

for upstream

Eq. 3

where

x = Horizontal coordinate, positive to the right

y = Vertical coordinate, positive downward A, B = One-half of the ellipse

axes, as given in Fig. (2.b and c) for various values of approach depth

and design head.

For a inclined upstream face of slope FS, the point of tangency with

elliptical shape can be determined by the following equation.

Eq. 4

Design Discharge of

SPILLWAY

The design discharge may be related to the maximum flood

discharge that may occur within this period.

Probability of occurrence of a discharge that can seriously damage

the system should be minimum. As an example (depending on

project size and country regulations)

Q100 For optimum flow conditions observed.

Q1000 For some adverse flow conditions may be tolerated, but there

should be no damage.

Q10000 For minor damage may be tolerated but system

should not fail.

Another approach is based on the concept of the possible maximum

flood (PMF). Accordingly, a rainfall-runoff model with the most

extreme combination of basic parameters is chosen, and no return

Discharge Characteristics

Eq. 5

Where:

Q=discharge,

C=discharge coefficient,

L=effective length of crest,

He=total head on the crest, including the velocity of approach head, h a.

The discharge coefficient, C, is influenced by a number of factors:

1. The depth of approach,

2. Relation of actual crest shape to the ideal nappe shape,

3. Upstream face slope,

4. Downstream apron interface,

5. Downstream submergence.

Fig. 3

Coefficient of discharge for ogee crests with vertical faces (Roberson, Cassidy,

Chaudhry, 1998)

Fig. 4

Coefficient of discharge for ogee crests with vertical faces (Roberson, Cassidy,

Chaudhry, 1998)

Overflow Gates:

The overflow structure has a hydraulic behavior that the discharge

increases significantly with the head on the overflow crest..

The height of the overflow is usually a small portion of the dam

height.

Further, gates may be positioned on the crest for overflow

regulation.

During the floods, if the reservoir is full, the gates are completely

open to promote the overflow.

A large number of reservoirs with a relatively small design

discharges are ungated.

for a flexible operation.

The cost of the gates increases mainly the magnitude of the

flood, i.e.: with the overflow area.

Improper operation and malfunction of the gates is the major

concern which may lead to serious overtopping of the dam.

In order to inhibit floods in the tailwater, gates are to moved

according to gate regulation.

Gates should be checked against vibrations.

The advantages of gates at overflow structure are:

Variation of reservoir level,

Flood control,

Benefit from higher storage level.

Potential danger of malfunction,

Additional cost, and maintenance.

Depending on the size of the dam and its location, one would

prefer the gates for:

Large dams,

Large floods, and

Easy access for gate operation.

Hinged flap gates,

Vertical lift gates,

Radial gates.

Flap Gate

Vertical Gate

Radial Gate

RADIAL GATE

FLAP GATES

The flaps are used for a small head of some meters, and

may span over a considerable length.

The vertical gate can be very high but requires

substantial slots, a heavy lifting device, and unappealing

superstructure.

The radial gates are most frequently used for medium

or large overflow structures because of

their simple construction,

the modest force required for operation and

absence of gate slots.

They may be up to 20m X 20m, or also 12 m high and

40 m wide. The radial gate is limited by the strength of the

trunnion bearings.

small, if setting the gate inside a stiff one-piece frame.

For safety reasons, there should be a number of

moderately sized gates rather than a few large gates.

For the overflow design, it is customary to assume

that the largest gate is out of operation.

The regulation is ensured by hoist or by hydraulic jacks

driven by electric motors.

Stand-by diesel-electric generators should be provided if

power failures are likely.

FLASHBOARD

NEEDLES

ROLLING GATES

RUBBER DAM

releases over the dam. The governing equation for gated

flows,

Eq. 6

Where

C is a coefficient of discharge, and

H1 and H2 are total heads to the bottom and top of the

gate opening.

The coefficient C is a function of geometry and the ratio

d/H1, where d is the gate aperture. Fig. (7.3).

Fig. 5

reduction in the effective length of the crest, and cause

reduction in discharge.

where

L = Effective length of the crest for calculating discharge

L = Net length of the crest

N = number of piers

Kp = Pier contraction coefficient

Ka = Abutment contraction coefficient

He = Total head on the crest

Eq. 6.1

The nose of piers and abutments should be rounded

sufficiently to minimize the hydraulic disturbance.

Piers may extend downstream on the chute as a dividing wall

in order to suppress shock waves.

Abutments are extended towards the reservoir to facilitate

gentle flow conditions at the entrance of spillway.

Piers on overflow structures are

provided:

to improve approach flow conditions

to mount overflow gates

to divide the spillway into subchannels

to aerate the chute flow at the pier

ends

Pier

D Divide Wall

Abutment

Between Piers

Fig. 2

Eq. 1

2

a

Eq. 4

Eq. 3

Fig. 4

The coefficient of discharge decreases under the condition of

submergence. Submergence can result from either excessive tailwater

depth or changed crest profile. The effect of tailwater submergence on

the coefficient of discharge depends upon the degree of submergence

defined by hd/He and the downstream apron position, (hd+d)/He

shown in Fig. (6). For a value of (hd+d)/He up to approximately 2, the

reduction in the coefficient depends on the factor (hd+d)/He and is

independent of hd/He as shown in Fig. (6.a), i.e., it is subject to apron

effects only.

apron effects, when (hd+d)/He> 5

When (hd+d)/He is above

5, the reduction depends only

on hd/He as shown in Fig. (6.b),

i.e., tailwater effects control. For

(hd+d)/He between 2 and 5, the

reduction of the coefficient

depends on both factors, given

in Fig. (6.c). The effect on the

discharge due to crest

geometry is not well defined.

Model studies are the best way

to determine the coefficient.

spillway when (hd+d)/He is between 2 and 5.

3.5%

0.035) = 0.46

Fig.

6c

3

0.029) = 0.466

0.466

15.06 m

When water flows over the curved surface of ogee spillway there is

continuous change of velocity, and hence, there is change in momentum

from section to section. According to Newton's second law of motion,

this change in momentum causes a force on the spillway structure. this

force is known as the dynamic force.

Consider an element of water between two sections A and B on a

curved surface. The resultant of the forces on the element of water is

given by

where = mass density of water = w/g

Q = discharge

we get

Eq. 7a

Eq. 7bfree

The force FH and FV are those acting on a significant

body of fluid and include gravity forces, hydrostatic pressure and

the reaction of any object in contact with water.

water with a head of 1.2 m over the crest. Taking

the coefficient of discharge as 2.2, compute the

dynamic force on the curved section AB which has a

constant radius of 3 m.

Solution.

The discharge over the spillway is given by,

Q = CLH3/2

or q=Q/L = CH3/2 = 2.2 (1.2)3/2 =2.9 cumecs/m

Let d1 and d2 be the depth of sheet of water at A and B and v1 and v2

be the velocities.

Assuming that there is no loss of energy and neglecting approach

velocity, we may apply Bernoulli's theorem at u/s water surface, and at

sections A and B.

Thus we get

11.2 = 1.5 + d1 cos 60 + v12/2g = d2 + v22/2g (1)

But V1d1 = q = 2.9 = V2d2

Hence

Substituting these in (1) and solving these by trial and error, we get,

d1 = 0.212 m and d2 = 0.197 m

Hence V1 = 13.7 m/sec and V2 = 14.7 m/sec

Fig. 6 (b) shows the free diagram of the curved element sections A and B

in which Fx and Fy represents components of force on the water by the

curved section AB. If F1 and F2 are the resultant hydrostatic forces at

section A and B, we have

The

and B is

Similarly,

Resultant force

Side channels

Side channels are often considered at sites where:

a narrow gorge does not allow sufficient width for the frontal

overflow,

impact forces and scour are a problem in case of arch dams,

a dam spillway is not feasible, such as in the case of an earth

dam,

when a different location at the dam site yields a simpler

connection to the stilling basin.

Side channels consist of a frontal type of overflow structure and a

spillway with axis parallel to the overflow crest.

The specific discharge of overflow structure is normally limited

to 10 m3 /s/m, but for lengths of over 100 m.

The overflow head is limited to say 3 m. Not equipped with

gates.

Morning Glory

The shaft type spillway has proved to be

economical, provided the diversion tunnel can

be used as a tailrace. The main elements are:

The intake,

The vertical shaft with a bend,

The almost horizontal spillway tunnel, and,

Energy dissipator.

prevent cavitation.

Also, to account for flood safety, only nonsubmerged flow is allowed such that free

surface flow occurs along the entire structure,

from the intake to the dissipator.

Used for dams with small to medium design

Morning Glory

Overfall is advantageous when:

seismic action is small,

the horizontal spillway may be connected to the existing

diversion channel,

floating debris is insignificant,

space for the overflow structure is limited,

geologic conditions are excellent against settlement, and

Location of the Morning Glory

The intake is prone to rotational approach flow, which should

be inhibited with a selected location of the shaft relative to the

reservoir topography and the dam axis.

The radial flow may be improved with piers positioned on

overfall crest.

Crest shape

The shape of the Morning Glory overfall is a logical extension of the

standard overfall crest. Experiments were performed on circular

sharp crested weir.

The overflow head relative to the sharp crest is and the

(coordinate system ( , ) is located at the weir crest.

Discharge

The discharge over a Morning Glory overfall structure is in analogy with

the straight-crested overfall

An initial value of H or R may be assumed for a fixed H/R ratio to start

the computations.

Shaft radius Rs can be determined from

Rs = 1 + 0.1R (in meters)

2.0

0.28

0.165

ENERGY LINE

1.80

Hmax

0.92

H=1.5 m

0.82

H=2 m

2.9%

3.5%

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