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OneSubsea PhaseWatcher Subsea Multiphase

and Wet Gas Flow Meter with Vx Technology

Your choice for well testing, production monitoring and fiscal allocation

PhaseWatcher Subsea Multiphase and

Wet Gas Flow Meter with Vx Technology

The OneSubsea PhaseWatcher Subsea Multiphase and Wet Gas

Flow Meter with Vx Technology is a production management tool,
ideal for offshore and subsea applications. It can be applied to well
testing, production monitoring and fiscal allocation.
The PhaseWatcher multiphase flow meter (MPFM) and wet gas
flow meter (WGFM) provides a unique solution to perform real-time
process measurement at the well or at a manifold commingled
process stream for subsea installations. The flow meter is a robust
measurement tool that operates on physical metering principles.
It is a substitute for conventional separator system, offering a
more flexible and cost-effective solution.

Why Multiphase and Wet Gas Flow Metering?

Continuous, accurate well monitoring
Space and weight savings
Increased well testing efficiency
No deferred production during testing
Improved well diagnostics with
higher-resolution data
Improved accuracy compared to the
Immediate detection of water or gas
Increased safety with high-pressure
equipment and real-time monitoring
of pressure and temperature

Multiphase and wet gas flow metering is ideal for

measuring wellstreams upstream of separation or for
commingling of the wellstreams. Vx technology is an
attractive alternative since it enables measurement of
unseparated wellstreams close to the wellhead. The flow
meter provides continuous monitoring of well performance,
thereby leading to better reservoir exploitation.
The OneSubsea PhaseWatcher flow meter reduces well
testing times while lowering operational costs.

Extended or increased production

from low-pressure wells due to
increased availability of the test
separator for production purposes
Improved recovery rate due to
continuous well monitoring
Remote operation and real-time
support, in conjunction with the
OneSubsea FRIEND Remote
Surveillance and Diagnostic System
Highly accurate measurement for
reservoir management and improved
reservoir recovery factor
Accurately allocated production from
each well, field or reservoir
Critical information provided to flow
assurance engineers and pipe integrity

Why OneSubsea PhaseWatcher?

Fully qualified and field-proven
technology; TRL-7
Capable of measuring from 0% to
100% gas volume fraction (GVF),
utilizing a unique fluid mechanics
model, embedded in one software
system in the same hardware package
Continuous physical measurement
of fractions down to atomic level,
and is not affected by foam; emulsion
fluid production; or the oil, water or
gas phases
Completely independent of
flow regime, such as slug flow, by full
data processing of the flow rate at
high frequency
Erosion-resistant design Venturi
with Blind-T upstream and no sensor
in direct contact with the fluid
One of the most compact flow meters
on the market
The OneSubsea PhaseWatcher flow meter with Vx
technology lets you measure oil, gas and water flow rates
without prior separation. Among the most compact flow
meter systems on the market, the OneSubsea PhaseWatcher
flow meter has no moving parts, making it essentially

Continuous measurement for all

phases independent of transition from
oil to water or gas continuous flow,
from low to high API, and from low
to high viscosity
Exposed to more than 10,000
well tests per year with continued
feedback for R&D (fluid knowledge
and technology)

How the OneSubsea PHaseWatcher Works

The only subsea multiphase meter with field-proven capability to
measure from 0% to 100% GVF with the exact same technology.
Oil Wells

Wet Gas Wells

0% 50% 100%

Physical Principle
Measuring at the atomic level, the OneSubsea
PhaseWatcher flow meter requires no process control,
meaning that any changes in flow regime and fraction
holdups are measured, not avoided. The flow meter
performs this measurement 45 times per second using
the fastest gamma detector on the market. Most gamma
detectors operate at 1/4 of the speed, preventing them
from resolving these fast changes in intermittent flow
regime or holdup as quickly or accurately.
The well test data obtained are considered highly reliable
and help diagnose production anomalies continuously;
they can resolve challenges more quickly and can help
produce the wells more efficiently. The OneSubsea
PhaseWatcher flow meter also is used to provide accurate
flow rates during well cleanup operations. It also can
improve flow assurance and well performance, and can
reduce operating times. This increased efficiency results
in lower operational costs.
Robust Fraction Measurement
The SMART Detector developed for the Vx technology
is produced in a unique center of excellence at the

Schlumberger Princeton Technology Center, where all

nuclear detectors are developed for all of Schlumbergers
downhole tools. It also has provided detectors for some
of NASAs space missions. This world-class sensor,
with an accuracy better than 0.01 on a yearly basis, is
available exclusively for Schlumberger and OneSubsea
products. One of the main benefits of the SMART
Detector when used in the PhaseWatcher flow meter is its
ability to compensate and maintain a constant accuracy
independent of the fluid process temperature, providing a
highly reliable input to the measurement system.
From 0% to 100% GVF
The OneSubsea PhaseWatcher flow meter offers the
added value of being able to measure the process fluid
throughout the entire life of the field and the changing
process regimes, from heavy oil (multiphase) to gas
condensate (wet gas). It is the only meter with a fieldproven (TRL 7) capability of measuring from 0% to
100% GVF, making it both an MPFM and a WGFM
in one single hardware platform. The OneSubsea
PhaseWatcher flow meter has been independently tested
for all process regimes.

NEL Test Facility in Glasgow, UK

Remote Seal System

The OneSubsea PhaseWatcher flow meter uses a unique
and innovative remote seal system on the differential
pressure transmitter, comprising two remote seal
membranes fitted directly onto the Venturi body and
specifically developed for multiphase applications.
The remote seal system reduces the likelihood of any
hydrocarbons or water entrainment in the capillary
tubing, which can cause wax clogging or hydrate
formation and, consequently, malfunction.
Third-party Flowloop Validation
The PhaseWatcher flow meter has been evaluated by
several operators in flow loops and field trials, including
National Engineering Laboratorys (NELs) Joint
Industry Projects (JIPs), the Multiphase II JIP for oil
applications and the Wet Gas JIP at CEESI. The flow
meter also has won comparative independent tests
performed in third-party flow loops.

Third-party Test Loop Facility in Trondheim, Norway

High-viscosity testing at NEL proved that the

PhaseWatcher flow meter outperformed the competition.
It was subsequently selected for the challenging
application and has been performing to specifications.
Fiscal Allocation
Several fields rely on the PhaseWatcher flow meter for
fiscal allocation between different licensed fields. The
first fiscal allocation application for the PhaseWatcher
was installed in 2000, allowing the customer to allocate
their production before commingling. In 2009, the
PhaseWatcher flow meter was selected as the first
worldwide, cross-border fiscal allocation measurement
system between Norway and Denmark.

Vx Technology
The OneSubsea PhaseWatcher flow meter with Vx technology is
based on fundamental physical principles: determine the total
mass or volumetric flow by means of a Venturi using the improved
Bernoulli equation. The fluid density, gas-liquid and water-liquid
ratios are determined by means of gamma measurement techniques.
Input Parameters
There are five parameters collected by the PhaseWatcher
flow meter: temperature, pressure, differential pressure
and a multienergy gamma fraction measurement a 32
keV with an attenuation mechanism of photoelectric
absorption, an 81 keV with an attenuation mechanism
of mostly Compton scattering with a small photoelectric
absorption effect and a 356 keV with an attenuation
mechanism of only Compton scattering.

Temperature and pressure are used to calculate

standard conditions values using PVT.
Differential pressure (DP) is used to calculate
the total mass flow.
Nuclear count rates are used to determine the holdup
of oil, water and gas in the meter.
The multienergy gamma fraction measurement provides
oil, water and gas holdups that are used to determine
the fractions of each phase. When the fractions are
known, the Venturi meter is used to measure the total
mass flow rate before the individual phase flow rates
can be calculated.

1. Venturi Body
2. SMART Gamma Detector

3. Instrumentation Housings P, T & dP

4. Power & Communication Pod


5. Interconnecting Hose Harness

6. Electrical Connectors to
Control System

SMART Detector
The multienergy gamma measurement uses a single
Barium-133 gamma ray source, which emits photons at
several energy levels. A SMART Detector located on the
opposite side of the venturi throat detects the gamma
photons that have not been absorbed by the mixture.
A photomultiplier in the SMART Detector converts the
gamma photons into electric signals that are digitally
processed with more than one million operations per
second. It records not only the number of photons,
but also the energy level of each photon, building up
the energy spectrum given by the gamma ray source.
The Barium-133 source was selected because it has a
significant natural peak of energy within specific bands.
The Smart Detector technology has been specifically
adapted from nuclear measurements developed for
wireline and well logging tools where high-speed
processing is required.
The attenuation of the gamma photons by the fluid
are measured at three different energy levels (32, 81
and 356 keV). Two energy levels are used in the direct
measurement (32 and 81 keV), while the third is used for
additional measurements and diagnostic purposes. The
attenuated gamma photons and fluid properties are the

basis for the oil, water and gas fraction determination.

From this, a variety of parameters can be extracted,
including fluid fractions (liquid, gas, oil and water),
water-liquid ratio (WLR) and mixture density.
The success in the development of the nuclear
measurement is not only density, but also atomic
composition dependent on the analysis of the gas, water
and oil. This allows the fraction meter to work even if
there is no density contrast due to the atomic composition
of the oil and water being different (H2O+NaCl versus
CnHm). The technology has been used even with 8 API,
which means density higher than the water with the same
level of accuracy.
Solution Triangle
The principle of the gamma measurement system can be
visually illustrated as a triangle. For each phase, the ratio
of high-energy count rates is plotted against the ratio of
low-energy count rates on an x-y chart. 100% of each
phase become the apexes of the solution triangle. Any
combination of high- and low-energy count rates resulting
from measurements of hydrocarbons and the water
mixture will fall within this triangle.

Low Energy Attenuation (32 keV)



GV F Line


A visual interpretation of the solution triangle is presented in the diagram, where

the triangle corner points are the single-phase attenuations. An operating point
example is shown at 50% GVF and 50% WLR. The constant GVF line is parallel
to the water-oil line, and the constant WLR line intersects the gas point.



High Energy Attenuation (81 keV)


ta n


= Operating Point =
GVF 50%, WLR 50%

In the OneSubsea PhaseWatcher flow meter with Vx technology, all
data processing is performed in the flow meter. It interfaces with
any standard communication protocol and requires low power, in
compliance with all industry-standard subsea control systems.
Communication Standard


Power Consumption

Serial EIA (RS) 485

Two wire

Modbus RTU TCP over Modbus


24 W

Serial EIA (RS) 422

Four wire

Modbus RTU PPP, TCP over

Modbus (Tunneling)

24 W

Copper modem

Modbus TCP, Boot P

Fiber-optic modem

OPC (Vx Gateway)

CAN modem

SIIS Level 3

Two wire

CAN open, SIIS Level 2



Data Acquisition Flow Computer

The Data Acquisition Flow Computer (DAFC) is
the heart of the PhaseWatcher flow meter. It interfaces
with the sensors and computes the flow rates. Based on
preloaded PVT data, the DAFC converts flow rates from
line to standard conditions. DAFCs have several physical
communication interfaces: two serial port interfaces,
one USB and one Ethernet port (plus one optional
Ethernet port).
Communication Protocols
The PhaseWatcher flow meter with Vx technology is
easy to interface and complies with industry standards.
Software has been developed to comply with both
IWIS and SIIS Level 2 standards. The presence of the
Ethernet complies with SIIS Level 3. Client-specific
requirements are addressed by highly qualified
in-house software engineers.
Data Availability
To fully utilize the flow meters capabilities, it is
strongly recommended to have high-speed data transfer
(38,400 baud) to each meter to enable retrieval of
raw measurements. This will enable detailed flow
assurance diagnostics and capability to post process
meter measurements with new fluid properties or


24 W

28 W

PVT information, and also allows the use of remote

surveillance expertise via the FRIEND system.
Bandwidth as low as 1200 baud has been achieved,
but reduces the capacity of the use of the entire
diagnostic tool.
Vx Server
OneSubsea can supply a Vx server, which is the diagnostic
interface to the PhaseWatcher flow meter. The Vx servers
industrial specified hardware is selected from the best
components in the market to ensure a reliable platform
for real-time applications.
The Vx servers diagnostic interface to the OneSubsea
PhaseWatcher flow meter can be used locally or remotely
to interrogate the status of the flow meter. It also can be
connected to OneSubseas FRIEND system for remote
assistance and surveillance.
Vx Gateway
The optional Vx Gateway software enables a control
system to interface PhaseWatcher flow meters through an
OPC interface with a client-selected set of Modbus RTU
registers. The Vx Gateway software can interface up to 16
meters simultaneously and can provide real-time logging,
which is useful for analysis and trending.

ONESubsea Phasewatcher Flow Meter

OneSubsea offers several different compact
configurations for the PhaseWatcher
flow meter to meet subsea infrastructure
requirements. Featuring Vx technology,
the flow meter can be used for continuous
monitoring of each individual well or installed
in a test header for alternate well testing.


Fully retrievable
Small and lightweight
comparable to the
control pods
Low power requirement
Non-intrusive design
Designed for integration
with all major subsea
control systems
Also possible to
retrieve only the
electronics, reducing the
intervention equipment

The subsea PhaseWatcher flow meter comes in a range

of sizes based on the Vx technology. As with the topside
flow meter, the size of the subsea version is determined
using the Schlumberger Vx Advisor software.
Sizes: 29 mm (2 pipe ID), 52 mm (4 pipe ID),
65 mm (5 pipe ID) and 88 mm (7 pipe ID)

Intervention Tooling
If the PhaseWatcher flow meters retrievable configuration
requires intervention, a diver can be used for shallowwater installations. For deepwater installations, a
running tool and ROV can be used. OneSubsea offers an
intervention running tool design with the basic function
to intervene on smaller retrievable items such as insert
chokes, subsea control modules and raw seawater filters.
This tool also is used for installation and retrieval of
the PhaseWatcher flow meter. Although our customers
may prefer other methods of intervention, OneSubsea
provides this method as an option.

Standard Configurations
In-line Configuration
The in-line configuration is the base configuration
of the PhaseWatcher subsea flow meter with Vx
technology, where only the metering section is
integrated in the infrastructure using standard
interface flanges. This configuration normally is
installed on a subsea tree as part of a retrievable
choke bridge or flow control module and is not
independently retrievable.
Both the in-line and dual-hub configurations are
supplied either as an E-Type or F-Type flow meter.
The E-Type configuration is limited to a design
pressure rating to 10,000 psi (690 bar) and 212 F
(100 C), and the F-Type configuration is qualified
to a design pressure to 15,000 psi (1035 bar) and
401 F (205 C).

In-line E-Type

In-line F-Type

Dual-hub Configuration
The dual-hub configuration is a fully retrievable
version of the subsea PhaseWatcher flow meter.
Compared to the in-line design, this configuration
has integrated piping upstream of the Venturi
section, making it possible to fully retrieve the
unit from the subsea infrastructure. The dual-hub
version can be configured with a clamp set for ROV
operation during installation/removal in deeper
waters, or it can be configured with a removable
clamp set for diver installation in shallow water.
Dual-hub E-Type

Dual-hub F-Type



By reducing uncertainties associated with variations in fluid
behavior relationships and fluid composition versus time, the
OneSubsea multiphase fluid sampling and analysis systems take
samples at the seabed and provide powerful solutions for improving
the understanding of the fluid behavior and maintaining the lowest
uncertaintity of the flow rate measurements.
Captures representative oil, water and
gas samples
Circulates fluid through ROV
sampling skid
Features industry-standard components
and interfaces
Operates at line pressure and temperature
Integrated into the PhaseWatcher flow
meters Blind-T or supplied as a
standalone unit
Integrated with PhaseWatcher Flow
Meter with Vx Technology

Can enrich one phase to provide larger

volumes as needed
Optical detector distinguishes oil,
water and gas
Based on best-in-class sampling practices

Standalone Unit



From discovery to abandonment, OneSubsea provides the resources
needed to optimize the performance of our customers assets. With
locations across the globe; an ever-growing pool of experienced
industry experts; rental tooling to meet all installation, commissioning
and workover needs; and proactive real-time operational and
technical support, OneSubsea is committed to enhancing the full life
performance of subsea fields worldwide.

Our services cover

the full life cycle of
a field, including:

Installation and
Life of Field
Asset Management


FRIEND Remote Surveillance

and Diagnostic System
FRIEND is OneSubseas online support and
condition monitoring system. A real-time historian
database makes it possible to conduct event-driven
data collection and trending of historical data.
Additionally, the FRIEND systems automated
alert feature continuously monitors system
performance for abnormal process or system
conditions and alerts OneSubsea personnel on
duty. This information enables OneSubsea to
provide a proactive service through an integrated
working methodology with customers, securing
best practices in operation and maintenance of the
products and systems. This expertise is available
remotely and allows additional processing for a
fourth phase, such as burst sand detection, scale
deposition, etc.

FRIEND system services include:

24/7 online helpdesk and access to our technical
experts on duty
Online access to real-time data at field startup
and throughout the product life (equipment
Condition- and campaign-based maintenance
invoked by condition monitoring
Online access to interactive engineering
applications for equipment operational assistance
Interpretation and evaluation of field data and
optimized equipment utilization
Periodic validation of the Vx technologys
performance, including reference and PVT data
Assistance with production testing activities
Daily, weekly or monthly reports; can be
accessed via an online portal
Online access to project document repository
and equipment management


4646 W. Sam Houston Pkwy. N.

Houston, TX 77041
Tel 1 713 939 2211
5 Mondial Way
Hayes, UB3 5AR
England, UK
Tel 44 208 990 1800
Sandslikroken 140
PO Box 174
Sandsli, N-5862
Bergen, Norway
Tel 47 55 92 88 00
Level 11, 12-14
The Esplanade
Perth, Western Australia
Tel 61 8 6389 5000

2013 Cameron | FRIEND is a registered trademark of OneSubsea. OneSubsea is a trademark of OneSubsea. | SB 1M 05/13 AD00682OSS